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Forests and trees on farm for 
sustainable diets 
prof. dr. ir. Patrick Van Damme 
Patrick.VanDamme@UGent.be 
www.tropical...
Content 
• Introduction and problem statement 
• The role of biodiversity c.q. trees/shrubs 
• The Congo case 
– Ethnobota...
Introduction and problem statement 
• 2010: 925 million people estimated to be undernourished 
• 30% undernourished in Afr...
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
Introduction and problem statement 
• Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) stresses the importance of 
agricultural b...
Introduction and problem statement 
poor nutrition in various forms occurs in all 
countries around the world 
malnutritio...
Introduction and problem statement 
– acute malnutrition (wasting or thinness) 
– chronic malnutrition (stunting or short ...
Introduction and problem statement 
underlying causes of malnutrition, i.e.: 
– lack of access to sufficient, high-quality...
The role of biodiversity c.q. trees/shrubs 
hypothesis/rationale: biodiversity at three levels— 
ecosystems, the species t...
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
World Production (2012) 
0 50,000,000 100,000,000 150,000,000 200,000,000 250,000,000 300,000,000 
Cashew nuts, with shell...
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
Agroecology in practice 
Coffee and cocoa agroforestry systems 
Coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica 
CoP 12 - Pyeongc...
The role of biodiversity - assumptions 
• wild (plant/animal) species and intraspecies biodiversity have key roles in 
glo...
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
The role of biodiversity (Penafiel et al.) 
in general, locally available foods were found to be important sources of 
ene...
The role of biodiversity 
although underutilized crops have traditionally been 
used for and are still known as sources of...
The role of biodiversity 
also, based on our own field research, it is our 
contention that... 
use of underutilised speci...
Example: Kisangani area (DRC) - 
ethnobotany 
• preference ranking exercises 
for wild fruits and wild 
vegetables with se...
results and discussion… 
• 166 WEPs (165 species and 2 varieties) 
within 71 families for the Turumbu, 
Mbole and Bali tog...
Plant parts used Number of plants 
fruits 68 
seeds 20 
leaves 53 
tubers 10 
trunk, stem & stem sap 15 
bark 11 
leaf bud...
Yalungu 
54 species 
Yasekwe 
63 species 
Yaoseko 
77 species 
4 3 
1 
2 45 14 
16 
35 
Turumbu 
85 species 
Mbole 
99 spe...
WEPs in nutrition - methodology 
• study area: 
– 6 municipalities in Kisangani city 
– Yaoseko: rural Turumbu village (34...
WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion 
• diet mainly based on cassava 
tubers (71.8%; 79.9% and 98.8% of 
recalls in ...
WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion 
• only 15 WEPs figured in a marginal 
number of recalls 
– 1 wild yam 
– 2 wil...
Food group Kisangani city Turumbu city Turumbu village P2 
Energy (kcal) 3 % total 
energy 4 
Energy (kcal) 3 % total 
ene...
Nutrient Kisangani 
(n=182) 
% women 
under 
RDA² 
Turumbu city 
(n=108) 
% women 
under 
RDA² 
Turumbu 
Yaoseko 
(n=80) 
...
WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion 
• huge gap between knowledge and effective use of WEPs 
• WEPs are insufficien...
the role of trees/forest-based systems – some 
emerging conclusions… 
tree/forest-based food systems offer a number of 
ad...
the role of trees/forest-based systems – some 
emerging conclusions 
question: 
How do these different land use-patches in...
the role of trees/forest-based systems – some 
emerging conclusions 
things to do… 
collect data, especially at the global...
the role of trees/forest-based systems – some 
emerging conclusions 
things to do… 
... in order to inspire/guide/inform p...
the role of trees/forest-based systems – some 
emerging conclusions 
objective: 
combine the best of traditional and forma...
