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Agroforestry	and	REDD+	in	Africa:	Poten6als,	
challenges	and	the	way	forward	
Lalisa A. Duguma, PhD
World Agroforestry Cen...
Outline
—  Deforestation and forest degradation in Africa
—  Major drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in
Afri...
Forest cover dynamics in Africa
2
Forest cover (2015) – 624
M ha
Primary Forest (2015) –
135 M ha
Planted forest (2015) – ...
Deforestation fronts in Africa
3
Source: WWF Living Forest Report 2015
Drivers of deforestation and forest
Degradation
4
Source: WWF Living Forest Report 2015
The Potentials of AF
Major drivers of
deforestation
Potentials of AF Enabling factors to be in
place
Small-scale agricultu...
—  “Green fertilizers increased the average yield by up to 1.6 tonnes per
hectare over these smallholder farmers’ practice...
7
Tanzania:The Miombo woodlands could be severely threatened if AF and other
traditional fodder management systems were no...
Degraded grazing land
Restored area using Ngitili and
other complementary AF
practices
on	Niger	Farmlands	
9
Niger: If FMNR was not adopted, most remnant forests in Niger would have been
depleted severely!
© D...
10
Malawi: If onfarm trees are not there these wood ready for sale to help farmers cope
with crop failure should have come...
Promising national moves in
promoting AF
Article 69. (1) (b) “The
State shall work to
achieve and maintain a
tree cover of...
Hence, agroforestry could be a
useful practical mechanism to
divert the pressure on African
forests.
12
But we have seriou...
1. Starting capital and recurrent
costs
a) Small-scale woodlot
-50000
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
Year0
Year1
Year2
Year3...
The challenges: starting capital or
initial investment
119
-10000
-5000
0
5000
Year0
Year1
Year2
Year3
Year4
Year5
Year6
Y...
2. Insecure Land and Tree Tenure
15
If farmers do not have the secure right to land, investments in perennial
crops is not...
3. Lack of proper value for tree
products [The middlemen effect]
Often farmers who do not have good market
access loose a ...
4. Constraining regulatory
mechanisms
—  Taxation systems for tree products
—  Demands for complicated standards that
farm...
Issues of concern
—  Population growth:
—  Urbanization: is the migration of the
youth going to create labor shortage in
r...
Thank	You!
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Agroforestry and redd+ in Africa: potentials, challenges and the way forward

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Presentation by Lalisa Duguma at the ICRAF side event on agroforestry and REDD+ at the Paris COP21

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Agroforestry and redd+ in Africa: potentials, challenges and the way forward

