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  1. GROUP NO: 13 Shahzaib M13-448 Daniyal M13-423 Mujahid M13-400 Ammar M13-441 Asad ullah M13-421
  3. WHAT IS NEGOTIATION??  Benefits of negotiation
  4. AIMS OF THIS PRESENTATION:  Common stages in the process of negotiation.  Different types of negotiation.  Outline key points for successful negotiation.  Difference between interests and positions.  Why effective communication is essential to negotiation.
  5. Why Negotiate?  From time-to-time, conflict will arise.  If not solved will give birth to different problems  To negotiate is to burry these conflicts
  6. Objectives: These fall into three categories:-  MUSTS  INTENDS  DESIRES
  7. PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION REQUIREMENTS First of all there are four conditions which are essential if a principled negotiation is to have a successful outcome.  Mutual trust.  A positive relationship.  Shared interests (goals or objectives).  Satisfactory zone of possible agreement.  A negotiator must also have a Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).
  8. Aspects in negotiation: Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation.  Goals:  Trades:  Alternatives:  Relationships:  Expected outcomes:  The consequences:  Power:  Possible solutions:
  9. Stages of Negotiation:- The process of negotiation includes the following stages:--- 1. Preparation 2. Discussion 3. Clarification of goals 4. Negotiation towards a WIN-WIN situation 5. Agreement 6. Implementation of a course of action
  10. Preparation Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place. Preparation is essential. The degree of success is directly related to the quality of the preparation.
  11. Clarifying Goals From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the disagreement need to be clarified Through this clarification it is often possible to identify or establish common ground.
  12. Exchanging Views and Persuasion:- Key skills during this stage are  Questioning  Listening  Clarifying Sometimes it is helpful to take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put forward in case there is need for further clarification.
  13. Getting Movement:- The process of converting a willingness to an agreement is negotiation. It requires the use of communication skills and sometimes specific tactics such as:  Tiring the other side out  Adjourning - if there is disagreement on your side or if you are fatigued  Breakdown in negotiations - you’ll probably lose.
  14. SEPARATE THE PEOPLE FROM THE PROBLEM Attack the opposing Position instead of attacking the opposing Person, especially if the attack is demeaning. It will unfailingly have negative outcomes in both decision making and bargaining. Some of the ways Fisher and Urey suggest are:  Relationships  Perceptions  Emotion  Communication
  15. Relationships:- Bargaining, may involve strong comments about the substantive issues. A good relationship can be a vaccine against communication blockages. (But the relationship needs to be built early in the game, just as a vaccine works best before exposure to the disease.)
  16. Perceptions In the heat of battle, it is easy to view the opponent as a personal enemy, as opposed to someone who is just doing a job. The primary goal of principled negotiation is to achieve rational outcomes in the best interest of both parties. However, sometimes this just doesn't work, and positional bargaining is the only option.
  17. Communication. The essence of communication is the transmission of meaning. The mandate is for active listening, getting the other person to talk more- and thus reveal more. Listening with interest to what the other negotiator has to say pays dividends, you are getting valuable information about his/her position and intentions, without giving away your own.
  18. Negotiate for a WIN-WIN Outcome This stage focuses on what is termed a WIN-WIN outcome where both sides feel they have gained something positive through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their point of view has been taken into consideration.
  19. Agreement Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides’ viewpoints and interests have been considered. It is essential to keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution.
  20. Implementing a Course of Action From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented, to carry through the decision.
  21. Fail to Agree: If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot be reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for.
  22. CONTROLING emotions during a negotiation:- Lot of factors influence the process of negotiation, our emotions being one of the major factors. Our mood decides a lot many things.
  23. If one is in a happy mood, everything  seems perfect and good to him  trust each other better  participate in discussions  do not unnecessarily find faults  benefit him as well as the other party  One looks his best when he smiles Anger is one of the most negative emotions acting as a hurdle to an effective negotiation  A person loses control on his mind  Anger only leads to conflicts  will this anger benefit you?
  24. One should be calm and composed  comfortable with the second party  don’t take rash decisions  take your time to convince the other party  do not drag the conversation too long Don’t stress yourself at the time of negotiation  Taking stress does not help  No one will kill you, if you fail  tend to lose your confidence
  25. Avoid being OVER clever  Don’t try to fool the other person  Be honest in your dealings  They are well prepared just like you Being positive always helps  negativity trigger conflicts  it simply adds on to one’s tensions  nullifies the effect of negotiation
  26. TABLE MANNERS  Good manners is a main component that makes you firm in negotiations  Abusive behavior and backfires should be avoided  The point is that it takes two to play  It takes a great deal of patience, maturity and experience
  27. NECESSARY CONTENTS: Two elements should always be taken into account:  Interpersonal Skills  Knowledge Interpersonal Skills • Communication • Listening • Reflecting, Clarifying and Summarizing • Problem Solving • Decision Making • Assertiveness • Stress Management • Dealing with Aggression
  28. Knowledge
  29. Types of negotiation: Two approaches align with the two main types of negotiation: •Distributive •Integrative DISTRIBUTIVE:- single, fixed issue to be negotiated, greatest concern is getting the best possible value. future relationships are not a priority
  30. INTEGRATIVE:-  Both sides cooperate to achieve the greatest benefit  Your goal is to create as many options  And then you need to claim the best value for yourself
  31. SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATION:- Key points when aiming for a WIN-WIN outcome include:  Focus on maintaining the relationship  Focus on interests not positions.  Generate a variety of options that offer gains to both parties before deciding what to do.  Aim for the result to be based on an objective standard
  32. Focus on Maintaining the Relationship:-  means not allowing the disagreement  not blaming the others for the problem  aiming to confront the problem not the people  separate the people from the problem
  33. Focus on Interests not Positions Consider what are their needs, desires and fears? These might not always be obvious from what they say Focusing on interests is helpful because:  It takes into account individual needs, wants, worries and emotions.  There are often a number of ways of satisfying interests, whereas positions tend to focus on only one solution.  While positions are often opposed, individuals may still have common interests on which they can build.
  34. Generate a Variety of Options that Offer Gains to Both Sides before Making Decisions:-  It is worthwhile considering a number of options that could provide a resolution  then to work together to decide which is most suitable for both sides  Techniques such as brainstorming could be used
  35. Aim for the Result to be based on an Objective Standard:- It is inevitable that some differences will remain. It is important that such a basis for deciding is: • Acceptable to both parties. • Independent to both parties. • Can be seen to be fair. If no resolution can be reached, it may be possible to find some other, independent party whom both sides will trust to make a fair decision.
  36. Avoiding Misunderstanding:- Misunderstanding is a common cause of negotiations breaking down. Because of differences of viewpoint, background, and cultures, it is possible not to ‘hear’ what others intend to say. Because misunderstandings can easily occur, it is important to: • Clarify individual goals. • State the issues clearly. • Consider all viewpoints. • Clarifying meaning.
  37. FINALLY Negotiation is a process by which people resolve disagreements. Structured negotiation follows a number of stages from preparation through to implementation. If possible, a WIN-WIN approach is more desirable than a bargaining (WIN-LOSE) approach. This involves seeking resolutions that allow both sides to gain, while at the same time maintaining good working relationships with the other parties involved.