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Beyond Tokenism  Practices that build inclusive organizations
True or False?✚Individuals with disabilities can serve as the chairperson of a board of directors.✚Board meetings are too ...
əto·ken·ism noun ˈtōk ˈniz m:ə   
The practice of making only aperfunctory or symbolic effort to doa particular thing, esp...
“He who sells you the token instead of the coin always retains the power  to revoke its worth, and to command you to get o...
Why Are Inclusive BoardsImportant to Organizations? Betty Williams        Peter Burns                  5
How Will This Training Help OurOrganization? A Focus on Six Key Elements of Inclusive Practice:   Authentic Membership  ...
Training Agenda Welcome Introductions Overview Elements of Inclusive Practices Break Elements of Inclusive Practices...
 Bernard Baker, SABE                                         Peter Burns, Arc-US                                        ...
Inclusive Board Are Transformed                                Individuals           Want a Voice         Authentic       ...
Inclusive Board Practices Provide:✚ Authentic Membership Supports and Mentors Deliberate Communication Full Participati...
Do we allow impatience to deprive us of the full benefit of all those other thinking minds out there? Do we give token ack...
Authentic Membership provides equal status to, andrecognition of, the importance of the individual’s presenceas any other ...
 Lack of knowledge about the                                               organization                                  ...
 Board orientation                                           Board retreats and                                         ...
Discussion Questions        Individual                      OrganizationDescribe something that             What ritual...
“Change the environment, not the                                          person.” – Buckminster FullerEffective Supports ...
Effective Supports and Mentors provide the tools andcoaching opportunities needed to prepare for and beeffective at meetin...
 Lack of transportation                                           Management resistance                                 ...
 Provision of mentor                                                Mentor who is employee of                           ...
Discussion Questions      Individual                      OrganizationDescribe how a mentor or         How does yoursupp...
“This is part of what I consider dialogue—                                    for people to realize what is on each       ...
Deliberate Communication is an interaction that takes intoaccount the way the individual receives, processes, andexpresses...
 Difficulties using English                                              Difficulty understanding                       ...
 Use of technology during                                               meetings                                         ...
Discussion Questions       Individual                      OrganizationHow do you know when              What does your ...
“We have to understand that the                                        world can only be grasped by                       ...
Full Participation is providing a perspective and actionsthat are needed to move the organization closer to itsmission and...
 Difficulty coordinating                                             participation within the                            ...
 Appointing two or more                                              individuals with disabilities to                    ...
Discussion Questions        Individual                        OrganizationDescribe something that a            What chal...
“No man is so poor as to have nothing worth giving: as                        well might the mountain streamlets say they ...
Meaningful Contributions are the efforts made to fulfill theresponsibilities of board membership in ways that demonstratec...
 Use of jargon, acronyms                                           and unfamiliar terms                                  ...
 Specific board role or duties                                              Board assignments                           ...
Discussion Questions       Individual                      OrganizationIn what ways do you feel          What have you d...
The problem with those practicing tokenism is             that they always make sure that their efforts are             se...
True Influence is having the respect and consideration of the board tothe extent that they agree to act on ideas or concer...
 Lack of organization                                            policies affirming                                      ...
 Written policies that require                                              inclusive board practices                    ...
Discussion Questions      Individual                  OrganizationDescribe something an        Looking back, is there an...
“The more diversity of interactions a particle                                    has, the more complexity, structure, and...
Transformational Outcomes are changes in theorganization’s culture where everyone is valued as key tothe organization succ...
 Greater self-advocacy and                                             self-determination     Individual Outcomes        ...
✚ Change in organization’s goals and                                                     priorities change     Organizatio...
How Inclusive Is Your Board of Directors?                    45
Wrap-Up Thank you for coming to the Advanced Beyond Tokenism  training. We wish you success in your future leadership  ef...
AcknowledgementsThe Beyond Tokenism Research and Education Center expresses their deepest appreciation to the        follo...