  1. 1. Agroforestry and REDD+ in Africa: Poten6als, challenges and the way forward Lalisa A. Duguma, PhD World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) & ASB Partnership for Tropical Forest Margins Email: l.duguma@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Outline —  Deforestation and forest degradation in Africa —  Major drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Africa —  What is the contribution of Agroforestry in achieving REDD+ objectives? ◦  Agroforestry for minimizing the extent of Deforestation ◦  Agroforestry for tackling issues of forest degradation —  What enabling factors need to be in place to benefit from the potentials of AF? —  Summary 1
  3. 3. Forest cover dynamics in Africa 2 Forest cover (2015) – 624 M ha Primary Forest (2015) – 135 M ha Planted forest (2015) – 16 M ha Net annual forest loss (2010-2015) – 2.8 M ha Net annual natural forest loss (2010-2015) – 3.1 M ha Net annual planted forest growth (2015) – 0.2 M ha Stock Change Source: FRA 2015
  4. 4. Deforestation fronts in Africa 3 Source: WWF Living Forest Report 2015
  5. 5. Drivers of deforestation and forest Degradation 4 Source: WWF Living Forest Report 2015
  6. 6. The Potentials of AF Major drivers of deforestation Potentials of AF Enabling factors to be in place Small-scale agriculture (slash and burn agriculture) Diversify income sources from fruit trees and commodity crops; AF based sustainable intensification pathways Investment and technical support Unsustainable logging Onfarm timber (e.g. Cameroon) Tree and land tenure, Market access, Appropriate taxation systems Livestock rearing Fodder and sustainable agropastoral systems Technical support, Investment Charcoal and fuelwood Smallscale woodlots and onfarm timber as supply sources Right tree species for the right places, Farm management techniques Mining Agroforestry based mining area reclamation (e.g. in China) Policy support, 5
  7. 7. —  “Green fertilizers increased the average yield by up to 1.6 tonnes per hectare over these smallholder farmers’ practices.” —  “At the estimated rate of maize consumption of 1.5 kilograms per person per day, the incremental maize yield provided by green fertilizers contributes the equivalent of 6 months’ worth of additional maize for a farm family of six or 7 months’ worth for a farm family of five.” —  “The probability of increasing maize yield over continuously cropped, unfertilized fields by more than 1 tonne per hectare was 30–63% with green fertilizers.” 6 Gudeta et al (2009)
  8. 8. 7 Tanzania:The Miombo woodlands could be severely threatened if AF and other traditional fodder management systems were not implemented at regional scale in Shinyanga. ~ 400,000 ha of restored landscape © Mathew Mpanda
  9. 9. Degraded grazing land Restored area using Ngitili and other complementary AF practices
  10. 10. on Niger Farmlands 9 Niger: If FMNR was not adopted, most remnant forests in Niger would have been depleted severely! © Dennis Garrity Garrity (2015)
  11. 11. 10 Malawi: If onfarm trees are not there these wood ready for sale to help farmers cope with crop failure should have come from forests. © ICRAF
  12. 12. Promising national moves in promoting AF Article 69. (1) (b) “The State shall work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya” (Constitution of Kenya 2010) 11 Kenya Commitment to restore close to 15 million ha of degraded forest and land (Bonn challenge, etc.) Ethiopia India The only country with a national agroforestry policy!
  13. 13. Hence, agroforestry could be a useful practical mechanism to divert the pressure on African forests. 12 But we have serious issues that need to be addressed!
  14. 14. 1. Starting capital and recurrent costs a) Small-scale woodlot -50000 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 Year0 Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Year6 Year7 Year8 Year9 Year10 Year11 Year12 Year13 Year14 ETB Expenditure (ETB.ha-1) Revenue (ETB.ha-1) Net cashflow (ETB.ha-1) b) Homestead tree and shrub growing 10000 15000 20000 Expenditure (ETB.ha-1) Revenue (ETB.ha-1) Net cashflow (ETB.ha-1) 13 Duguma (2013) Financial analysis of AF systems.Agroforestry systems How do we cover the red zones so that farmers are not exposed?
  15. 15. The challenges: starting capital or initial investment 119 -10000 -5000 0 5000 Year0 Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Year6 Year7 Year8 Year9 Year10 Year11 Year12 Year13 Year14 ETB c) Boundary tree and shrub growing -4000 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 Year0 Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Year6 Year7 Year8 Year9 Year10 Year11 Year12 Year13 Year14 ETB Expenditure (ETB.km-1) Revenue (ETB.km-1) Net cashflow (ETB.km-1) Figure 2a-c. The annual expenditure, revenue and net cash flow structures of the three agroforestry practices in the study area over 15 years time period. 14 Duguma (2013) Financial analysis of AF systems.Agroforestry systems
  16. 16. 2. Insecure Land and Tree Tenure 15 If farmers do not have the secure right to land, investments in perennial crops is not sustainable. See Hansen et al (2005) for more.
  17. 17. 3. Lack of proper value for tree products [The middlemen effect] Often farmers who do not have good market access loose a lot to the middlemen who benefit from the farmers efforts. E.g. ◦  Coffee in East Africa (Pinard and Aithal 2008) ◦  Timber all across tropical and subtropical parts of Africa ◦  Cocoa 16
  18. 18. 4. Constraining regulatory mechanisms —  Taxation systems for tree products —  Demands for complicated standards that farmers may even not understand well. 17
  19. 19. Issues of concern —  Population growth: —  Urbanization: is the migration of the youth going to create labor shortage in rural areas? —  Sustainable consumption – if what is produced is not consumed properly, we create 18
  20. 20. Thank You!

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