AIMS OF THIS PRESENTATION:
Common stages in the process of negotiation.
Different types of negotiation.
Outline key points for successful negotiation.
Difference between interests and positions.
Why effective communication is essential to negotiation.
From time-to-time, conflict will arise.
If not solved will give birth to different problems
To negotiate is to burry these conflicts
PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION REQUIREMENTS
First of all there are four conditions which are essential if a principled
negotiation is to have a successful outcome.
A positive relationship.
Shared interests (goals or objectives).
Satisfactory zone of possible agreement.
A negotiator must also have a Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
Aspects in negotiation:
Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for
conducting a successful negotiation.
Stages of Negotiation:-
The process of negotiation includes the following stages:---
3. Clarification of goals
4. Negotiation towards a WIN-WIN situation
6. Implementation of a course of action
Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to
when and where a meeting will take place. Preparation is essential. The
degree of success is directly related to the quality of the preparation.
From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the
disagreement need to be clarified Through this clarification it is often
possible to identify or establish common ground.
Exchanging Views and Persuasion:-
Key skills during this stage are
Sometimes it is helpful to take notes
during the discussion stage to record all points
put forward in case there is need for further
The process of converting a willingness to an agreement is negotiation. It
requires the use of communication skills and sometimes specific tactics
Tiring the other side out
Adjourning - if there is disagreement on your side or if you are fatigued
Breakdown in negotiations - you’ll probably lose.
SEPARATE THE PEOPLE FROM THE PROBLEM
Attack the opposing Position instead of attacking the opposing
Person, especially if the attack is demeaning. It will unfailingly
have negative outcomes in both decision making and bargaining.
Some of the ways Fisher and Urey suggest are:
Bargaining, may involve strong comments about the
A good relationship can be a vaccine against
communication blockages. (But the relationship needs to be built early in the
game, just as a vaccine works best before exposure to the disease.)
In the heat of battle, it is easy to view the opponent as a personal
enemy, as opposed to someone who is just doing a job.
The primary goal of principled negotiation is to achieve rational
outcomes in the best interest of both parties. However, sometimes this
just doesn't work, and positional bargaining is the only option.
The essence of communication is the transmission of meaning. The
mandate is for active listening, getting the other person to talk more- and
thus reveal more. Listening with interest to what the other negotiator has
to say pays dividends, you are getting valuable information about his/her
position and intentions, without giving away your own.
Negotiate for a WIN-WIN Outcome
This stage focuses on what is termed a WIN-WIN outcome
where both sides feel they have gained something positive
through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their
point of view has been taken into consideration.
Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides’
viewpoints and interests have been considered. It is essential to
keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution.
Implementing a Course of Action
From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented, to carry
through the decision.
Fail to Agree:
If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot
be reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for.
CONTROLING emotions during a negotiation:-
Lot of factors influence the
process of negotiation, our
emotions being one of the
major factors. Our mood
decides a lot many things.
If one is in a happy mood, everything
seems perfect and good to him
trust each other better
participate in discussions
do not unnecessarily find faults
benefit him as well as the other party
One looks his best when he smiles
Anger is one of the most negative emotions acting
as a hurdle to an effective negotiation
A person loses control on his mind
Anger only leads to conflicts
will this anger benefit you?
One should be calm and composed
comfortable with the second party
don’t take rash decisions
take your time to convince the other party
do not drag the conversation too long
Don’t stress yourself at the time of negotiation
Taking stress does not help
No one will kill you, if you fail
tend to lose your confidence
Avoid being OVER clever
Don’t try to fool the other person
Be honest in your dealings
They are well prepared just like you
Being positive always helps
negativity trigger conflicts
it simply adds on to one’s
nullifies the effect of negotiation
Good manners is a main component that makes you firm in negotiations
Abusive behavior and backfires should be avoided
The point is that it takes two to play
It takes a great deal of patience, maturity and experience
Two elements should always be taken into account:
• Reflecting, Clarifying and Summarizing
• Problem Solving
• Decision Making
• Stress Management
• Dealing with Aggression
Types of negotiation:
Two approaches align with the two main types of
single, fixed issue to be negotiated,
greatest concern is getting the best possible
future relationships are not a priority
Both sides cooperate to achieve the greatest benefit
Your goal is to create as many options
And then you need to claim the best value for yourself
Key points when aiming for a WIN-WIN outcome
Focus on maintaining the relationship
Focus on interests not positions.
Generate a variety of options that offer gains to
both parties before deciding what to do.
Aim for the result to be based on an objective
Focus on Maintaining the Relationship:-
means not allowing the disagreement
not blaming the others for the problem
aiming to confront the problem not the people
separate the people from the problem
Focus on Interests not Positions
Consider what are their needs, desires and fears?
These might not always be obvious from what they say
Focusing on interests is helpful because:
It takes into account individual needs, wants, worries and emotions.
There are often a number of ways of satisfying interests, whereas positions tend to focus on only
While positions are often opposed, individuals may still have common interests on which they
Generate a Variety of Options that Offer Gains to Both Sides
before Making Decisions:-
It is worthwhile considering a number of options that could provide a resolution
then to work together to decide which is most suitable for both sides
Techniques such as brainstorming could be used
Aim for the Result to be based on an Objective Standard:-
It is inevitable that some differences will remain.
It is important that such a basis for deciding is:
• Acceptable to both parties.
• Independent to both parties.
• Can be seen to be fair.
If no resolution can be reached, it may be possible to find some other, independent
party whom both sides will trust to make a fair decision.
Misunderstanding is a common cause of negotiations breaking down. Because of
differences of viewpoint, background, and cultures, it is possible not to ‘hear’ what
others intend to say. Because misunderstandings can easily occur, it is important to:
• Clarify individual goals.
• State the issues clearly.
• Consider all viewpoints.
• Clarifying meaning.
Negotiation is a process by which people resolve disagreements.
Structured negotiation follows a number of stages from preparation
through to implementation. If possible, a WIN-WIN approach is more
desirable than a bargaining (WIN-LOSE) approach. This involves seeking
resolutions that allow both sides to gain, while at the same time maintaining
good working relationships with the other parties involved.