For more information contact Mark Friedman, Ph.D.Phone (615) 904-0308 Email: mark@mtadvocacy.comDeveloped with support fro...
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Beyond Tokenism

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Beyond Tokenism

  1. 1. Beyond Tokenism Practices that build inclusive organizations
  2. 2. True or False?✚Individuals with disabilities can serve as the chairperson of a board of directors.✚Board meetings are too long and boring for individuals with disabilities to get much out of them.✚Only people who can read and write can serve on a Board or Committee.✚The voices of individuals with disabilities influence the decisions the board or committee makes.✚Mentors tell people what to say and manipulate their opinion.✚Color coding materials is childlike and too much work.✚Organizations’ climate and culture changes when individuals with disabilities are involved in leadership roles.✚If someone breaks down and cries at the board meeting, the best thing to do is ignore them. 2
  3. 3. əto·ken·ism noun ˈtōk ˈniz m:ə 
The practice of making only aperfunctory or symbolic effort to doa particular thing, esp. by recruitinga small number of people fromunderrepresented groups in orderto give the appearance of equalitywithin a workforce in·clu·sive adj in-ˈklüsiv, -ziv: - Deliberately aiming to involve all types of people 3
  4. 4. “He who sells you the token instead of the coin always retains the power to revoke its worth, and to command you to get off the bus before youhave reached your destination. Tokenism is a promise to pay. Democracy, in its finest sense, is payment.” Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. -- Why We Can’t Wait, 1963
  5. 5. Why Are Inclusive BoardsImportant to Organizations? Betty Williams Peter Burns 5
  6. 6. How Will This Training Help OurOrganization? A Focus on Six Key Elements of Inclusive Practice:  Authentic Membership  Effective Supports and Mentors  Deliberate Communication  Full Participation  Meaningful Contributions  True Influence Commentary from National Experts Regarding Their Experiences and Insights An Overview of Barriers and Successful Strategies for Promoting Inclusive Organizational Practices Examples of Possible Individual and Organizational Outcomes 6
  7. 7. Training Agenda Welcome Introductions Overview Elements of Inclusive Practices Break Elements of Inclusive Practices, continued Transformational Outcomes Wrap-Up Adjourn 7
  8. 8.  Bernard Baker, SABE  Peter Burns, Arc-US  Celia Feinstein, Temple University  Chester Hill, NH People First  Graham Mulholland, PA DDC  Tia Nelis, SABE The Voices of  Linda Pogue, GA People First  Ileen Shane, PA DRN Experience  Steve Suroviec, PA OVR Self-advocates and members of  Nancy Thaler, NASDDD boards of directors, advisory  Vicki Turnage, AL People First boards, committees and other  Nancy Ward, Arc-US policymaking entities share their  Liz Weintraub, CQL perspectives on tokenism and  Betty Williams, SABE inclusion.  Eloise Woods, AL People First  Joe Wrinkle, MO CDD8
  9. 9. Inclusive Board Are Transformed Individuals Want a Voice Authentic Gain Acceptance Encourage Change Exchange Establish Bonds Structural Social Get Access to Altered Culture Shared Resources & Structure Understanding Improve Legitimacy Maintain Order Board of DirectorsAdapted from original byChristopher Fredette, 2007 9
  10. 10. Inclusive Board Practices Provide:✚ Authentic Membership Supports and Mentors Deliberate Communication Full Participation Meaningful Ways to Contribute True Influence 10
  11. 11. Do we allow impatience to deprive us of the full benefit of all those other thinking minds out there? Do we give token acknowledgement to others, and in doing so missing out on adding to our own knowledge and abilities? – stillthinking, Essays for ThinkersAuthentic Membership “They’re the only people with the moral authority.” -- Graham Mulholland
  12. 12. Authentic Membership provides equal status to, andrecognition of, the importance of the individual’s presenceas any other member of the board of directors. Chester Hill Linda Pogue 12
  13. 13.  Lack of knowledge about the organization  Inconsistent leadership support  Poor attendance  “Advisory” or “Honorary” status Barriers to Authentic  Difficulty coordinating attendance with individuals’ Membership support systems “Self-advocates should not just take  Need for personal assistance up a spot so organizations can during meetings check the self-advocate box in their  Fear that a self-advocate will act checklist. Once self-advocates are inappropriately during the on boards, we need to speak out meeting and have a voice.” – Bill Krebs  Meetings are held in inaccessible buildings or locations13
