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organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali

  1. How To Become A Good Manager Submitted To: Sir HASSAN IMTIAZ Submitted By: Umair waheed 13054156-001 Neelam ishtiaq -002
  2. Ahmad Ali -005 Aamir Mushtaq -009 Khizar Shehzad -011 Dept. : IT Section : AF Date : 16-12-2014
  3. Speaker: Syed Basit Ali Tirmizi  Chief Coordinator, Obiz Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd.  Consultant, Capital Hospital HMIS  Ex-CEO ITP Consultants  Ex-Managing Director IT Promoters  Ex-Director IT, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital  Ex-Manager MIS, Shifa International Hosp.  Ex-Principal, Petroman Training Institute  Ex-Coordination Engineer, Municipality of Jeddah  Visiting Lecturer at various universities in Pakistan  Ex-Administrator/Head of residential Grammar School in Nigeria.
  4. OBJECTIVES OF PRESENTATION  Provide insight into the roles of Manager and a Leader  Provide knowledge about importance of effective management  Discuss the skill set required to become a successful manager  Prepare the audience to take up the challenge of learning and practicing the useful skills for managers
  5. Benefiting Audience Small and Lower Middle Enterprises’  Middle Tier Managers  General Managers of Small Businesses  Human Resource Managers  Supervisors  Foremen
  6. Presentation Road Map  Management Strategies  Horizon of Management Skills  Basic Elements of Management  Leadership vs. Management  Negotiating  Decision making Tools  Six Thinking Hats  Helping Styles  Emotional Intelligence  Networking with People  Managing Conflict
  7. Management Strategies  You must be able to present the strategy clearly to all audiences; it should contain a clear vision followed by a set of clear time bound actions in order to achieve consistent success.  The more diverse your workforce, the more you are going to have to develop your management skills.
  8. Management Strategies  Strategy One - Ensure that you actually are the manager This might sound stupid, however having the title of manager invariably means very little. Do you know what your “power to accountability ratio” is?
  9. Management Strategies  Strategy Two - Know what you are expected to deliver and know how to measure it Seek clear objectives. Keeping the main objectives constantly in mind is essential even if they evolve or change a bit over time. Be very clear in stating the key objectives to the people who report into you. Your measurement sources should be reliable regarding the deliverable elements.
  10. Management Strategies  Strategy three - Have a clear strategy especially if managing a diverse workforce  Should be able to identify the key actions that the department is going to pursue. This shows clarity. The STAR process might help in formulating a basic strategic approach.  Simple. Will everyone understand it and buy into it?  Thought through. Does it identify the steps that will need to be implemented in order to mobilise the plan.  Achievable. If you don’t believe it can be done then no one will.  Risk assessed. If you haven’t thought about the risks and challenges then go away and think again. Very little in management is a dead certainty.
  11. Horizon of Management Skills  Managerial functions  Leadership Styles  Leadership behaviors  Emotional intelligence  Professional speaking  Change management  Behavioral interviewing  Business writing  Decision-making  Managing conflict  Peer coaching  Marketing oneself as a unique brand  Business etiquette, global protocol  Project Management  Risk Management  Other specialized areas
  12. Basic Elements of Management Part One - SELECTDefining the Job Nuclear Pakistan mission, responsibilities and tasks, company or department Finding Qualified Candidates Cable Television, internal candidate, Temporary Employment Agencies Filling the Job Interviews, body language, behavior, references
  13. Basic Elements of Management Part Two - DIRECTDIRECT Strategic plan, goals and objectives Training Management in Direction Training in Assigning Action Direction and the Job Audit Sharing the Strategic Plan
  14. Basic Elements of Management Part Three - EVALUATE  Evaluation Evaluation strategy, Yes No Comments, performance evaluation  The Evaluation Processes Performance evaluation meeting, Objectives or action, critical incidents file, Using Evaluations, performance evaluation
  15. Basic Elements of Management Part Four - REWARD Reward system, Merit pay, Automatic progression programs  Variable Reward and Non-pay Variable-reward program, reward system, administering a reward program, next band  Go Forth and Manage Take up the task, Sure what steps, Effective in managing
  16. Leadership vs. Management Effective leadership involves setting a tone, a focus, and a direction for an organization, its members, and other stakeholders. In contrast, effective management involves executing against the direction and tone set by the leadership. Individuals are not either leaders or managers, but a mixture of leadership and management, and the exact mix depends upon the situation, the role and the person.
