Tourism Planning

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Tourism Planning

  1. 1. Tourism Planning©Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. 2. Introduction• Tourism itself is an abstraction• It doesn’t exist, at least in the same sense as a residence• Tourism is not even a discipline• Tourism is a field made up of many physical program and actionparts• It is only the components of tourism and their aggregates that canbe planned• It has no owner, it is controlled by multitude of owners, mostlywith in three categories– Government– Non Profit organisations &– Private commercial enterprises• Tourism is influenced by a great many other factors that can makeor break planning process and its implementation, such as localresidents, financial institutions and market demandRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 2
  3. 3. • Tourism is generated by two major powers –Demand & supply• Demand – diversity of traveler interests andabilities• Supply – all the physical and programdevelopments required to serve tourists• Planning is multidimensional activity and seek tobe integrative. It embraces social, economic,political, psychological, anthropological andtechnological factors. It is concerned with thepast present and future (Rose 1984)• City planning in Indus valley civilization 3000years agoRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 3
  4. 4. Tourism Planning In India• Started quite late with the firsttourism policy being announcedby the Government of India inNovember, 1982 after tourismwas recognized as an industryby the Planning Commission ofIndia in June, 1982.• In July, 1986 the PlanningCommission of India set up theNational Committee on Tourismin order to formulate plans forthis sector.• The governments initiatives ofincorporating a planned tourismsector in India went a long wayin boosting Indian tourism.• In May, 1992 the NationalAction Plan for tourism wasannounced.• The objectives of this landmarkplan for tourism planning inIndia were:– To improve the economycategory domestic tourism– To develop the tourist areassocially and economically– To preserve the environment andthe national heritage– To encourage internationaltourism– To improve in world tourismIndias share– To increase opportunities foremployment in this sectorRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 4
  5. 5. • India tourismplanning increased with theseventh five year plan India(1985-1989).• The various policesadvocated by the seventhplan for tourism planning inIndia are:– To promote aggressivelydomestic tourism– It laid stress on creating morebeach resorts– To conductconferences, trekking, conventions, and winter sports so thatvarious options are available tothe foreign tourists• These polices of the seventhfive year plan gave a boost tothe tourism planning India• To further encouragetourism planning inIndia, the eighth five yearplan (1992- 1997)mentioned that the privatesector should increase itsparticipation in the sector.• The various policesadvocated by the eighthplan for tourism planning inIndia are:– To develop the tourists places– To develop wintersports, beach resort, andwildlife tourism– To restore the projects ofnational heritage– To provide in tourists centerseconomy classaccommodationRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 5
  6. 6. Importance of Tourism Planning• the negative social and environmentalconsequences of unplanned tourism growth• some governments and the private sector havelittle or no experience in how to properly developit.• A tourism plan and development programme canprovide guidelines in those areas for developingthis sector• all the elements & components are developed inan integrated manner to serve tourism as well asthe general needs in a society• careful matching of the tourist markets andproducts through the planning process. But thismatching should be without compromisingenvironmental and socio-cultural objectives inmeeting market demands• can bring various direct and indirect economicbenefits• can generate various socio-cultural benefits toachieve cultural conservation objectives• Planning can be used to upgrade and revitalizeexisting outmoded or badly developed tourismareas. Through the planning process, new tourismareas can be planned to allow for future flexibilityof development• development of tourist attractions, facilities, andinfrastructure and tourist movements generally haspositive and negative impacts on the physicalenvironment.• Careful planning is required to determine theoptimum type and level of tourism that will notresult in environmental degradation.• Through planning on can utilize tourism as a meansto achieve environmental conservation objectives• right type of planning can ensure that the naturaland cultural resources for tourism are indefinitelymaintained and not destroyed or degraded in theprocess of development.• developing specialized training facilities.• Achieving controlled tourism developmentrequires special organizationalstructures, marketing strategies and promotionprogrammes, legislation and regulations, and fiscalmeasures.• Planning provides a rational basis for developmentstaging and project programming. These areimportant for both the public and private sectors intheir investment planning.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 6