Thanks for your attention 
CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
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12 patrick-van-damme-forests-trees-for-sustainable-diets-tree-diversity-day-2014-cop12

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Trees, landscapes, restoration, Tree Diversity Day 2014, CBD, biodiversity, invasive species, seedlings, policy, food, diet, medicinal plants, Aichi targets, nutrition

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12 patrick-van-damme-forests-trees-for-sustainable-diets-tree-diversity-day-2014-cop12

  1. 1. Forests and trees on farm for sustainable diets prof. dr. ir. Patrick Van Damme Patrick.VanDamme@UGent.be www.tropicallab.ugent.be Ghent University, Belgium and University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic (with inputs from the global forest expert panel) CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  2. 2. Content • Introduction and problem statement • The role of biodiversity c.q. trees/shrubs • The Congo case – Ethnobotany – documentation of WEPs • Methodology • Results and discussion – WEP contributions to local diets • Methodology • Results and discussion • General conclusions • Recommendations and future research CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  3. 3. Introduction and problem statement • 2010: 925 million people estimated to be undernourished • 30% undernourished in Africa • ‘hidden hunger’ = micronutrient deficiencies: 2 billion people • only 30 species provide 95% of energy and protein needs in the world • 30,000 of the 250,000 – 270,000 plants formally described have been collected or cultivated by humans for food • many of them remain underutilized, although they may have excellent nutritional characteristics CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  4. 4. CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  5. 5. Introduction and problem statement • Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) stresses the importance of agricultural biodiversity for food security and natural resource conservation; ‘Conservation through use’ principle • evidence is still circumstantial, but: many authors argue that it is compelling to assume that increased agricultural and forest biological diversity leads to a more varied diet, which in turn improves specific health outcomes • But: it still remains unclear how (much) biodiversity actually contributes to the nutrition and livelihoods of the poor (see review Peñafiel et al. (2011), infra) CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  6. 6. Introduction and problem statement poor nutrition in various forms occurs in all countries around the world malnutrition can result from a lack or excess of certain nutrients, or nutrients in the wrong proportions CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  7. 7. Introduction and problem statement – acute malnutrition (wasting or thinness) – chronic malnutrition (stunting or short stature) – micronutrient malnutrition; and – overweight and obesity are all pressing public health issues, often co-existing in the same populations CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 7
  8. 8. Introduction and problem statement underlying causes of malnutrition, i.e.: – lack of access to sufficient, high-quality, safe and acceptable food ; – deficient health environment; and – inadequate childcare practices continue to lead to high rates of (child) malnutrition, morbidity and mortality CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 8
  9. 9. The role of biodiversity c.q. trees/shrubs hypothesis/rationale: biodiversity at three levels— ecosystems, the species they contain and the genetic diversity within species—can contribute to food security and improved nutrition (Toledo & Burlingame, 2006) we stress the need for/potential of trees/shrubs, as they can have multiple roles in the landscape, production system, livelihoods… CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 9
