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ICRAF Annual Science Week 
Gender: 
from imperative to action 
NNaaiirroobbii,, SSeepptt 1100,, 22001144 
BByy :: 
MMrrss ...
OOuuttlliinnee 
1. Background information on REFACOF 
1. Why is it important to take a gender perspective 
and specificall...
11.. WWhhaatt iiss RREEFFAACCOOFF?? 
REFACOF i.e. “African women’s Network for 
community management of forests” 
 REFACO...
• The added value from existing women’s organization is that 
REFACOF is an advocacy platform focused on African 
women’s ...
WWhhyy iiss iitt iimmppoorrttaanntt to take a gender 
perspective and specifically involve 
women in climate change and na...
In almost all West and Central Africa countries, all 
forests and lands are owned and managed by the 
State: 
◦ 95 to 97%...
Women have very limited access to and almost no control 
over forest and land; 
Women’s interests and issues are not tak...
Sub-Sahara Africa is a patriarchal society : Men are 
Chiefs of everything! : Chief of the family; Chief of 
the resource...
In general, 
Women have no control over the forests, lands and 
other natural resources in general!! 
Women are in most ...
pe REFACOF’s perrssppeeccttiivvee oonn GGeennddeerr,, 
CClliimmaattee CChhaannggee aanndd NNaattuurraall rreessoouurrccees...
Example: Gender and RREEDDDD++ iinn CCaammeerroooonn:: 
wwoommeenn aacccceessss ttoo ddeecciissiioonn--mmaakkiinngg ppooss...
As Platform coordinator, REFACOF has succeeded to 
get women involved at all levels of the REDD+ 
decision-making process...
TToowwaarrddss aa mmoorree iinncclluussiivvee ssuussttaaiinnaabbllee 
ddeevveellooppmmeenntt ppaatthhwwaayy:: IICCRRAAFF T...
CGIAR system level 
objectives 
Competing Theories of Change 
Goal 2. Closing yield and 
efficiency gaps in 
agriculture a...
CGIAR system 
level objectives 
Competing Theories of Change 
Goal 3. Improve 
nutrition security to 
eliminate 
malnutrit...
CGIAR system level 
objectives 
Competing Theories of Change 
Goal 4. Achieve 
goals 1-3 without 
further compromising 
en...
Theory of place : 
Why: can we add “Gender” after “motivation”? 
How: can we add “Gender power relation” or 
“gender con...
EEnnggaaggeemmeenntt aatt llooccaall,, nnaattiioonnaall aanndd 
gglloobbaall lleevveell:: ssoommee eennttrryy ppooiinnttss...
Design, formulate and implement gender-sensitive 
programs and projects: 
◦ How can programs/projects contribute to gende...
Build gender capacities of the staff and of the 
institution 
◦ What is the level of Gender knowledge in the institution?...
LLeessssoonnss lleeaarrnntt aanndd cchhaalllleennggeess 
It is possible to move from imperative to action with 
Gender ma...
CCoonncclluussiioonn 
If ICRAF theory of change is more Gender-sensitive: 
•ICRAF can very effectively address Gender, Nat...
TThhaannkk yyoouu vveerryy mmuucchh!! 
Contact: 
Cécile Ndjebet 
REFACOF 
cecilendjebet28@gmail.com 
www.refacof.org
Cecile Ndjebet: Gender: From imperative to action. West and Central Africa inequities in land tenure for women and how it ...