  7. 7. Approaches• Takes place at both the microand the macro levels• The micro level involves suchplanning that specific operatorsundertake when determiningthe feasibility of their businessactivity• To a large extent, this is strategicplanning of a corporate natureand is basically similar tocorporate planning in otherindustries• Corporate planning modelsgenerally follow a commonstructure.• One such strategic planningmodel has been synthesised byHoffman and Schniederjans(1990).Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 7
  8. 8. • Broadly, there can beeight major steps in anyplanning process whichhold true for tourismplanning also:– A) Study Preparation– B) Determination ofdevelopment goals andobjectives– C) Surveys– D) Analysis and Synthesis– E) Plan formulation– F) Recommendations– G) Implementations– H) Monitoring• Acerenza (1985) advocateda strategic planningapproach to tourism, longterm approach to tourismplanning:Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 8
  9. 9. • The terms now used, as seen in the US Model, are publicinvolvement, participatory planning, grass root planning and integrativeplanning.• Reg Lang (1988) has very aptly summarised the difference betweeninteractive planning and conventional planningRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 9
  10. 10. Levels of Tourism Planning• 1. Individual level• 2. Firm Level• 3. Industry Level• 4. Economy as a whole• 1. State Level• 2. National Level• 3. Regional LevelRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 10
  11. 11. Types of Tourism Planning• Spatial Tourism Planning– The space as well as theenvironment is scrutinized forcreating good qualityinfrastructure. Eg. Corbett• Sectorial Tourism Planning– Region to be developed isdivided in to various broadsections called sectors.– Eg. South East Asia• Integrated Tourism Planning– Parts of a tourist region areintegrated so that the regionbecomes a hot destination• Complex Tourism Planning– When several regions areconsidered for planning whichare far away– Eg. Char dham Yatra• Centralised Tourism Planning– Single authority, usually state orcentral govt, no private sectorintervenes• Decentralised TourismPlanning– Parties who are keen to developthe spot, govt do not interfere– But it provides financial support– Eg. Nedumbessary airport• Urban & Rural TourismPlanning– Urban – modern infrastructure– Rural – culture, history, builtfrom scratch.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 11
  12. 12. Product life cycle Theory• The product life-cycle theory is an economic theory that wasdeveloped by Raymond Vernon• Introduction– New products are introduced to meet local (i.e., national) needs, andnew products are first exported to similar countries, countries withsimilar needs, preferences, and incomes. If we also presume similarevolutionary patterns for all countries, then products are introduced inthe most advanced nations. (E.g., the IBM PCs were produced in the USand spread quickly throughout the industrialized countries.)• Growth– A copy product is produced elsewhere and introduced in the homecountry (and elsewhere) to capture growth in the home market. Thismoves production to other countries, usually on the basis of cost ofproduction. (E.g., the clones of the early IBM PCs were not produced inthe US.) The Period till the Maturity Stage is known as the SaturationPeriod.• Maturity– The industry contracts and concentrates—the lowest cost producerwins here. (E.g., the many clones of the PC are made almost entirely inlowest cost locations.)• Saturation– This is a period of stability. The sales of the product reach the peak andthere is no further possibility to increase it. this stage is characterisedby:• ♦ Saturation of sales (at the early part of this stage sales remain stablethen it starts falling).• ♦ It continues till substitutes enter into the market. ♦ Marketer must tryto develop new and alternative uses of product.• Decline– Poor countries constitute the only markets for the product. Thereforealmost all declining products are produced in developing countries.(E.g., PCs are a very poor example here, mainly because there is weakdemand for computers in developing countries. A better example istextiles.)• Note that a particular firm or industry (in a country) stays in amarket by adapting what they make and sell, i.e., by riding thewaves. For example, approximately 80% of the revenues of H-P arefrom products they did not sell five years ago. the profits go backto the host old country.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 12