  17. As a culture, we have outdated notions of leadership: Just about everything we were taught about traditional management prevents us from being effective leaders. Just about every popular notion about leadership is a myth
  18. Our first challenge is to rid ourselves of these outdated traditions and myths
  19. Myth: The ideal organization is orderly and stable, and can and should run like clock work Fact: The best leadership achievements come from challenging the process, changing things, shaking up the organization
  20. Myth: The management techniques and behavior are theoretical and bookish. They cannot be practiced in real life. Fact: The best management achievements come from following the basics and making them a second nature.
  21. Myth: Leader as “renegade” who magnetizes a band of followers with courageous acts Fact: Leaders attract constituents not because of their willful defiance, but because the leader has a deep faith in the human capacity to adapt and grow
  22. Myth: Good managers focus on the short term. Fact: Effective leaders have a long term future orientation
  23. Myth: Leaders are visionaries with Prophet-like powers Fact: Leaders must have a vision, a sense of direction, but not psychic foresight. It can be their original thinking or someone else’s.
  24. Myth: Leaders ought to be cool, aloof and analytical; they should separate emotions from work Fact: When real life leaders discuss what they are proudest of in their own careers they describe feelings of inspiration, passion, elation, intensity, challenge, caring and kindness, even love
  25. Myth: Leaders have the special gift of Charisma! Fact: Leaders’ dynamism comes from a strong belief in a purpose and a willingness to express that conviction
  26. Myth: The job of management is primarily one of control: of resources including time, money materials and people. Fact: The more leaders control others, the less likely it is that people will excel, the less they’ll be trusted. Leaders don’t command and control; they support and serve.
  27. Myth: It’s lonely at the top Fact: The most effective leaders are involved and in touch with those they lead. They care deeply about them, and often refer to them as family.
  28. Myth: Leaders are superior – those on top are automatically leaders. Fact: Leadership isn’t a place: it’s a process. It involves skills and abilities useful in the executive suite and on the front line.
  29. Myth: Leaders are born, not made. Fact: Leadership is not in a gene; it is an observable, learnable set of practices. The belief that leadership can’t be learned is a powerful deterrent to leadership development.
  30. Five Fundamental Practices of Exemplary Leaders  Model The Way  Inspire A Shared Vision  Challenge The Process  Enable Others To Act  Encourage The Heart The Leadership Challenge by Kouzes and Posner Two hardest areas also bring the greatest results: Encouragement Credibility
  31. Why do you think giving encouragement is so hard?
  32. Encouraging the Heart  Set clear standards – people need to know what’s expected of them  Expect the best – self-fulfilling prophesy  Pay attention – tune in  Personalize recognition -- individualized  Tell the story – share your successes  Celebrate together – have fun  Set the example – leaders go first
  33. When people perceive their immediate manager as credible they’re more likely to: Be proud to tell others they're part of your organization  Feel a strong sense of team spirit  Feel attached and committed to your organization  See their own values as consistent with those of your organization  Have a sense of ownership of the organization
  34. When people perceive their immediate managers to have low credibility they're more likely to: Produce only if they’re watched carefully Be motivated primarily by money Say good things about the organization publicly but criticize privately Consider looking for another job if the organization experiences trouble Feel unsupported and criticized
  35. What is credibility? Credible leaders practice what they preach They walk the talk Their actions are consistent with their words They keep their promises They do what they say they will do
  36. From DWYSYWD to DWWSWWD From: DWYSYWD = Do what you say you will do To: DWWSWWD = Do what we say we will do
  37. Two Parts to Saying and Doing  You have to know how to say it In a way people can hear it In a way they can add to it, question it, express concerns, get clarification, help shape it See concerns as essential info Have the Crucial Conversations to create a comprehensive shared pool of information  You have to be able to do it Implement it – if you say you’re going to do it, do it Need to get it done – Doesn’t have to be perfect – can be mid-course adjustments
  38. The “say we do” process Clarify your own and others beliefs and values – why are we doing this – to what end? Unify your staff around shared values – is this what we’re all trying to accomplish? Intensify their commitment to shared values by living the values daily – model it
  39. You’re always communicating whether you realize it or not When it comes to sending a message throughout the building NOTHING communicates more clearly than what leaders DO
  40. Leadership Pyramid from Stephen Covey Teaching Mentoring Modeling Hearing Feeling Seeing Leading by Example, Franklin Covey Co., 1998 Credibility Encouragement
  41. Six Domains of Leadership  Personal leadership  Relational leadership  Contextual leadership  Inspirational leadership  Supportive leadership  Ethical leadership
  42. Five P’s of Leadership  Pay attention to what is important  Praise what you want to continue  Punish what you want to stop  Pay for the results you want  Promote who want to deliver those results
  43. Negotiating  To understand the structures and dynamics of negotiation, conflict, and power in organizations.  To assess your own style, strengths and weaknesses for dealing with conflict situations and for exercising influence.  To build capacities for thinking strategically about power, conflict, and negotiations in organizations.  To practice and develop skills for managing negotiating situations.  To increase your skill at learning from your own and others' experience.