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Cecile Ndjebet: Gender: From imperative to action. West and Central Africa inequities in land tenure for women and how it relates to sustainbable development. ICRAF Science Week 2014

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Presentation on Gender by Cecile Ndjebet of REFACOF-Cameroon. ICRAF Science Week 2014

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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Cecile Ndjebet: Gender: From imperative to action. West and Central Africa inequities in land tenure for women and how it relates to sustainbable development. ICRAF Science Week 2014

  1. 1. ICRAF Annual Science Week Gender: from imperative to action NNaaiirroobbii,, SSeepptt 1100,, 22001144 BByy :: MMrrss CCéécciillee NNddjjeebbeett RREEFFAACCOOFF CCaammeerroooonn
  2. 2. OOuuttlliinnee 1. Background information on REFACOF 1. Why is it important to take a gender perspective and specifically involve women in climate change and natural resources management programs and policies? 2. REFACOF’s perspective on gender, climate change and natural resources management: Gender and REDD+ in Cameroon 3. Towards a more inclusive sustainable development pathway: ICRAF Theory of Change 4. Engagement at local, national and global level: Some entry points 1. Lessons learnt and challenges 2. Conclusion
  3. 3. 11.. WWhhaatt iiss RREEFFAACCOOFF?? REFACOF i.e. “African women’s Network for community management of forests”  REFACOF was created in May 2009 in Yaoundé, Cameroon under the auspices of the International Conference on Tenure, organized by the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife (MINFOF), International Timber Organization (ITTO), Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) and other partners  REFACOF has elaborated its 5-year strategic plan with 4 strategic pillars:  Reinforce the institutional capacity of the network  Promote equitable tenure reforms  Influence the agendas and initiatives of forest tenure reforms at the national, regional and sub-regional levels  Favor horizontal exchanges of experience sharing among members
  4. 4. • The added value from existing women’s organization is that REFACOF is an advocacy platform focused on African women’s tenure rights in land and forest reforms Mission:  Promote women’s rights in Africa and influence policy to achieve gender equity in land and forest tenure To date REFACOF is composed of 16 Central and West African countries including Madagascar
  5. 5. WWhhyy iiss iitt iimmppoorrttaanntt to take a gender perspective and specifically involve women in climate change and natural resources management programs and policies? It is widely recognized today that : Women play an important role in natural resources management in Africa; Most of the women’s lives and that of their families depend on forests and forest resources; Also, in almost all Central and West Africa countries: Women represent at least half of the population; Women produce up to ¾ of food crops;
  6. 6. In almost all West and Central Africa countries, all forests and lands are owned and managed by the State: ◦ 95 to 97% of the Africa forests are owned by the State ◦ Only 3 to 5% are shared among private property (mainly individuals) and communities According to FAO, only 2% of women have ownership rights to land in the Word; A scoping study carried out in Cameroon, RCA, Gabon and Liberia by REFACOF showed that : ◦ Women’s activities in West and Central Africa can drive deforestation and forest degradation: shifting cultivation with slash and burn systems, NTFP exploitation with sometimes non sustainable techniques; ◦ Women contribute very significantly to climate change mitigation and adaptation as well to sustainable natural resources management: agroforestry activities, tree nursery, forest regeneration, community forestry, forest rehabilitation, etc.
  7. 7. Women have very limited access to and almost no control over forest and land; Women’s interests and issues are not taken into account in almost all forest and land policies, legislations and regulations; neither in climate change strategies. In most sub-Sahara African countries under the customary systems: ◦ Women do not own forests, nor lands ◦ Women do not inherit forests, nor lands ◦ Women only have user rights on forests and on lands ◦ Married women benefit from their husband’s lands ◦ Widows benefit from their male children’s lands ◦ Unmarried women either benefit from their male children, or can share that of their mother! Governments are giving out thousands hectares of land and forest concessions to Agro-business, logging companies and industrial companies while communities and women are being more and more landless !
  8. 8. Sub-Sahara Africa is a patriarchal society : Men are Chiefs of everything! : Chief of the family; Chief of the resources, Chief of decision making, …!! The customary systems were made and are being ruled by men!
  9. 9. In general, Women have no control over the forests, lands and other natural resources in general!! Women are in most cases « strangers » in both their family and their husband’s family! The women vulnerability and discrimination vis-à-vis forest and land tenure starts from their own native family!! The women vulnerability is worsen by African land grabs systems! If nothing is done, REDD can worsen the situation of women’s land and forest tenure and hinder the entire economic development of the Continent!