  13. 13. Planning Processa) DEFINE THE SYSTEM: What is the scale, size,market, character and purpose?b) FORMULATE OBJECTIVES: Without a set ofobjectives the development concept has nodirection. The objectives must becomprehensive and specific and should includea timetable for completion.c) DATA GATHERING: Fact finding, or research,provides basic data that are essential todeveloping the plan. Examples of data gatheringare preparing a fac t book, making marketsurveys, undertaking site and infrastructuresurveys and analysing existing facilities andcompetition.d) ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: Once collected,the many fragments of information must beinterpreted so that the facts gathered will havemeaning. From this step results a set ofconclusions and recommendations that leads tomaking or conceptualising a preliminary plan.e) PRELIMINARY PLANNING: Based on the previous steps, alternativesare considered and alternative physical solutions are drawn upand tested. Frequently, scale models are developed to illustratethe land use plans; sketches are prepared to show the image thedevelopment will project; financial plans are drafted from themarket information, site surveys and layout plan to show theinvestment needed in each phase of the project, the cash flowexpected, the legal requirements, etc.f) APPROVING THE PLAN: The parties involved can now look atplans, drawings, scale models, estimates of costs, estimates ofprofits and know what will be involved and what the chances forsuccess or failure would be. While a great deal of money may havebeen spent up to this point, the sum is a relatively small amountcompared to the expenditures that will be required once the planis approved and its implementation begins.g) FINAL PLAN: This phase typically includes a definition of the variousaspects covered. For example, in the case of a destination adefinition of land use; plans for infrastructure facilities such asroads; airports; bike paths; horse trails; pedestrian walkways;sewage; water and utilities; architectural standards; landscapeplans, zoning and other land use regulations; economicanalysis, market analysis and financial programming are to becovered.h) IMPLEMENTATION: Implementation is operationalising the tourismplan. It also follows up, monitors and evaluates. Good planningprovides mechanisms that give continuing feedback on thetourism project and the levels of consumer satisfaction reached.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 13
  14. 14. Project Evaluation• Project Evaluation is a step-by-step process ofcollecting, recording and organizing informationabout project results, including short-term outputs(immediate results of activities, or projectdeliverables), and immediate and longer-termproject outcomes (changes in behaviour, practice orpolicy resulting from the project).Common rationales for conducting an evaluation are:– response to demands for accountability;– demonstration of effective, efficient andequitable use of financial and otherresources;– recognition of actual changes and progressmade;– identification of success factors, need forimprovement or where expected outcomesare unrealistic;– validation for project staff and partners thatdesired outcomes are being achieved.• The project planning stage is the best time toidentify desired outcomes and how they will bemeasured. This will guide future planning, as wellas ensure that the data required to measuresuccess is available when the time comes toevaluate the project.Evaluating project results is helpful in providinganswers to key questions like:– What progress has been made?– Were the desired outcomesachieved? Why?– Are there ways that project activitiescan be refined to achieve betteroutcomes?– Do the project results justify the projectinputs?What are the Challenges in Monitoring andEvaluation?– getting the commitment to do it;– establishing base lines at the beginningof the project;– identifying realistic quantitative andqualitative indicators;– finding the time to do it and sticking toit;– getting feedback from yourstakeholders;– reporting back to your stakeholders.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 14
