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Apolipoprotein alzheimer's disease connection

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Apolipoprotein alzheimer's disease connection

  1. 1. Anti Alzheimers Herbs. Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/ Apolipoprotein alzheimers disease connection The scientific enthusiasm about the possible role of amyloid protein in the pathology of Alzheimers disease has been further fueled by the results of molecular genetics studies that have identified genes associated with familial (inherited) Alzheimers disease on chromosomes 21, 14, 1, and 19. The first specific gene linked with familial Alzheimers disease was the APP gene on chromosome 21, which is responsible for producing amyloid protein. After the initial report, several other mutations were found in the region of the APP gene in members of families that had a history of Alzheimers disease onset at a relatively young age. How these mutations alter the behavior of APP and their significance to normal cell functioning are not known, but are being actively studied. Subsequently, a region on chromosome 14 was also linked to an early-onset form of the disease. Recently the exact locus of this gene was pinpointed. The exact function of this gene is still unknown, but it is only a matter of time when this will be no longer be a mystery. Within a short period following the discovery of the of the locus of chromosome 14, a locus on chromosome 1 was linked to a family with an unusually high incidence of Alzheimers disease, known as the Volga-German families. The fourth and perhaps the most important recently discovered gene linked to AAlzheimers disease is the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene on chromosome 19, which has been associated with many lateonset familial cases of Alzheimers disease as well as sporadic cases in the over-60 age group. (Sporadic cases are those occurring in individuals who have no strong family history of the disease.) The ApoE gene directs the synthesis of a cholesterol-transporting blood protein. The gene occurs in three different forms: apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. One of these, apoE4, is found in 14% of control populations but is present in 30 to 40% of the late-onset sporadic cases of Alzheimers disease before age 70 and rises to 90% for individuals who are homozygous for apoE4, which means they have inherited this form of the gene from both parents. These people have a 5:1 odds of developing Alzheimers disease, compared with the 15:1 odds in individuals who have a single ApoE4 gene. It has been estimated that between 25 and 40% of Alzheimers disease cases can be attributed to the presence of this form of the gene. Not only does the ApoE gene have a strong and consistent relationship with the disease, but, within a few months after it was identified, researchers postulated a plausible biological explanation for its role in the pathological processes of Alzheimers disease. It has been shown that the protein encoded by the ApoE gene has a high affinity for and binds with beta-amyloid in the plaques. Among Alzheimer’s patients, those who have the gene for apoE4 have larger plaques than those who lack the gene. It appears that ApoE4 acts as a chaperone to APP and, in some unknown way, promotes the formation of neuritic plaques. It has also been postulated that it plays an important role in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. In the brain ApoE proteins are taken up by neurons in large quantities after neuronal injury and appear to play an important role in various recuperative processes and in neuronal plasticity.Anti Alzheimers Herbs. Alzheimers Is Genetic Protect Your Future www.alzheimer-herbs.com/

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