  10. 10. CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  11. 11. CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  12. 12. World Production (2012) 0 50,000,000 100,000,000 150,000,000 200,000,000 250,000,000 300,000,000 Cashew nuts, with shell Avocados Cocoa, beans Grapefruit (inc. pomelos) Coffee, green Rubber, natural Fruit, citrus nes Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas Apples Oil, palm fruit Tree crop Value (Metric tons) CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  13. 13. CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  14. 14. Agroecology in practice Coffee and cocoa agroforestry systems Coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  15. 15. The role of biodiversity - assumptions • wild (plant/animal) species and intraspecies biodiversity have key roles in global food security • different varieties/ecotypes/accessions/... have (statistically) different nutrient contents • acquiring nutrient data on existing biodiversity is a prerequisite for development of new crops/speculations • formal nutrient content data need to be among criteria in cultivar development/promotion • nutrient data for wild foods and cultivars need to be systematically generated, centrally compiled and widely disseminated • biodiversity questions and/or prompts need to be included in food consumption surveys • acquiring nutrient and intake data for varieties/(eco/pheno)types/... is essential in order to understand the impact of biodiversity on food security CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 15
  16. 16. CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  17. 17. The role of biodiversity (Penafiel et al.) in general, locally available foods were found to be important sources of energy, micronutrients, and dietary diversification in the diet of rural and forest communities living in highly biodiverse ecosystems current evidence shows local food biodiversity as an important contributor to nutritious diets findings are, however, limited to populations living in highly biodiverse areas research on the contribution of biodiversity to diets of industrialized and urban settings needs more attention more studies/instruments are needed that would measure the dietary contribution of local biodiversity CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 17
  18. 18. The role of biodiversity although underutilized crops have traditionally been used for and are still known as sources of food, fibre, fodder, oil and medicine their potential contribution to food security, nutrition, health, income generation, and ecosystem services for the well-being of mankind is still largely under-documented and under-exploited CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 18
  19. 19. The role of biodiversity also, based on our own field research, it is our contention that... use of underutilised species is indeed/still under-documented and/but actual use is probably over-rated and might be under pressure from westernised food habits CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 19
  20. 20. Example: Kisangani area (DRC) - ethnobotany • preference ranking exercises for wild fruits and wild vegetables with separate gender groups – taste – economic value – nutritional value – socio-cultural value • identification of plants in Herbarium of National Botanical garden of Brussels (BR); duplicates are deposited in UNIKIS CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  21. 21. results and discussion… • 166 WEPs (165 species and 2 varieties) within 71 families for the Turumbu, Mbole and Bali together • Apocynaceae : 12 species, Malvaceae (10 species), Rubiaceae (8 species), Zingiberaceae and Dioscoreaceae (each 6 species) •72 species for the first time cited as edible for the region •85 WEPs in Turumbu, Liengola (2001) 58, but 14 not in our study •Mbole and Bali never studied before ‘Lopha’ ‘bakale’ Panda oleosa ‘Ketchu’ ‘Mbikondi’ Piper guineense CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  22. 