  15. 15. Project Feasibility Study• Feasibility studies aim to objectivelyand rationally uncover the strengthsand weaknesses of the existing businessor proposed venture, opportunities andthreats as presented bythe environment,the resources required to carry through,and ultimately the prospectsfor success.• In its simplest term, the two criteria tojudge feasibility are cost requiredand value to be attained.• As such, a well-designed feasibilitystudy should provide a historicalbackground of the business or project,description of the product or service,accounting statements, details ofthe operations and management, marketing research and policies, financialdata, legal requirements and taxobligations.• Generally, feasibility studies precedetechnical developmentand project implementation.• TELOS provides five common factors.• Technology and system feasibility– an outline design of system requirementsin terms of Input, Processes, Output,Fields, Programs, and Procedures• Economic feasibility– determine the benefits and savings thatare expected from a candidate system andcompare them with costs• Legal feasibility– Determines whether the proposed systemconflicts with legal requirements, e.g. adata processing system must comply withthe local Data Protection Acts.• Operational feasibility– how well a proposed system solves theproblems, and takes advantage of theopportunities• Schedule feasibility– estimating how long the system will take todevelop• Other feasibility factors– Market, resource, cultural , financialfeasibilityRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 15
  16. 16. • Plan Implementation– Study the availablesituation– Identify the barriers– Establish a mechanism– Strategic planning– Educational program– Conduct workshops• National state local levels– Implementrecommended changes• Dissemination andeducation• Tourism Master plan– a long-term outline of aproject or governmentfunction for tourism– a series of steps to becarried out or goals to beaccomplishedRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 16
  17. 17. Tourism ImpactsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 17
  18. 18. Positive Economic Impacts Balance of payments Employment Income Investment andDevelopment Multiplier Effect• Balance of Payments (BOP)• The difference between theamount of money leaving acountry and the amount ofmoney coming into thesame country• Tourism can help minimiseBOP– Tourist brings currency intocountry and spends– Benefits the host country• Particularly ones thathave tourists from‘high value’ areassuch as theUK, EU, USRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 18
  19. 19. • EmploymentTourism creates many variousjobs via:– Direct employment• Directly involved in tourism e.g.hotel, travel agency– Indirect employment• Jobs in the tourism supply sectore.g. catering company providingfood to an airline– Induced employment• Created because of an increasewealth of the locals fromtourism; locals spend moremoney in their local economy• IncomeMoney created in local economy ata destination through:– Wages and salaries• Locals employed in thelocal area– Profits• Local businessesbenefitting from touristspending– Rent• Leasing accommodationto tourists and ‘migrating’workforce– Tax• Value Added Tax (VAT);local or national taxgained from touristspendingRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 19
  20. 20. • Investment and Development• Public or private sector• Public– Government wants to develop a destination– Invests in infrastructure (roads, airports, buildings etc)– Make destination more appealing to tourists• Private– TNCs or MNCs (Multinational Companies) invest at adestination in order to set up their own organizationsthere– Can lead to other companies investing in the samearea• Multiplier Effect• A ‘knock on’ effect within the economy at adestination• “tourist expenditure will inject additional cashflow into the regional economy and increaseregional income” (Page and Connell, 2006)• Employment– More jobs because of tourism• Income– Tourist spending in local area brings more moneyto the destination– Locals earn from tourist spending and in turnspend that money in the local area also,• Tourist spend– Money directly spend by tourist whilst on holiday• Income– Tourist’s money received by hotel and facilityowners• Taxes– Hotel and facility owners have to pay governmenttax (council, corporation tax etc) at local andnational level• Saving– Some money received by hotel and facilityowners will be kept as profit• Spend– Owners of businesses who receive money fromtourists, spends on wages foremployees, supplies (stock) in the local economyor outside local area (imports)• Local items– Employees and locals spend wages in local shopse.g. supermarketsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 20
  21. 21. Negative Economic Impacts Leakages Opportunity Costs Inflation Tourism Dependency• Leakages• Money spent on goods andservices outside localeconomy• Money saved (in banks etc)• Investment from MNCs orTNCs means that somemoney earned by thatorganization will leave thelocal economy e.g.headquarters in a differentdestination• Importing goods meansanother economy isbenefitting from spendinge.g. bananas in the UKRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 21