  10. 10. pe REFACOF’s perrssppeeccttiivvee oonn GGeennddeerr,, CClliimmaattee CChhaannggee aanndd NNaattuurraall rreessoouurrcceess mmaannaaggeemmeenntt:: GGeennddeerr aanndd RREEDDDD++ iinn CCaammeerroooonn Women direct and qualitative participation in ongoing reform processes in the member countries; Advocating for women property rights to land and forests; VVaalluuiinngg wwoommeenn’’ss ccoonnttrriibbuuttiioonn ttoo CClliimmaattee CChhaannggee aaddaappttaattiioonn aanndd mmiittiiggaattiioonn;; BBuuiillddiinngg RREEFFAACCOOFF mmeemmbbeerrss’’ ccaappaacciittiieess;; BBuuiillddiinngg ssttrraatteeggiicc aalllliiaanncceess wwiitthh ssoommee kkeeyy aaccttoorrss lliikkee MMeenn,, PPaarrlliiaammeennttaarriiaannss,, MMaayyoorrss aanndd TTrraaddiittiioonnaall CChhiieeffss;; NNeettwwoorrkkiinngg
  11. 11. Example: Gender and RREEDDDD++ iinn CCaammeerroooonn:: wwoommeenn aacccceessss ttoo ddeecciissiioonn--mmaakkiinngg ppoossiittiioonn Cameroon CSO Platform on REDD&CC was created in July 2011 in Yaoundé as an Advocacy platform with inclusive and consultative role Composed of 16 national networks Mission is to advocate for full and effective participation of civil society organizations, women, indigenous people, local communities in REDD&CC processes Structure: ◦ National Coordinators: REFACOF, RFC, MBOSCUDA ◦ Regional Coordinators ◦ District Coordinators ◦ Village Coordinators
  12. 12. As Platform coordinator, REFACOF has succeeded to get women involved at all levels of the REDD+ decision-making process : 30-40% women at the decision-making position at Village, District, Regional and National levels: ◦ Regional Coordinators: Women 40%; 30% IP ◦ District Coordinators: Women 37%; 12% IP ◦ Village Coordinators: Women 38%
  13. 13. TToowwaarrddss aa mmoorree iinncclluussiivvee ssuussttaaiinnaabbllee ddeevveellooppmmeenntt ppaatthhwwaayy:: IICCRRAAFF TThheeoorryy ooff CChhaannggee CGIAR system Competing Theories of Change level objectives Goal 1. Raising rural income through enhanced connectivity with global and national markets, modified by integrated approach to demographic, economic, rural/urban and cultural transitions. A. Rapid integration in global markets, B. Optimizing local development pace and connectedness C. Promoting gender-responsive methods and practices 3’ Intro: key gender-sensitive statistics on the issue, related SDG targets. 3’ Champion for A: the hard-core economist 3’ Champion for B: the concerned social scientist 3’ Champion for C: gender-sensitive Social scientist
  14. 14. CGIAR system level objectives Competing Theories of Change Goal 2. Closing yield and efficiency gaps in agriculture and food systems. With growing global demand for primary production for food, fibre and energy, current yield gaps (actual yields below potential) and efficiency gaps (current efficiency below potential) are a direct concern, while in the long term an increase in the potential is desirable/ necessary while simply maintaining current levels is a challenge in the face of climate change. A. Scalable and gender-sensitive intensification focused on increased input use to reduce yield gaps, B. Ecological intensification with attention to gender responsive efficiency gaps and modified demand patterns. 3’ Intro: key gender sensitive statistics on the issue, related SDG targets. 3’ Champion for A: the hard-core ‘yield-gap’ gender sensitive agronomist & breeder 3’ Champion for B: the concerned gender sensitive ecologist
  15. 15. CGIAR system level objectives Competing Theories of Change Goal 3. Improve nutrition security to eliminate malnutrition and enhance healthy and nutritious diets. Healthy nutrition requires more than calories provided by staple foods, especially for young children. As dietary choices change, new health issues emerge, among them, gender considerations A. Genetically modified staple food crops with enhanced micronutrients and vitamins, B. Enhanced diversity of food sources in an agrodiversity approach C. Gender mainstreaming in all the value chain 3’ Intro: key gender sensitive statistics on the issue, related SDG targets. 3’ Champion for A: the hard-core GMO techno-logist 3’ Champion for B: the ecological nutritionist 3’ Champion for C: gender specialist
  16. 16. CGIAR system level objectives Competing Theories of Change Goal 4. Achieve goals 1-3 without further compromising environmental quality and the multiple other functions of land, water and biodiversity for human wellbeing, while adapting to changing climates and the avoiding getting too close to the planetary boundaries A. Land sparing by maximizing gender sensitive agricultural land pro-ductivity, B. Land sharing by optimazing multifunctionality of land C. Gender mainstreaming 3’ Intro: key gender sensitive statistics on the issue, related SDG targets. 3’ Champion for A: the hard-core ecologist 3’ Champion for B: the integrated gender sensitive agroforestry champion 3’ Champion for C: Gender specialist
  17. 17. Theory of place : Why: can we add “Gender” after “motivation”? How: can we add “Gender power relation” or “gender considerations” as the last question after “land users?” Who cares: can we add “what gender considerations?” just before “are both genders empowered?”
