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Supporting integration through incidental learning

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The Maseltov project (“Mobile Assistance for Social Inclusion and Empowerment of Immigrants with Persuasive Learning Technologies and Social Network Services”, ) project recognises major risks for social exclusion of immigrants and identifies the potential of mobile services for promoting integration and cultural diversity in Europe.
The project intends to exploit the potential of mobile services for promoting integration and cultural diversity in Europe, and is focusing on support for immigrants with particular needs e.g. those who have not learned foreign languages, and who have a cultural background that contrasts with that of their host country.
We will present the first iteration of an incidental learning framework developed within the Maseltov project. This framework is intended to facilitate the coordination of existing technologies, content, pedagogies, processes and practices into learning services that can be used effectively by immigrants, their networks and mentors so as to increase immigrants’ ability to function in an unfamiliar society. When fully developed, the framework is intended to support the design of learning experiences which show
(i) how incremental, opportunistic, social and game-based learning can be applied to immigrants problems, (ii) which content areas can be offered and combined (from among language, culture, information access, mobility, health care, etc.), and (iii) which technologies are best suited for each type of content and interaction.
A full description of the Incidental Learning Framework is provided by Brasher et al (2012).
Brasher, Andrew; Dunwell, Ian; Akiki, Oula and Gaved, Mark (2012). MASELTOV Deliverable D7.1.1: Incidental Learning Framework. MASELTOV Consortium, Graz, Austria.

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Supporting integration through incidental learning