  22. 22. Opportunity Costs• Also known as ‘displacementeffect’• “developing tourism at theexpense of other activities orareas of investment” (Pageand Connell, 2006)• Public money invested intourism that is not investedelsewhere e.g. localinfrastructure at anotherlocation• Cost-benefit analysis best wayto minimise opportunity costsInflation• Increase in demand leads toincrease in inflation• Inflation = value and price ofland, and products increases• Locals may not be able to affordto live in a particular area, localbusinesses may suffer– Can lead to negative socio-culturalimpactsTourism Dependency• Some countries rely heavily ontourism in order to maintainthe country’s economy• Occurs quite often indeveloping countries• If tourism suffers in acountry, the whole economysuffers – a huge negativeimpactRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 22
  23. 23. Positive Environmental Impacts Conservation andpreservation Enhancement ofenvironment Environmental awareness Financial contributions ProtectionConservation andpreservation• Can be done by ‘zoning’areas of the naturalenvironment e.g. nationalparks– Strict guidelines to follow fordevelopments, and visitors• Built or man-madeconstructions can also bepreserved– Restricted access to certainareas– Money raised from visitorscan help restorations– E.g. castles, cathedrals etc.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 23
  24. 24. Enhancement ofenvironment• Make an area lookvisually more pretty tovisitors• Can involve cleaningareas, reforestation,installation of publicspaces (e.g. public art)– Funded by money fromtourism industry• E.g. London 2010Olympic ParkEnvironmental awareness• Public more aware ofenvironmental issues• Private and public sectorsinform consumers ofenvironmental impacts– Hotels will informcustomers of laundryprocess and how to saveenergy and water etc• Tourism industryadapting to tourist’sneeds– Sustainabletourism, ecotourism etcRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 24
  25. 25. Financial contributions• Money directly giventowards the environment• Can be from:– Park entrance fees– Hunting and fishing fees– Rental equipment fees etc• Used to pay forconservation andpreservation ofenvironmentally sensitiveareas– Projects, maintenance,salary for park rangers etcProtection• Environmental protection• Conservation ofenvironment (flora andfauna)• Sustainable use of naturalresources• Achieved throughtourism and governmentinvolvement– Energy efficient building,effective waste treatmentremoval, pollutionprevention etcRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 25
  26. 26. Negative Environmental Impacts Depletion of natural resources Loss of natural habitats PollutionDepletion of natural resources• Water resources– Overuse of water for hotels,swimming pools, golf courses,personal use– Local population don’t haveenough water for their own needs• Local resources– Energy, food, raw materials usedexcessively in tourism → damagesenvironment physically• Land degradation– Land destroyed due to touristactivities– Construction of facilities andattractions damage naturalenvironment– Tourist activities e.g. walking,skiing, cause erosion of the earthRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 26
  27. 27. Loss of natural habitats• On land (terrain)– Flora and fauna displaced (moved)due to tourism construction– F&F damaged in natural environment• Offshore (water-based, marine)– Damage to fish and water pollutiondue to development in the water (e.g.marina development) or touristactivities in the water (e.g.diving, sailing, water sports etc)– Coral reefs suffer worldwide fromdamages– Over-fishing, trampling by touristsand divers, pollution etcPollution• Air– CO2 emissions (carbon dioxide)damage the air and effects the Ozonelayer– Lots of transport used for tourism, coaches, planes etc• Noise– Traffic noise from transport– Entertainment (bars and nightclubs)– Disturb natural wildlife and havenegative impact of destination• Visual– Littering– Barren land due to construction oftourism infrastructure– Pollution ofrivers, beaches, sea, natural scenicareas etc– Constructions can be ‘eyesores’• Water– Tourist activities, development, wastedisposal contaminates water – effectswildlife and humansRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 27
  28. 28. Positive Socio-cultural Impacts Education and training Enhanced quality of life Pride Socio-cultural awarenessand peaceEducation and training• Provides opportunity forlocals to learn new skillsand qualifications• Skills and qualificationsare essential in tourismindustry• Staff training anddevelopment withinorganizations– e.g. customer services, ITetcRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 28
  29. 29. Enhanced quality of life• Positive economic impacts oftourism effect the quality of lifelocals will experience• Increase in tourist spending intourist destination leads to anincrease in disposable income forlocals• Public sector investment in an areacan improve local infrastructure(roads, facilities etc)Pride• Increase in local pride as:– more tourists visit a destination and– as increase in investment into localarea• Pride in localtraditions, customs, culture, food, crafts, ceremonies etc• Can renew interest in hostpopulation’s cultureSocio-cultural awareness and peace• Tourism allows people tounderstand and learn about newcultures and experiences• Learning about a culture ‘firsthand’ can increase a betterunderstanding of differentbackgrounds and heritage• Can benefit both the locals and thetouristsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 29