  14. 14.  Board orientation  Board retreats and fellowship opportunities  Leadership commitment to inclusion Strategies That Promote Authentic Membership  Management commitment to inclusion “We like to look at each person to  Designated budget for see what they have to contribute. inclusion supports You have to take the time to see how people will meet the needs of  Needs of organization the organization and take the time match the interests of the to help people understand the potential board member organization.” – Peter Burns14
  15. 15. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationDescribe something that  What rituals orsomeone did that made practices do you haveyou feel like you were part that integrate newof a group? members into your organization? 15
  16. 16. “Change the environment, not the person.” – Buckminster FullerEffective Supports and Mentors “One of the best things a board can do is give people a mentor-- without passing their own judgment, they can help.” – Betty Williams
  17. 17. Effective Supports and Mentors provide the tools andcoaching opportunities needed to prepare for and beeffective at meetings of the board of directors. Eloise Woods Steve Suroviec 17
  18. 18.  Lack of transportation  Management resistance  Other board member resistance  Lack of assistance at meetings Barriers to Effective Supports and Mentors  Length of meetings  Lack of resources for supports “It’s really important to have  Turnover of supports people with disabilities to inform all that we do and provide us with  Difficulty accessing insight. The challenge we face is information supporting people.” – Peter Burns  Preparation time is too short or rushed18
  19. 19.  Provision of mentor  Mentor who is employee of organization  Mentor who is a fellow board member  Travel advances Strategies That Promote  Assistance with travel arrangements Effective Supports and  Materials in alternative formats (large print, etc.) Mentors  Color coding materials “Nothing moves your soul more  Using icons for minutes and than to see the light go on in committees someone’s head that says, ‘I can do  Personal assistance during meetings this.’ ‘I can take control of my life.’  Stipends, financial support Applauding the perception is easy.  Altering meeting space Helping to make it reality is tough. arrangements – Michelle Hoffman  Seating near leadership or speakers  Adding a decision page on the packet to show what needs action and what is information19
  20. 20. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationDescribe how a mentor or How does yoursupport person helped you organization evaluate thebe an effective board effectiveness of mentorsmember. and the other supports you provide? 20
  21. 21. “This is part of what I consider dialogue— for people to realize what is on each other’s minds without coming to any conclusions or judgments.” – David BohmDeliberate Communication “ If you want to change the meeting, slow it down, it changes the whole dynamic of how people interact with each other.” – Nancy Ward
  22. 22. Deliberate Communication is an interaction that takes intoaccount the way the individual receives, processes, andexpresses information and ideas. Joe Wrinkle Vicki Turnage 22
  23. 23.  Difficulties using English  Difficulty understanding individuals’ speech  Lack of functioning assistive technology Barriers to Deliberate  Response latency; rushing Communication the speaker “Asking self-advocates for their  Speaking for person, opinion means that board finishing sentences members should be willing to listen to those opinions. Learning  Speaking over the person, to increase your ability to listen to interrupting them self-advocates is an important way to help them be more than a token.”  Ignoring the input from the – Bill Krebs person23
  24. 24.  Use of technology during meetings  Use of talking stick for recognizing speakers  Practice using Rules of Order Strategies That Promote  Eliminating jargon and acronyms Deliberate Communication “Conversation levels during board  Use of plain language and meetings should support self- explanation of unfamiliar terms advocates on the board. It is important that boards use words in  Use of interpreter familiar the agenda, materials, and with individual’s speech or discussions so that self-advocates communication style understand. This is how they  Making sure the person is support participation.” – Bill Krebs asked for their input24
