• Climate change is a pressing global issue
that poses significant challenges to
agriculture and food security
• Developing crops with resilience to
changing climatic conditions is essential for
sustainable and reliable food production.
• In this presentation, we will explore the
crucial role of genetic variability in
achieving climate resilience in crops.
• We will discuss the benefits of harnessing
genetic variability, the sources of this
variability, and the breeding approaches
4. What is Climate Resilient Crop ?
• Climate resilient crops are plant varieties that are specifically
bred or genetically modified to withstand and thrive in
challenging climatic conditions
• Climate resilience means the ability to prepare for, recover
from and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
• Climate-resilient crops provide means of adapting
diminishing crop yields in the face of droughts, higher
average temperatures and other climatic conditions
associated with climate change which mainly cover
the abiotic stress factors and biotic stress factors.
8. • Economic Stability: Climate-resilient crops can
contribute to economic stability, particularly in
regions heavily reliant on agriculture. By minimizing
crop failures and losses due to climate-related
factors, farmers can secure their income and
• Food Security: Climate change poses a significant
threat to global food security. By developing climate-
resilient crops, we can ensure stable and
sustainable food production, even in the face of
changing climatic conditions.
• Farmer Empowerment: Developing climate-
resilient crops empowers farmers by providing them
with tools and options to mitigate climate risks. By
equipping farmers with resilient crop varieties,
knowledge, and resources, they become better
equipped to cope with climate change impacts and
• Reduced Environmental Impact:
Climate-resilient crops can help reduce the
environmental impact of agriculture. By
improving nutrient use efficiency and
resistance to pests and diseases, the
reliance on chemical inputs can be reduced,
leading to lower pollution levels and a more
sustainable agricultural system.
• Water Management: Climate-resilient
crops often exhibit improved water use
efficiency, requiring less water for irrigation.
This aspect is crucial in regions facing water
scarcity or experiencing shifts in
9. Understanding Genetic Variability
• Genetic variability refers to the differences and variations in
the genetic makeup or DNA sequences among individuals
within a population or species.
• Genetic variability is a crucial component of plant breeding
as it allows for the development of improved plant varieties.
• By harnessing genetic variability within a plant species,
breeders can select and combine desirable traits to enhance
various characteristics such as yield, disease resistance,
nutritional content, and adaptability to different
10. Genetic Variation's Root Causes
Genetic Engineering and Genetic
11. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR IMPROVING TOLERANCE
TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES IN CROPS
12. Mutation Breeding
• Calrose76 a short stature mutant variety of
japonica rice cultivar created by gamma
irradiation, & had more resistance to lodging.
• More recently, a salt-tolerant rice, Kaijin,
was obtained through mutation breeding using
EMS as the mutagen
• Diamond - variety of barley was created using x-ray
which is resistant to lodging.
13. Plant Breeding
The steps involved in breeding a new variety are
• collection of variability
• selection of parents
• cross hybridization of the selected parents
• selection and testing of superior recombinants
• release and commercialization of new cultivars.
• CML444, CML491, and CML539 drought tolerant maize
14. Marker-Assisted Selection or Marker Aided Selection
• A molecular marker is defined as any DNA sequence which
shows polymorphism and can be detected using a molecular
• DNA-based MAS is an effective method for saving time in
breeding as it is growth-stage independent, unaffected by
environmental conditions, effective to use in early
generations, and is efficient when field evaluation is very slow
• Swarna-Sub1 is a submergence tolerant rice variety
developed by IRRI in only three years using the MAS approach
• salt tolerance in BR-11 and BR-28, the two mega rice varieties
of Bangladesh using MAS
15. Genetic Engineering
• Genetic engineering or transgenic technology facilitates the transfer of the
desired gene(s) into crops regardless of their source, which makes this method
precise , and less time consuming as compared to breeding methods
• Drought Gard is a genetically modified maize variety developed by Monsanto
(now Bayer) that incorporates the MON 87460 trait. This trait involves the
expression of a bacterial protein called Cry1Ab that provides enhanced tolerance
to drought stress while offering protection against certain pests.
• Gene overexpression:- Gene overexpression implies the abundant production of
a protein of interest in a host by using expression constructs that stimulate the
gene’s increased transcription, Overexpression of glyoxalase enzymes has
resulted in enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and high temperature in rice
17. Examples of climate resilient crops
1. Climate-Resilient Maize: Drought-tolerant maize varieties/hybrid have
been developed using genetic variability, allowing them to withstand
prolonged periods of water scarcity. – WE2115
2. Heat-Tolerant Wheat: Wheat varieties with enhanced heat tolerance have
been bred to cope with high-temperature stress during critical growth
3.Flood-Tolerant Rice: Flood-tolerant rice varieties have been developed to
withstand prolonged flooding or submergence
4.Salinity-Tolerant Crops: Crops such as rice, wheat, and barley have been
bred to exhibit improved tolerance to high levels of soil salinity. Salinity-
tolerant varieties can thrive in saline soils, maintaining productivity and
minimizing yield losses caused by salt stress
5.Disease-Resistant Crops: Crop varieties with enhanced resistance to
specific diseases have been developed using genetic variability
18. Climate Resilient
Crops in India
The 35 varieties of climate resilient crop
• A drought tolerant variety of chickpea
• Wilt and sterility mosaic resistant pigeon
• Early maturing variety of soybean
• Disease resistant varieties of rice
• Biofortified varieties of wheat, pearl millet,
maize and chickpea
19. Case Study
• In order to meet the demands of the ever-
increasing human population, it has become
necessary to raise climate-resilient crops.
• Plant breeding, which involves crossing and
selecting superior gene pools, has contributed
tremendously towards achieving this goal during
the past few decades.
• The relatively newer methods of crop
improvement based on genetic engineering are
relatively simple, and targets can be achieved in
an expeditious manner.
• Development of climate-resilient crops using genetic
variability is a powerful approach in addressing the
challenges posed by climate change in agriculture.
• Genetic variability provides the foundation for crop
improvement by offering a wide range of genetic traits
and adaptations that can enhance resilience to climatic
• Through techniques like breeding, genetic engineering,
and genomic analysis, scientists can harness genetic
variability to introduce and enhance traits such as drought
tolerance, heat tolerance, disease resistance, and nutrient
• By understanding the genetic basis of resilience and
utilizing diverse genetic resources, we can expedite the
development of climate-resilient crop varieties that
maintain or increase yields, adapt to changing
environments, and contribute to global food security.
• Genetic variability enables farmers to adapt to and
mitigate the impacts of climate change, safeguarding their
livelihoods and ensuring sustainable food production.
• Arab Water Council (2009). Vulnerability of arid and semi‐arid regions to
climate change—Impacts and adaptive strategies.Perspectives on Waterand
Climate Change Adaptation,9,1–16
• Christidis , N., Jones, G. S., & Scott, P. A. (2014). Dramatically increasing
chance of extremely hot summers since the 2003 European heatwave. Nature
• Wang, W., Vinocur , B., & Altman, A. (2003). Plant response to drought,
salinity, and extreme temperatures: Towards genetic engineering for stress