22. Plant parts used Number of plants fruits 68 seeds 20 leaves 53 tubers 10 trunk, stem & stem sap 15 bark 11 leaf buds 2 young sprouts 2 flowers 5 roots 7 immature fronds (ferns) 1 whole plant 1 palm heart 2 fruit shell 1 TOTAL 198 Specific use Number of plants fruit 67 leafy vegetables 40 condiment 25 tea substitute 24 nut 18 starch 11 other vegetables 10 strenghtener 15 water substitute 7 indigenous vinegar 6 palm wine 3 oil 2 TOTAL 228 CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  23. 23. Yalungu 54 species Yasekwe 63 species Yaoseko 77 species 4 3 1 2 45 14 16 35 Turumbu 85 species Mbole 99 species Bali 86 species 23 18 39 35 9 7 Bafwabula 59 species Bavoy 71 species Bafwambalu 63 species 6 2 15 48 3 6 6 Yaleko 68 species Olife 58 species Lefundelo 62 species 14 13 10 31 10 4 17 Turumbu Mbole Bali CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  24. 24. WEPs in nutrition - methodology • study area: – 6 municipalities in Kisangani city – Yaoseko: rural Turumbu village (34 km west to Kisangani) • sample: – 241 adult women in Kisangani city, all ethnicities mixed (40 per municipality, 41 in Lubunga) – 129 Turumbu women in Yaoseko village – 122 Turumbu women in Kisangani city • period of highest WEP availability (July-October) • two multiple-pass 24h recalls with women • some socio-economic characteristics • food composition table (proxies…) • lucille food analysis software – usual intakes via MSM CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  25. 25. WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion • diet mainly based on cassava tubers (71.8%; 79.9% and 98.8% of recalls in Kisangani, Turumbu city and Turumbu village samples resp.) • in the city also some rice (62.6%; 45.9% and 5.1% of recalls) • combined with cassava leaves (54.6%; 54.5% and 62.5% of recalls) • caterpillars (19.5%; 31.5% and 23.1% of recalls) CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  26. 26. WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion • only 15 WEPs figured in a marginal number of recalls – 1 wild yam – 2 wild nuts – 4 wild leafy vegetables – 3 wild fruits – 5 wild spices • safou, a native, underutilized fruit species was mentioned most frequently, but still... (in only 4.0%; 6.4% and 30.1% of recalls) CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  27. 27. Food group Kisangani city Turumbu city Turumbu village P2 Energy (kcal) 3 % total energy 4 Energy (kcal) 3 % total energy 4 Energy (kcal) 3 % total energy 4 Cereals 539.9 ± 210.9 a 25.0 355.2 ± 177.5b 19.7 39.3 ± 81.6 c 2.1 0 Roots and tubers 383.4 ± 192.6 a 17.5 401.6 ± 168.5 a 22.3 847.7 ± 345 b 45.4 0 Wild yam - - Nuts & pulses 170.5 ± 111.8 a 7.8 139.5 ± 164.7 a 7.7 19.1 ± 70.9 b 1.0 0 Wild nuts - - - Vegetables 61.2 ± 23.5 a,b 2.8 57.6 ± 25.4 a 3.1 62 ± 24.8 b 3.3 0.055 Wild vegetables - - 2.2 ± 7.5 0.1 Fruits 39.8 ± 61.9 a 1.8 30 ± 49.5 a 1.7 95.8 ± 94.1 b 5.1 0.001 Wild fruits - - 9 ± 40.7 0.5 Safou 12.1 ± 51 a 0.6 11.7 ± 36.7 a 0.6 89.6 ± 107.2 b 4.8 0 Meat/Poultry/Offal 58.5 ± 93.6 a 2.7 32 ± 82.7 b 1.8 27.9 ± 33.7 b 1.5 0.0004 Bush meat fresh - - 5.7 ± 27.6 0.3 Smoked bush meat 17.7 ± 50.3 0.8 9.9. ± 26.2 0.6 19.9 ± 26 1.0 0.11 Fish and fish products 41.8 ± 35 a 1.9 30.7 ± 34.9 b 1.7 21 ± 23.2 c 1.1 <0.001 Eggs - - - Milk/milk products 16.4 ± 40.1 a 0.8 11.6 ± 38.7 a 0.6 0.5 ± 3.8 b 0.0001 Oils and Fats 719.6 ± 196.1 a 33.0 623.8 ± 261.2 b 34.6 663.4 ± 236.4 a,b 35.5 0.0004 Sugars 101.9 ± 89.8 a 4.7 56.4 ± 72.7 b 3.1 29.4 ± 35.3 c 1.6 0 Miscellaneous 18.7 ± 30.6 0.9 16.9 ± 53.2 0.9 31.7 ± 84.4 1.7 0.054 Wild spices 0.2 ± 1.7 <0.1% - 0.4 ± 2.4 <0.1% Mushrooms 0.4 ± 1.9 a <0.1% 0.6 ± 2.8 a,b <0.1% 1.4 ± 3.7 b 0.1 0.0034 Caterpillars 13.5 ± 27.5 0.6 16.2 ± 19.1 0.9 14.9 ± 23.6 0.8 0.59 CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  28. 