  25. 25. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationHow do you know when What does your board dosomeone has truly listened to ensure that everyto what you have to say? member has a voice and uses it? 25
  26. 26. “We have to understand that the world can only be grasped by action, not by contemplation.” – Jacob Bronowski Full Participation“I think how you get to be included is to eat lunch with people. Sit and share with them.” – Tia Nelis
  27. 27. Full Participation is providing a perspective and actionsthat are needed to move the organization closer to itsmission and purpose. Nancy Ward Ilene Shane 27
  28. 28.  Difficulty coordinating participation within the organization  Fear of failure or rejection Barriers to Full  Lack of confidence Participation  Lack of information “Fear gets in the way of speaking up. It helps to get to know others,  Lack of engagement if you know someone. When you during meetings are not comfortable, you don’t participate.” – Chester Finn  Size of board or committee28
  29. 29.  Appointing two or more individuals with disabilities to serve  Pre-meetings  Frequent breaks or rest periods Strategies That Promote  On-going board training Full Participation  Opportunities for board “The director of my agency helped fellowship me out. I went to his office before the meeting. We have board  Participation in committees or retreats. When a new board sub-committees members comes onto the board we  Team building exercises or go over to their home and take activities them out to eat.” – Chester Hill  On-going contact between meetings29
  30. 30. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationDescribe something that a What challenges has yourboard you serve on asked organization had toyou to do that made you overcome in order tofeel like a full participant? ensure full participation? 30
  31. 31. “No man is so poor as to have nothing worth giving: as well might the mountain streamlets say they have nothing to give the sea because they are not rivers. Give what you have. To someone it may be better than you dare to think.” – Henry Wadsworth LongfellowMeaningful Contributions “I think you really need to be included in all parts of the board; not just the board meeting.” – Tia Nelis
  32. 32. Meaningful Contributions are the efforts made to fulfill theresponsibilities of board membership in ways that demonstratecommitment to the board and the organization. Bernard Baker Celia Feinstein 32
  33. 33.  Use of jargon, acronyms and unfamiliar terms  Lack of knowledge of individual’s relevant expertise and experience Barriers to Meaningful  Low expectation for Contributions individual contribution  Leadership is not “You’re going to miss out—we have committed to inclusive something to give.” – Bernard practices Baker  People receive support, but no changes are made within the organization or group33
  34. 34.  Specific board role or duties  Board assignments completed in pairs teams  Identifying preferred areas Successful Strategies to of input or concerns Promote Meaningful Contributions  Use of parking lot to follow- “One of the contributions people up on deferred items with disabilities make is to help  Soliciting agenda items from slow down the process and I mean all board members that in a positive sense so everyone can participate.” – Ilene Shane  Provision of leadership and other types of training34
  35. 35. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationIn what ways do you feel What have you done toyou have made a difference make it possible for boardby being on a board of members with disabilitiesdirectors? to contribute? 35
  36. 36. The problem with those practicing tokenism is that they always make sure that their efforts are seen and publicized; it’s as is if they are doing a lot, when well in fact, they have done close to nothing, in terms of impact. – Benjie Oliveros, Analysis True Influence“Standing up for what you believe is a dirty job. Rewarding, but not pleasant.” – Max Barrows
  37. 37. True Influence is having the respect and consideration of the board tothe extent that they agree to act on ideas or concerns that theindividual with a disability has expressed. Liz Weintraub MJ Bartlemay 37
