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Neurons and 
Neurotransmitters 
How they work and key 
studies
I.B. Learning Outcome 
and Objective 
 B6- Using one or more examples, explain the 
effects of neurotransmission on human...
Key Terms 
 Neuron 
 Dendrite 
 Axon 
 Terminal Button 
 Synapse 
 Neurotransmitter
Intro to the Neuron 
 The human brain is made up of ~86 billions 
of neurons. 
 Neurons: The basic brain cell that 
spec...
Neural Networks
Parts of a Neuron 
Dendrites 
Axon 
Terminal Button 
Cell Body 
1. Signal Received 
In Dendrites 
3. Signal 
transmitted 
...
Communication at the 
Synapse 
 Synapse: The specialized junction 
between one neuron and another 
 One neuron releases ...
Neurotransmitters 
 Neurotransmitters: A chemical that is 
exchanged between neurons that allow 
them to communicate.
Step 2: Reuptake 
 After connecting with the receptors, the 
neurotransmitters are released, travel back 
through the syn...
Neurotransmission Impact on 
Depression 
 Serotonin: a neurotransmitter that is partially 
responsible for many psycholog...
Types of Neurotransmitters 
 GABA: Inhibitory- Stops the brain from becoming 
too overexcited. 
 Glutamate: Excitatory- ...
Martinez & Kesner (1991) 
 Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine (ACh) 
 Aim: To investigate the role of ACh in the 
formation...
Martinez & Kesner (1991) Cont. 
 Findings: 
 Group 1 (Less ACh) had problems learning 
how to run the maze and made more...
Dopamine 
 Neurotransmitter that is associated with 
reward-related behaviors 
 Pleasure and Addiction 
 Does not creat...
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Neuron and neurotransmitter pp

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Neuron and neurotransmitter pp

  1. 1. Neurons and Neurotransmitters How they work and key studies
  2. 2. I.B. Learning Outcome and Objective  B6- Using one or more examples, explain the effects of neurotransmission on human behavior.  I can identify the parts of a neuron  I can explain the how neurons communicate  I can state that neurotransmitters have an impact on behavior  I can explain how Depression can be linked to neurotransmission and how it can be treated.
  3. 3. Key Terms  Neuron  Dendrite  Axon  Terminal Button  Synapse  Neurotransmitter
  4. 4. Intro to the Neuron  The human brain is made up of ~86 billions of neurons.  Neurons: The basic brain cell that specialize in transmitting information throughout the body.
  5. 5. Neural Networks
  6. 6. Parts of a Neuron Dendrites Axon Terminal Button Cell Body 1. Signal Received In Dendrites 3. Signal transmitted From Terminal Button
  7. 7. Communication at the Synapse  Synapse: The specialized junction between one neuron and another  One neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neuron. Terminal Button Dendrite Synapse
  8. 8. Neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters: A chemical that is exchanged between neurons that allow them to communicate.
  9. 9. Step 2: Reuptake  After connecting with the receptors, the neurotransmitters are released, travel back through the synapse and are reabsorbed by the reuptake transporter on the original neuron. 1. Reuptake 2. Dissolved by Enzyme 3. Remains in Synapse
  10. 10. Neurotransmission Impact on Depression  Serotonin: a neurotransmitter that is partially responsible for many psychological and bodily functions.  Mood, Appetite, Sexual Desire, among many more.  An imbalance of Serotonin is linked to depression.  Anti-Depressants (SSRI’s) are designed to block reuptake of serotonin and keep it in the synapse longer.  How Anti-Depressants Work Video
  11. 11. Types of Neurotransmitters  GABA: Inhibitory- Stops the brain from becoming too overexcited.  Glutamate: Excitatory- Associated with learning and memory.  Serotonin: Inhibitory: Balances mood, appetite, regulating sleep, and others.  Epinephrine: Excitatory- AKA Adrenaline…heightens mental and physical arousal.  Dopamine: Controls voluntary movements and controls reward mechanisms in the brain.  AcH- responsible for stimulating muscles and is associated with learning.
  12. 12. Martinez & Kesner (1991)  Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine (ACh)  Aim: To investigate the role of ACh in the formation of memories.  Method: Trained three groups of rats to run in a maze.  Group 1: Injected with a chemical to blocks Ach receptor sites = Less ACh  Group 2: Injected with chemical to block the production of enzymes that eat ACh = More ACh.  Group 3: Control…normal ACh
  13. 13. Martinez & Kesner (1991) Cont.  Findings:  Group 1 (Less ACh) had problems learning how to run the maze and made more errors.  Group 2 (More ACh) ran quickly through the maze and made fewer mistakes. Quicker than the control  Conclusions: ACh plays a role in the formation of new memories.  Critical thinking?  Ethical?  Ecological Validity?
  14. 14. Dopamine  Neurotransmitter that is associated with reward-related behaviors  Pleasure and Addiction  Does not create pleasure, rather it motivates you to seek it.

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