28. Nutrient Kisangani (n=182) % women under RDA² Turumbu city (n=108) % women under RDA² Turumbu Yaoseko (n=80) % women under RDA² P³ Weight (g) 1039.64 ± 275.14 a 872.35 ± 271.83 b 1062.88 ± 354.48 a <0.001 Energy (kcal) 2102 ± 444.19a 1715.08 ± 599.57 b 1779.37 ± 564.85 b <0.001 Energy density 205.47 ± 23.0 a 196.13 ± 26.21 b 169.34 ± 21.9 c <0.001 (kcal/100g) Energy from protein (%) 9.24 ± 2.13 a 9.36 ± 2.1 a 7.56 ± 1.98 b <0.001 Energy from lipids (%) 44.78 ± 5.42 46.19 ± 6.4 44.18 ± 8.06 0.0686 Total carbohydrate (g) 4 260.79 ± 64.1 a 211.71 ± 64.82 a 241.62 ± 94.55 b <0.001 Fibre (g) 4 22.48 ± 8.73 17.59 ± 8.76 18.81 ± 7.56 0.4021 Vitamin A (μg RE) 4 4240.06 ± 898.37 a 0 3886.47 ± 764.4 b 0 4301.83 ± 768.44 b 0 <0.001 Vitamin C (mg) 4 89.39 ± 23.46 a 3.85 86.17 ± 29.34 b 5.56 165.61 ± 74.22 c 0 <0.001 Thiamine (mg) 4 1.03 ± 0.27 a 63.19 0.95 ± 0.36 b 72.2 1.07 ± 0.41 c 61.25 <0.001 Riboflavin (mg) 4 2.07 ± 0.73 a 3.85 2.55 ± 1.88 b 7.41 2.52 ± 2.02 b 13.75 <0.001 Niacin (mg) 4 9.12 ± 2.87 a 93.4 8.08 ± 3 b 96.3 7.44 ± 2.76 a 97.5 <0.001 Vitamin B-6 (mg) 4 1.73 ± 0.51a 24.18 1.55 ± 0.43 b 31.48 2.40 ± 1.1 c 21.25 <0.001 Folate (μg) 4 219.18 ± 58.84 a 100 202.9 ± 65.88 b 100 238.08 ± 86.34 c 93.75 <0.001 Vitamin B-12 (μg) 4 1.44 ± 0.58 a 93.4 1.28 ± 1.49 a 87.03 0.6 ± 0.57 b 97.5 <0.001 Calcium (mg) 4 406.23 ± 104.98 a 100 384.87 ± 138.13 b 99.07 541.91 ± 245.64 c 95 <0.001 Iron (mg) 4 11.89 ± 3.67 a,b 100 8.93 ± 2.89 a 100 10.42 ± 4.22 b 100 0.0154 CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 Zinc (mg) 4 6.46 ± 2.1 a 91.8 5.04 ± 1.8 a 99.07 3.89 ± 1.9 b 97.5 <0.001
  29. 29. WEPs in nutrition – results and discussion • huge gap between knowledge and effective use of WEPs • WEPs are insufficiently consumed to contribute to nutrition security • urban nor rural people valorize their knowledge on WEPs to complement and ameliorate their diets • despite they are not frequently used, there exists a lot of WEPs in the region with interesting nutritional characteristics such as – Gnetum africanum; Treculia africana; etc. • women were eager to know more about WEPs and their health characteristics • development of food-based dietary guidelines based on local foods and integrating WEPs CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014
  30. 30. the role of trees/forest-based systems – some emerging conclusions… tree/forest-based food systems offer a number of advantages over permanent (crop) agriculture given their adaptability to a broader range of environmental conditions (e.g., soils, topography and climate) and the diversity of food products derived from them CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 30
  31. 31. the role of trees/forest-based systems – some emerging conclusions question: How do these different land use-patches interact with each other in space and time to influence the productivity and sustainability of forest-food systems ? CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 31
  32. 32. the role of trees/forest-based systems – some emerging conclusions things to do… collect data, especially at the global and national level, on the actual extent of most of these systems, the numbers of people who rely on one or more such systems to meet their household food and/or income needs, and the relative value of different food systems on the diets and health of those who manage them, with emphasis on nutritional value of the different species… CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 32
  33. 33. the role of trees/forest-based systems – some emerging conclusions things to do… ... in order to inspire/guide/inform policy-makers, planners and development agencies seeking to improve the lives of food-insecure populations CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 33
  34. 34. the role of trees/forest-based systems – some emerging conclusions objective: combine the best of traditional and formal scientific knowledge to enhance their productivity and direct (food and nutritional security) and indirect (income) benefits to their practitioners CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014 34
  35. 35. Thanks for your attention CoP 12 - Pyeongchang 10 October 2014

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