  38. 38.  Lack of organization policies affirming inclusive practice  Lack of opportunities to express opinion Barriers to True Influence  Agreeing that problems pointed out exist but no “When you get a letter in the mail action is taken threatening you, you really know you had an impact.” – Chester Finn  Advisory role only with no decision making authority38
  39. 39.  Written policies that require inclusive board practices  Adoption of recommendations and/or suggestions by board members with disabilities Strategies That Promote  Amended by-laws to expand inclusion True Influence “How do you gain influence? Ask  Leadership or co-leadership roles self-advocates to do other activities; to testify, be on  Adoption of “Nothing About committees, go places to meet Us Without Us” people, go to trainings. Build up people’s confidence so they believe  Board rotation adds new people with disabilities with in themselves so they can speak for different voices and themselves.” – Tia Nelis perspectives39
  40. 40. Discussion Questions  Individual  OrganizationDescribe something an Looking back, is there anorganization changed occasion where youbecause you spoke up. wished you had really acted on changes you were being asked to make by a board members with a disability? 40
  41. 41. “The more diversity of interactions a particle has, the more complexity, structure, and richer self it has—the more possibilities and probabilities it has.” – Mark TroddenTransformational Outcomes “The presence of people with disability changes the environment positively. It becomes more rational.” – Nancy Thaler
  42. 42. Transformational Outcomes are changes in theorganization’s culture where everyone is valued as key tothe organization success. Tia Nelis Nancy Thaler 42
  43. 43.  Greater self-advocacy and self-determination Individual Outcomes  Increased self-confidence  Expanded interpersonal skill “It helped me a lot. How to work with people. How to ask questions.  Creation of social How to feel good about myself.” – networking opportunities Elouise Woods  Expanded leadership roles  Enhanced status within community  Encouraged to fill broad range of roles within and outside of the organization43
  44. 44. ✚ Change in organization’s goals and priorities change Organizational  Increased emphasis on community Outcomes inclusion  Expanded perspective of “I think we all benefit from diversity. individuals’ capabilities People with disabilities enrich the experience by bringing a perspective  Expanded organizational influence that’s unique. I think that’s critical.” – Celia Feinstein  Increased quality and satisfaction  People with disabilities are engaged in planning at all levels of the organization ✚Adoption of person centered practices ✚Decreased use of segregated supports  People with disabilities are hired ✚Change in organizational structure  People with disabilities are part of quality monitoring and ✚Increased resources or funding improvement efforts44
  45. 45. How Inclusive Is Your Board of Directors? 45
  46. 46. Wrap-Up Thank you for coming to the Advanced Beyond Tokenism training. We wish you success in your future leadership efforts. We hope this training will help you become more effective at supporting individuals with disabilities who serve on boards of directors, advisory boards, committees, and any other entity that provides an opportunity for them to be heard. 46
  47. 47. AcknowledgementsThe Beyond Tokenism Research and Education Center expresses their deepest appreciation to the following individuals and organizations for their contributions to this training:Bernard Baker, SABE Ilene Shane, PA DRNM.J. Bartlemay, The Arc-US Steve Suroviec, Director, PA OVRMax Barrows, SABE Vicki Turnage, AL People FirstPeter Burns, The Arc-US Nancy Thaler, NASDDDRandy Constales, The Arc-NM Nancy Ward, The Arc-USCelia Feinstein, Temple University Liz Weintraub, CQLChester Hill, NH People First Betty Williams, SABEBill Krebs, Beyond Tokenism REC Elouise Woods, AL People FirstGraham Mulholland, PA DDC Joe Wrinkle, MO CDDTia Nelis, SABE Pennsylvania Council onLinda Pogue, GA People First Developmental DisabilitiesSteve Scarton, Arc-NM Self-Advocates Becoming Empowered, Inc.Sheila Hunter, PA DDC Videography by Mark Friedman, Ph.D. 47
  48. 48. For more information contact Mark Friedman, Ph.D.Phone (615) 904-0308 Email: mark@mtadvocacy.comDeveloped with support from the Pennsylvania Developmental Disabilities Council© 2012 Mark Friedman, Ph.D. and Ruthie-Marie Beckwith, Ph.D. and Pennsylvania DevelopmentalDisabilities Council.

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