  18. 18. EEnnggaaggeemmeenntt aatt llooccaall,, nnaattiioonnaall aanndd gglloobbaall lleevveell:: ssoommee eennttrryy ppooiinnttss Based on ICRAF goal statement: “Target countries and their civil societies and private sectors have the knowledge base and relevant experience to achieve their commitments to SDG’s with and through agrofores­try”, some entry points could be: Understanding country and regional contexts ◦ Use gender-sensitive criteria to choose a given country: gender institutional analysis; ◦ Review the existing Gender and NRM/REDD+/Climate Change, etc. country/regional documents/strategies/policies, etc.  Gender policy? Gender strategy? Gender road map? Gender-sensitive data? General knowledge in gender and related issues? Gender-based actor analysis?, Ongoing processes?, Etc.
  19. 19. Design, formulate and implement gender-sensitive programs and projects: ◦ How can programs/projects contribute to gender mainstreaming? what activities? budgets? human resources? ◦ Indicators? partners? Build partnership with/Take advantage of the existing Women Networks/platforms at national/regional levels ◦ SWOP gender analysis of actors? Get a mixture of gender-sensitive and gender-blind countries: ◦ Programs and projects in various countries to compare results/outcomes Set/Use gender indicators for monitoring and evaluation of programs/projects
  20. 20. Build gender capacities of the staff and of the institution ◦ What is the level of Gender knowledge in the institution? Is Gender an institutional choice? Does the institution have a gender policy/strategy/road map? At national and local level: ◦ Get Gender sensitive people ◦ Build capacities of actors, partners, stakeholders, women, IP’s, etc.: information, sensitization, education, communication ◦ Develop Gender sensitive criteria ◦ Ensure gender monitoring and evaluation of the activities/project/program ◦ Build strong networks and strategic alliances with men, traditional Chiefs, Parliamentarians, Mayors, …
  21. 21. LLeessssoonnss lleeaarrnntt aanndd cchhaalllleennggeess It is possible to move from imperative to action with Gender mainstreaming strategies! TToo aacchhiieevvee tthhiiss,, tthheerree iiss aa nneeeedd ffoorr :: ◦ GGeennddeerr aass aann iinnssttiittuuttiioonnaall cchhooiiccee ◦ GGeennddeerr--sseennssiittiivvee ppllaannnniinngg,, pprrooggrraammss,, pprroojjeeccttss ◦ GGeennddeerr--rreessppoonnssiivvee bbuuddggeettss ◦ GGeennddeerr--sseennssiittiivvee hhuummaann rreessoouurrcceess aass wweellll aass ggeennddeerr eexxppeerrttss,, eettcc.. Some challenges have to be addressed: ◦ Political will ◦ Financial resources ◦ Personal motivation ◦ ???
  22. 22. CCoonncclluussiioonn If ICRAF theory of change is more Gender-sensitive: •ICRAF can very effectively address Gender, Natural resources management and Climate Change issues; •ICRAF can become one of the very important institution and « effective tool » that can effectively improve Gender mainstreaming challenges and contributes very significantly to Sustainable and Equitable Development; •We need ICRAF for the World : •to acheive sustainable development! •to combat poverty! to combat Climate change! •to acheive social justice! •to overcome conflicts! And for REDD+ to work!
  23. 23. TThhaannkk yyoouu vveerryy mmuucchh!! Contact: Cécile Ndjebet REFACOF cecilendjebet28@gmail.com www.refacof.org

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