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LIQUEFACTION OF
SOIL
SUBMITTED BY:-AKASH KUMAR
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Asst. Prof Dr. SUPRIYA PAL
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
TECH...
 During liquefaction the water pressure become high enough to
counteract the gravitational pull on the soil particles and...
 Flow liquefaction:- Flow
liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the
static equilibrium is destroyed by static or
dynamic ...
Cyclic mobility:-Cyclic mobility is a
liquefaction phenomenon, triggered by cyclic
loading, occurring in soil deposits wi...
 Sand boil:-Sand-laden water
can be ejected from a buried
liquefied layer and erupt at the
surface to form sand
volcanoes...
 Ground oscillation :-Where the ground is flat or the slope is too gentle to allow lateral
displacement, liquefaction at ...
Methods to reduce liquefaction
 Avoid liquefaction-susceptible soil:-The first possibility is to avoid
construction on li...
Deep foundation aspect:-
Liquefaction can cause large lateral
loads on pile foundations. Piles driven
through a weak, pote...
 Soil improvement techniques against liquefaction:-The main objective
of soil improvement techniques used for reducing li...
Compaction grouting:-Compaction
grouting is a technique whereby a
slow-flowing water/sand/cement mix is
injected into loo...
Stone column:-Stone columns are
columns of gravel constructed in the
ground. Stone columns can be
constructed by the vibro...
THANK YOU
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Liquefaction of soil

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Liquefaction of soil

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Liquefaction of soil

  1. 1. LIQUEFACTION OF SOIL SUBMITTED BY:-AKASH KUMAR UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Asst. Prof Dr. SUPRIYA PAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR
  2. 2.  During liquefaction the water pressure become high enough to counteract the gravitational pull on the soil particles and effectively float or suspend the particles.  Then soil particle move freely with respect to each other. due to this the strength of soil decreases and the ability of a soil deposit to support foundations for buildings and bridge is reduce. What is soil liquefaction:- Liquefaction is the phenomena when there is loss of strength in saturated and cohesion-less soil because of increased pore water pressures and hence effective stress is reduce due to dynamic loading.
  3. 3.  Flow liquefaction:- Flow liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the static equilibrium is destroyed by static or dynamic loads in a soil deposit with low residual strength. It occurs when the static shear stresses in the soil exceed the shear strength of the liquefied soil. Loosely packed grains of soil are held together by friction. Pore spaces filled with water. Shaking destabilizes the soil by increasing the space between grains and soil flow like a liquid. Soil before liquefaction Soil after liquefaction Type of liquefaction
  4. 4. Cyclic mobility:-Cyclic mobility is a liquefaction phenomenon, triggered by cyclic loading, occurring in soil deposits with static shear stresses lower than the soil strength.  Deformation due to cyclic mobility develop incrementally because of static and dynamic stresses that exist during an earthquake. Effects of liquefaction  Loss of bearing strength:-The ground can liquefy and lose its ability to support structure. Lateral spreading:-The ground can slide down very gentle slopes. It is mainly caused by cyclic mobility. Lateral spreading causes damage to foundations of buildings, pipelines, railway lines and cause shaking at pile due to increased lateral loads.
  5. 5.  Sand boil:-Sand-laden water can be ejected from a buried liquefied layer and erupt at the surface to form sand volcanoes. The surrounding ground often fractures and settles.  Flow failures:-Flow failures are the most catastrophic ground failures caused by liquefaction. These failures commonly displace large masses of soil laterally. Flows develop in loose saturated sands or silts on relatively steep slopes,
  6. 6.  Ground oscillation :-Where the ground is flat or the slope is too gentle to allow lateral displacement, liquefaction at depth may decouple overlying soil layers from the underlying ground, allowing the upper soil to oscillate back and forth and up and down in the form of ground waves. These oscillations are usually accompanied by opening and closing of fissures fracture of rigid structures such as pavements and pipelines.  Flotation:-Light structure that are buried in the ground(like pipeline sewers and nearly empty fuel tanks) can float to the surface when they are surrounded by liquefied soil. Manhole Lifted up manhole  Settlement:-Liquefied ground reconsolidates during an earthquake, the ground surface may settle and the underlying liquefied soil become more dense.
  7. 7. Methods to reduce liquefaction  Avoid liquefaction-susceptible soil:-The first possibility is to avoid construction on liquefaction susceptible soil.  Build liquefaction-resistant structures:-It may be possible to make the structure liquefaction resistant by designing the foundation elements to resist the effects of liquefaction . Structure that possesses ductility, has the ability to accommodate large deformations, adjustable supports for correction of differential settlements  Shallow foundation aspects:-It is important that all foundation elements in a shallow foundation are tied together to make the foundation move or settle uniformly, thus decreases the amount of shear force induced in the structural elements resting upon the foundation.  A stiff foundation mat is a good type of shallow foundation. Which can transfer loads form locally liquefied zone to adjacent stronger ground. Mat foundation
  8. 8. Deep foundation aspect:- Liquefaction can cause large lateral loads on pile foundations. Piles driven through a weak, potentially Soil layer to a stronger layer not only have to carry vertical loads form the superstructure, but must also be able to resist horizontal loads and bending moments induced by lateral movements if the weak layer liquefies. Piles of larger dimensions and/or more reinforcement can achieve sufficient resistance.
  9. 9.  Soil improvement techniques against liquefaction:-The main objective of soil improvement techniques used for reducing liquefaction hazards is to large increases in pore water pressure during earthquake shaking by improving the strength, density, and drainage characteristics of soil.  Vibro-compaction :- Vibro-compaction involves the use of a vibrating prone that can penetrate granular soil to depths of over 100 feet. The vibration of the probe cause the grain structure to collapse thereby densifying the soil surrounding the probe.
  10. 10. Compaction grouting:-Compaction grouting is a technique whereby a slow-flowing water/sand/cement mix is injected into loose sand under high pressure. Gout does not enter soil but forms a bulb that compact and densify the soil by forcing it to occupy less space. Dynamic compaction:- Densification by dynamic compaction is performed by dropping a heavy weight of steel or concrete in a grid pattern form heights of 30 to 100 feet.
  11. 11. Stone column:-Stone columns are columns of gravel constructed in the ground. Stone columns can be constructed by the vibro-compation method. In this approach the steel casing is driven into the soil and gravel is filled in from the top and tamped with a drop hammer as the steel is successively withdrawn.
  12. 12. THANK YOU

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