Más contenido relacionado


Mental health and well being in middle and late adolescene

  2. REVIEW • Several important topics related to adolescence 1. The different changes you underwent as an adolescent (physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, morally, and psychologically) 2. The various challenges/problems that you face as an adolescent 3. Stress and how this affects one’s physical health, and the importance of coping as a strategy in dealing with stress 4. Understanding the left and right brain and how this help improve your learning 5. Learning to make a mind map that helps you in organizing ideas, brainstorming, simplifying complex ideas, and serves
  3. • In this chapter, we will look at the concept of mental health and well-being, and why this is important, particularly to the adolescent, and to every person in general.
  5. MENTAL HEALTH • It’s the way your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors affect your life. • Good mental health leads to positive self-image and in-turn, satisfying relationships with friends and others. • It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. • Having good mental health helps you make good decisions and deal with life’s challenges at home,
  6. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION •Mental health is a state of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.
  7. •Mental health is our ability to respond to challenges. •What kind of challenges? It could be anything from: 1. A sudden encounter with a snake 2. Reviewing for an upcoming exam 3. It could be something physical like an illness 4. Something social like bullying or being left-
  8. 6. Or a to-do list the size of a mountain 7. It could be an argument with your family 8. Or a difficult essay 9. Or a death of a parent •The fact is life rarely goes the way we plan. And whenever we are hit by trials and challenges, mental health is our ability to bounce back and stay on course.
  9. HOW DO YOU GET THIS ABILITY? Are you born with it? NO. Mental health can change and the things that tend to shape it are called risk factors and protective factors. 1. Protective factors • Sense of self-efficacy – one’s perception of one’s value and worth, effectiveness, and ability in performing a task or activity • Mental health and well-being is also anchored on one’s self- worth and value or self-esteem.
  10. SELF-ESTEEM AND BODY ESTEEM • Does any of this sound familiar? • "I'm too tall." • "I'm too short." • "I'm too skinny." •“I’m too fat.” • "If only I were shorter/taller/had curly hair/straight hair/a smaller nose/longer legs, I'd be happy."
  11. Are you putting yourself down? If so, you're not alone. As a teen, you're going through lots of changes in your body. And, as your body changes, so does your image of yourself. It's not always easy to like every part of your looks, but when you get stuck on the negatives it can really bring down your self-esteem.
  12. WHY ARE SELF-ESTEEM AND BODY IMAGE IMPORTANT? • Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you are worth — and how much you feel other people value you. • Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can affect your mental health and how you behave. • People with high self-esteem know themselves well. They're realistic and find friends that like and appreciate them for who they are. People with high self-esteem usually feel more in control of their lives and know their own strengths and weaknesses.
  13. WHAT IS BODY IMAGE? • Body image is how you view your physical self — including whether you feel you are attractive and whether others like your looks. For many people, especially people in their early teens, body image can be closely linked to self-esteem.
  14. WHAT INFLUENCES A PERSON'S SELF- ESTEEM? 1. PUBERTY AND DEVELOPMENT Some people struggle with their self- esteem and body image when they begin puberty because it's a time when the body goes through many changes. These changes, combined with wanting to feel accepted by our friends, means it can be tempting to compare ourselves with others. The trouble with that is, not everyone grows or develops at the same time or
  15. 2. Media Images and Other Outside Influences Our early teens are a time when we become more aware of celebrities and media images — as well as how other kids look and how we fit in. We might start to compare ourselves with other people or media images ("ideals" that are frequently covered up). All of this can affect how we feel about ourselves and our bodies even as we grow into our teens.
  16. 3. Families and School Family life can sometimes influence our body image. Family members might struggle with their own body image or criticize their kids' looks ("why do you wear your hair so long?" or "how come you can't wear skirts that fit you?"). This can all influence a person's self-esteem, especially if they're sensitive to others peoples' comments. People also may experience negative comments and hurtful teasing about the way they look from classmates and peers. Although these often come from ignorance, sometimes they can affect body image and self-esteem.
  17. •Things That Tend to Shape Mental Health 1. Protective factors •A supportive family •Or strong friendships 2. Risk factors •Chronic illness •Or low socio-economic status
  18. EXAMPLE OF A MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING MODEL • The Wheel of Wellness model includes what is referred to as the five life tasks developed in 1991 by Witmer and Sweeney: 1. Essence or spirituality 2. Work and leisure 3. Friendship 4. Love 5. Self-direction
  19. • Related to these five tasks are twelve sub-tasks as major components of wellness or well-being that comprise the Wheel of Wellness. These are: 1. Sense of worth 2. Sense of control 3. Realistic beliefs 4. Emotional awareness and coping 5. Problem solving and creativity 6. Sense of humor 7. Nutrition 8. Physical exercise 9. Self-care 10.Stress management 11.Gender identity 12.Cultural identity (Note: This may or may not apply to every Filipino, but we do have cultural and regional differences that need to be understood and accepted.)
  20. •It is important that the five tasks are balanced in terms of time spent on each one, and of course, on the amount of energy one gives to fulfilling each of the tasks. •The 12 sub-tasks are more of what one needs to own and practice to achieve mental health and well-being.
  21. •In addition to the components, maintaining good mental health and well-being requires resiliency and adaptability, two important skills that needs to be developed in every person particularly the adolescent.
  22. WHAT IS RESILIENCY? •Resiliency – the capacity to establish and maintain one’s balance and well- being in the face of adversity. •It is the ability to get back on one’s feet after a disaster or a crisis.