  1. 1. Supporting integration through incidental learning Open University Maseltov teamAndrew Brasher, Agnes Kukulska-Hulme, Ann Jones, Jan Jones, Eileen Scanlon, Mark Gaved
  2. 2. Contents• Background• The incidental learning framework• Issues and conclusions
  3. 3. Maseltov project “Mobile Assistance for Social Inclusion and Empowerment of Immigrants with Persuasive Learning Technologies and Social Network Services” Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, SpainJoanneum Research, Austria Open University, UKCURE - Centre for Usability Coventry University, UKResearch & Engineering, Austria Czech Technical University, Czech RepublicUniversity of Applied Sciences, FH Telecom Italia SpA, ItalyJoanneum, Austria Fluidtime Data Service GmbH, AustriaAthens Information Technology, Fundacian Desarrollo Sostenido, SpainGreece Verein Danaida, -, Spain Migrants Resource Centre, UK
  4. 4. Target groups• immigrants with specific problems & similar background: – first year of stay in Europe – low level education, degree of illiteracy – never learned foreign languages – cultural background in contrast to host country – young immigrants (age < 25) – females or wives joining husband in host country• native inhabitants – “integration is a two way process of mutual accommodation by all immigrants and residents of EU countries” (cf. European Parliament, 2005)
  5. 5. Immigration to EU-27(a) (c) (b)
  6. 6. Research questions
  7. 7. Some starting points• Purposes of the framework “Incidental learning occurs as the – shared integrated vision forbyproduct of some adaptive other activity. It learning services that take account of individual and occurs informally learners characteristics and contexts. is unplanned”.• Why incidental learning? – ‘incidental’ highlights opportunistic elements of learning, when compared with the learning opportunities that occur in structured programmes (Kerka, 2000) (Silva, 2007)• Combining structured and incidental learning – What structured learning will be offered? – When might other learning opportunities occur?
  8. 8. Technology/services Context Mobile text lens awareness + recommendatio n Social network Serious games Volunteer radar Language lesson service Partners for Incidental learning framework:Serious Games Institute, IET, Center for Machine Perception, Coventry Uni. Czech Technical Uni. Open Uni.
  9. 9. Existing learning frameworks• Analytical frameworks• Design frameworks Design framework Analytical framework
  10. 10. Learning design tools• Examples in the Learning design toolbox
  11. 11. Frameworks being reviewed• Ecology of Resources design framework (Luckin, 2010)• Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age (Sharples et al., 2007)• Four dimensional framework (de Freitas et al., 2010)• Language learning defined by time and place (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012)• A Pedagogical Framework for Mobile Learning (Park, 2011)• Etc.
  12. 12. Ecology of ResourcesLuckin, R. et al. (2010)MAP (More Able Partner); fading
  13. 13. Time and place in mobile language learning Time Place Specific time or anytime? Specific location or anywhere? Routine or spontaneous? Private or public place? Instant access or leisurely? Relaxing, energising? How much available time? Stationary or moving?Dependent on sufficient time? Walking, running? Interruptible? Driver or passenger? next generation designs Activity Challenging or easy? Suitable for multitasking? Receptive or productive? Involves speaking aloud? Writing or gestures? Individual or social? (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012)
  14. 14. Four dimensional framework for games and simulation based educationTable 1 Checklist for evaluating the use of educational games and simulationsContext Learner specification Pedagogic considerations Mode of representation (tools for use)What is the context for learning? Who is the learner? Which pedagogic models and approaches are Which software tools or content would best(e.g., school, university, home, a What is their background and learning being used? support the learning activities? combination of several) Does history? Which pedagogic models and approaches might What level of fidelity needs to be used to the context affect learning? What are the learning styles/preferences? be the most effective? support learning activities and(e.g., level of resources, accessibility, Who is the learner group? What are the curricula objectives? outcomes? technical support) How can How can the learner or learner group be (list them) What are the learning outcomes? What level of immersion is needed to links be made between context best supported? What are the learning activities? support learning outcomes? and practice? In what ways are the groups working How can the learning activities and outcomes be What level of realism is needed to achieve together (e.g., singly, partially in achieved through existing games or learning objectives? groups) and what collaborative simulations? How can links be made between the world approaches could support this? How can the learning activities and outcomes be of the game/simulation and achieved through specially developed reflection upon learning? software (e.g., embedding into lesson plans)? How can briefing/debriefing be used to reinforce learning outcomes? (de Freitas & Oliver, 2006,)
  15. 15. Kolb Learning Cycle Kolb learning cycle image by Davies & Lowe
  16. 16. Incident Outcomes Social Tools Task Time PlaceIncident Time Incident
  17. 17. Incident Outcomes Social Tools Task Time Place More Able PartnerIncident Time Place ≠ Location (Gillies, S. 2011) (Luckin, 2010) Incident
  18. 18. Learner’s journey Incident OutcomesStructuredlearning Social Tools Learner profile Task Time Trigger Place (Bull & Kay (2007))Incident Trigger Reflect/plan Time Reflect/plan Incident
  19. 19. Conclusions & issues• Too generic? – this is the first versionSome issues• Level of abstraction• Need to clarify what aspects of context will be supported by the technology – Role of the teacher?• Privacy
  20. 20. Thanks•To the Noun project for these icons:•To Oula Akiki ( and Ian Dunwell (Serious Games Institute)for valuable ideas and comments•And to you for listening
  21. 21. ReferencesBull, S., & Kay, J. (2007). Student Models that Invite the Learner In : The SMILI :-) Open Learner Modelling Framework.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 17(2), 89-120.Gillies, S. (2011). Technical Introduction to Places. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from, S. (2000). Incidental learning: trends and issues, Alert No. 18. Educational resources information center. Retrieved from, A. (2012). Language learning defined by time and place: A framework for next generation designs. In J. E. D´ıaz-Vera (Ed.), Left to My Own Devices: Learner Autonomy and Mobile Assisted Language Learning. (pp. 1-13).Luckin, R. (2010). Re-Designing Learning Contexts: Technology-Rich, Learner-Centred Ecologies (Foundations and Futures ofEducation) (p. 208). Routledge. Retrieved from, P., Lubega, J., & Lynch, K. (2011). A framework for instantiating pedagogic mLearning objects applications. In A.Cerone & P. Pihlajasaari (Eds.), Theoretical Aspects of Computing – ICTAC 2011 (pp. 194-217). Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.Retrieved from, Y. (2011). A Pedagogical Framework for Mobile Learning: Categorizing Educational Applications of Mobile Technologiesinto Four Types. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(2), 78-102. Elsevier.doi:10.3394/0380-1330(2006)32Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age ( pre-print ). In R. Andrews & C.Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research (pp. 221-247). London: Sage.Silva, P. M. (2007). Epistemology of Incidental Learning. Retrieved from Freitas, S., & Oliver, M. (2006). How can exploratory learning with games and simulations within the curriculum be mosteffectively evaluated? Computers & Education, 46(3), 249-264. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.11.007