  44. Helping Styles  Theorizing  Advising  Supporting  Challenging  Information gathering
  45. Decision making Tools  Pareto Analysis  Paired Comparison Analysis  Grid Analysis  Decision Trees  PMI  Force Field Analysis  Six Thinking Hats  Cost-Benefit Analysis
  46. The Purpose of Six Hat Thinking  Defined role-playing, usually to control ego defence  The second value is that of attention directing.  A very convenient way of asking someone (including yourself) to switch gears.  Allows to go somewhat beyond our present state of knowledge because the theoretical demands of self-organizing systems justify such extrapolation.  Help establishing the rule of the game.
  47. Six Hats Six Colors  White hat: White is neutral and objective. The white hat is concerned with objective facts and figures.  Red hat: Red suggests anger (seeing red), rage and emotions. The red gives the emotional view.  Black hat: Black is gloomy and negative. The black hatBlack hat: Black is gloomy and negative. The black hat covers the negative aspects – way it cannot be done.covers the negative aspects – way it cannot be done.  Yellow hat: Yellow is sunny and positive. The yellow hat is optimistic and covers hope and positive thinking.  Green hat: Green is grass, vegetation and abundant fertile growth. The green hat indicates creativity and new ideas.  Blue hat: Blue is cool, and it is also the color of the sky, which is above everything else. The blue hat is concerned with control and the organization of the thinking process, as also the use of the other hats.
  48. What is Emotional Intelligence?  A set of abilities and skills that enable individuals to maximise their personal social and organizational performance and success.  Understanding and advancing emotional intelligence enables individuals to  progress personal and team development  enhance managerial capability  facilitate leadership progression.
  49. Emotional Intelligence Map Self-Awareness Empathy Emotional Awareness Understand Others Accurate Self-Assessment Developing Others Self-Confidence Service Orientation Self Management Leveraging Diversity Self Control Political Awareness Trustworthiness Social Skills Conscientiousness Influence Adaptability Communication Innovation Conflict Management Motivation Leadership Achievement Drive Change Catalyst Commitment Building Bonds Initiative Collaboration & Cooperation Optimism Team Capabilities
  50. Emotional Intelligence In every field, your EQ (emotional quotient) is 2 times as important as your cognitive abilities. Almost 90% of success in leadership is attributable to EQ. Learn to increase your EQ!
  51. Networking with People  You learn how to be more effective in planning and preparing for networking events.  You meet fine new colleagues.  Learn techniques to influence people  Your own network becomes more effective.  In the future networking people will be more important.
  52. Expanding your Network  Ways to extend your existing network?  Phone calls  Letters or newsletter  Join a professional society or civic organization  Internet newsgroups  Consultants and consultants' networks  Technical conferences, workshops  Someone at a company you'd like to work for  Recruiters, headhunters
  53. Job hunting tactics
  54. Managing Conflict We need to: STOP THINK ANALYSE RESPOND In situations of crisis and potential conflict always remember S T A R
  55. Conflict Resolution Strategies  AVOID Wait/See  FORCE Win/Lose  ACCOMMODATE Lose/Win  COMPROMISE Lose/Win  COLLABORATE Win/Win
  56. The Five Steps in Resolving Conflict:  Pray about the Problem Together  Clarify the Issues – Focus on the Needs and Goals  Understand Each Other’s perspective  Break the Conflict into Small Steps  Give and Take
  57. Thank You Your feed back on the prescribed form will help us improve the program. Join us on other programs designed specially for you. See next slide for details.

Notas del editor

  1. The foundation of leadership is modeling. Modeling is what we really are, not what we say we are. Character: Honest, trustworthy, responsible etc Competent: Knowledge, experience, wisdom, skills, talents Our actions speak louder than words. Modeling is seen. Mentoring- building a relationship. Concern and caring Mentoring is felt Teaching Teaching helps others become independent of us. Teaching is heard. People must see and feel before they will hear. Example: State survey plans of correction. Reoccurring deficiencies. Lack of sustain compliance. Caution! If there are inconsistencies between what an employee hears, sees and feels from leadership, trust is eroded. When a relationship of trust is broken, it is very hard to put back together.