  23. WHAT IS ADAPTABILITY? •Adaptability – the capacity to adjust to changes necessary for one’s survival and balance.
  24. HEALTHY SELF-CONCEPT AT THE CORE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING • Having a positive regard for oneself means looking at oneself as someone who is worth loving and worth caring for, regardless of physical flaws and defects, regardless of what other people perceive him to be, and in spite of the thoughts, feelings, and behavior one experiences. • It is about understanding and accepting one’s personality, uniqueness, and individuality.
  25. • Having a positive warm regard for oneself is also about seeing one’s strengths, challenges and successes, as well as the stumbling blocks that come along the way in one’s search for meaning and happiness. • Having a wonderful self-concept is about having a spirituality that provides philosophical and existential meaning to one’s life, and about one’s relationship with his perceived Supreme Being.
  26. •Having a healthy self-concept is also about embracing meaningful universal human values that define who you are, and how these values form your set of healthy attitudes about other people, situations, and things. •The bedrock of a healthy self-concept, however, is a high sense of self-worth or self-esteem.
  27. GOOD PHYSICAL HEALTH IS GOOD FOR MENTAL HEALTH • The World Health Organization clearly noted that poor mental health plays a signficant role in diminished immune functioning and the development of certain illnesses, and eventually premature death. • One’s physical health is also an important factor to good mental health.
  28. • Sleep and nutrition, for example, should be given importance and properly observed by an adolescent whose tendency is to take these things for granted. • An individual who is deprived of sleep, for example, will be cranky, will have a short temper, will sometimes become emotionally sensitive, and will also have a bad memory.
  29. • Physically, the individual deprived of sleep may develop skin rashes or acne, have dark circles around the eyes, and may even develop bad posture because of feeling weak or sluggish and having low energy. • People around this person will take notice and might even get affected by certain behavior a
  30. HEALTHY SELF-CONCEPT +HEALTHY MIND AND BODY = GOOD MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING • When all of these elements are in balance, then general well-being is experienced. • Well-being is a state of wellness where every aspect of a person is in balance. • Being well and feeling well means that there is a general sense of contentment, happiness, calmness, and peace within.
  31. • Developing one’s good mental health and well-being is very important to the adolescent because this serves as a strong foundation toward a happy and healthy adulthood.
  32. CHALLENGES TO MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING • A mental health problem is a short term and temporary change in a person’s thoughts, feelings, or behavior that upsets one’s well-being, interpersonal relationships, and productivity. • A mental health concern becomes a mental illness when ongoing signs and symptoms cause frequent stress and affect your ability to function.
  33. • Many adolescents are more susceptible to mental health concerns than adults. This is primarily due to their underdeveloped brains and continuing changes in their bodies. • In addition to this, the adolescent is also going through tough times in resolving their identity crisis and role confusion.
  34. • Roughly 20% of a country’s total population falls under the 10 to 19 years of age category or the adolescence category. • The WHO estimates that there are around one billion adolescents around the world today. This is the reason why the World Health Organization has mandated every member-nation to provide special health services to the adolescent segment of their population.
  35. EXAMPLES OF MENTAL ILLNESS 1. Depression 2. Anxiety Disorders 3. Schizophrenia 4. Eating Disorders 5. Addictive behaviors (drugs and alcohol)
  36. DEPRESSION • Depression is a low mood that lasts for a long time, and affects your everyday life. • In its mildest form, depression can mean just being in low spirits. It doesn’t stop you leading your normal life but makes everything harder to do and seem less worthwhile. • At its most severe, depression can be life-threatening because it can make you feel suicidal.
  37. WHEN DOES LOW MOOD BECOMES DEPRESSION? • We all have times when our mood is low, and we’re feeling sad or miserable about life. Usually these feelings pass in due course. • But if the feelings are interfering with your life and don't go away after a couple of weeks, or if they come back over and over again for a few days at a time, it could be a sign that you're experiencing depression.
  38. ANXIETY DISORDERS • Anxiety is what we feel when we are worried, tense or afraid – particularly about things that are about to happen, or which we think could happen in the future. • Anxiety is a natural human response when we perceive that we are under threat. It can be experienced through our thoughts, feelings and physical sensations. “Going out of the house is a challenge because I have a fear of panicking and feel that I'm being watched or judged. It's just horrible. I want to get help but I'm afraid of being judged.”
  39. SCHIZOPHRENIA • You could be diagnosed with schizophrenia if you experience some of the following symptoms: a lack of interest in things feeling disconnected from your feelings difficulty concentrating wanting to avoid people hallucinations, such as hearing voices or seeing things others don't delusions (which could include paranoid delusions) – strong beliefs that others don't share disorganized thinking and speech
  40. EATING DISORDERS • If you have an eating problem you might: • restrict the amount of food you eat • eat more than you need or feel out of control when you eat • eat a lot in secret • feel very anxious about eating or digesting food • eat lots of food in response to difficult emotions (when you don't feel physically hungry) • only eat certain types of food or stick to a rigid set of diet rules and feel very anxious and upset if you have to eat something different • do things to get rid of what you eat (purging)
  41. • stick to rigid rules around what you can and can't eat and how food should look – and feel very upset if you break those rules • feel strongly repulsed at the idea of eating certain foods • eat things that are not really food • be scared of certain types of food or eating in public • think about food and eating a lot or all the time • compare your body to other people's and think about their shape or size a lot • check, test and weigh your body a lot – and base your self-worth on how much you weigh or whether you pass your checks and tests.
  42. ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS • Recreational drugs are substances people may take: to give themselves a pleasurable experience to help them feel better if they are having a bad time because their friends are using them to see what it feels like. They include alcohol, tobacco (nicotine), substances such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine and ecstasy, and some prescribed medicines.