  2. Phone calls - everyone hates 'cold calls' but they are inevitable. Develop a script and "just do it!" Think of it as research, not telemarketing. Letters or newsletter - as an alternative to phone calls. You can always follow up with a call. Join a professional society or civic organization - and become active. Get out and meet people, interact, volunteer. Identify those organizations whose members are likely to be hiring managers of the companies you are interested in (don't neglect organizations like the Jaycees, Boys & Girls Clubs or museum boards - they're usually loaded with corporate/local 'movers & shakers.') Internet newsgroups - answer questions, join discussions Consultants and consultants' networks - consultants often know of companies' technical needs. Technical conferences, workshops- attend and mingle, or better yet, present a paper Someone at a company you'd like to work for - try and get an introduction through one of your existing contacts or call them yourself referencing an article about them or a paper they wrote. Recruiters, headhunters - maintain a good working relationship with recruiters when they call you asking for leads and they will be more likely to help you when you need a lead.
  3. In situations of crisis and potential conflict always remember: STAR   We need to:STOP(Don’t panic – don’t react!) THINK(gather information) ANALYZE (using gathered information decide how you can best empathize with this person) RESPOND (respectfully communicate your understanding of the situation and what would work for you)   When conflict does arise will you always have time to think about the above process and work it through step by step? NO! The key is to begin to incorporate the principles and practice them on a regular basis – let them become a part of who you naturally are. When you are in a conflict situation you can always tell yourself to STOP! This will help you to not react quickly and will give you a few mental seconds to begin processing the situation in a more controlled way. Best growth and learning occur when conflict is handled honestly and constructively!   There are a variety of conflict management strategies that may be used most appropriately in different situations.  
  4. 5 Conflict Resolution Strategies    AVOIDWait / See  FORCEWin / Lose  ACCOMMODATE Lose / Win  COMPROMISELose / Lose  COLLABORATEWin / Win    AVOID When the issues are trivial, or circumstances dictate that a solution is better left until later. Maybe until you or the other people have calmed down, or reinforcements have arrived. Perhaps it is better to avoid decision making when you are so tired / stressed that your judgment may not be sound When moral or safety issues are involved. Not to be used just because you are afraid to deal with conflict! Issues will only build up and become more complicated.    FORCE This is when you force the issue to get the decision you want, usually for safety or ethical/ moral/legal issues. As the leader you are ultimately responsible for decision-making. If you have strong biblical principles for your decision on any of these issues you must stand firm. Share your reasons. Sometimes it is a good strategic move to ask the group to go away and think about the decision, pray and then meet again to make the decision. That way you may have the team share in the decision rather than imposing your view upon them. Remember, you are not omnipotent—they may come back with a better idea or solution ! Someone always looses and somebody may want to even the score.    ACCOMMODATE There are times when it is most appropriate to “give in,” in a conflict situation. This can occur when for one reason or another you were wrong (possibly you did not have all of the information), or when the other person has legitimate authority (e.g., the conference president). In such circumstances, particularly if you feel strongly about the situation, calmly state your reasons for disagreeing and then “accommodate” with dignity. Again, someone loses—you. You need to decide if it is worth it.    COMPROMISE This approach is used when attempted collaboration has been unsuccessful When the relationship or the issue is important enough to not give it up altogether When both sides strongly believe they are correct and you want each to get nearer their goal, so you come to an agreement by mutual concessions.    COLLABORATE This is the desired goal in all conflict situations Put our frustration aside, look at the situation Discuss our different viewpoints calmly and professionally Work together so that we are both happy with the final outcome Work on reframing the conflict, think laterally and come to agreement Negotiate. What are the points you can concede in order to obtain agreement for what is most important. Both sides give and take some until both are satisfied.  
  5. The Five Steps in Resolving Conflicts   1. Pray about the Problem Together Do this humbly not as a way to bring judgment down on the other person! Commit to trying to find a solution, and then define the conflict as a mutual problem. In the majority of conflict situations, neither side is totally wrong or totally right. In most cases there are things to sort out on both sides. So try to perceive the situation as a mutual problem not a win / lose struggle.   2.Clarify the Issues—Focus on the Needs And Goals Reframe the situation with the questions: What do we need to do to get out of this situation? What are our goals? What are the concerns? Don’t be dragged back into recriminations or old gossip that is quite destructive.   3. Understand Each Other’s Perspective. Treat the other person and their viewpoint with respect. Take the time to give each other time to state a viewpoint (active listening without interruption). Once we really understand the other person’s viewpoint it is much easier to want to come to an agreement. Use specific communication—use “I” words instead of “you” words. (Instead of “You make me so mad when you do that!,” I might say, “I feel so angry when something is said to me without considering my perception in the situation”)   4. Break the Conflict into Small Steps If the conflict is serious it may not be possible to sort all of the problems out at one time. Identify the options and develop the ones that give everyone more of what they want. Try to agree to deal with one issue at first, and then you can move on to the next.   5. Give and Take. Take a long-term view. Support what is legitimate and fair—resist greed and injustice. “Give” in areas that are high value to others and easy for you to give. Remember that you cannot expect to have everything go your way.