  30. 30. Negative Socio-cultural ImpactsCommodificationCrimeDemonstration effectDisplacementEconomicExploitationCommodification• Turning a product orservice into somethingdifferent in order to pleasethe tourist• Performances andceremonies arecommodified (made moreattractive and dramatic) inorder to appeal to tourists• Not representing the trueculture of the locals– Also known as ‘stagedauthenticity’Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 30
  31. 31. Crime• Where there are moretourists, crime rates arehigher• Tourists are ‘easy targets’for thieves– Tourists carry a lot ofvaluables when travelling– Appeals to poor locals whocannot afford these goods• Tourists may also becomeinvolved in illegalexperiences– Prostitution and drugs etc– Tourists therefore help todevelop the illegal industriesDemonstration effect• Locals observe tourists andtry to copy (emulate) them• This can be in terms of:– Behaviour, culture, clothes,food etc• Leads to a loss of identityand culture– More apparent in youngergenerations– ‘Westernisation’ – westernculture favoured over otherlocal culturesRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 31
  32. 32. Displacement• Development of tourismareas can lead to an areabecoming too expensive forlocals to continue livingthere• Land needed for largeconstructions can alsomove local inhabitants– Governments believe thatthe tourism infrastructurewill outweigh the need fordisplacementEconomic• Increase in prosperitywithin host population canlead to new social classes• Can create tensionbetween:– Locals– Locals and tourists– Migrant workers and locals• Resources become moreexpensive:– Cost of living increases e.g.foods, service, housing etc– Causes resentment betweenlocals and touristsRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 32
  33. 33. Exploitation• Employment opportunitiesmay seem exciting to beginwith but may become anegative socio-culturalimpact• Some companies mayexploit (abuse) localpopulations for their ownbenefits through:– Child labour– Forced labour– Cheap labourso that the largecorporations reap most ofthe economic benefits• DOXEY’S IRRITATION INDEX(IRRIDEX)• Created in 1975• Designed to measure a hostpopulation’s perception oftourists as a destinationdevelops over time• Linked to Butler’s TouristArea Life CycleRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 33
  34. 34. 4 stages of Doxey’s Irridex Euphoria Area• Occurs in early stage of Butler’s TALC• Destination has few visitors, tourism relatively new tolocals• Locals happy that tourists are interested in theirdestination• Welcoming host population• Good, informal relationships between locals and touristsApathy• As destination develops, tourist numbers increase• Relationship between locals and tourists become moreinformal• Visitors are taken for granted – tourists are only seen as asource of moneyAnnoyance• Destination has developed to ‘saturation’ point• Development of attraction, facilities and services areoccurring everywhere• This continuous over-development annoys the locals andthey are frustrated with the tourism industry –stakeholders and touristsAntagonism• Development at tourist destination is now only producingnegative impacts• Host population blame tourists for all the negative impactstourism has brought to the destination• Host population angry at tourists and expresses their angertowards themRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 34Euphoria AreaApathyAnnoyanceAntagonism
  35. 35. Sustainable Tourism• Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to makea low impact on the environment and local culture,while helping to generate future employment forlocal people. The aim of sustainable tourism is toensure that development brings a positiveexperience for local people, tourism companiesand the tourists themselves. Sustainable tourism isnot the same as ecotourism.reduce the impact of tourism in many ways, including:– informing themselves of the culture, politics,and economy of the communities visited– anticipating and respecting local cultures,expectations and assumptions– contributing to intercultural understanding andtolerance– supporting the integrity of local cultures by favoringbusinesses which conserve cultural heritage andtraditional values– supporting local economies by purchasing localgoods and participating with small, local businesses– conserving resources by seeking out businesses thatare environmentally conscious, and by using theleast possible amount of non-renewable resources• Economic, social and environmental aspects ofsustainable development must include theinterests of all stakeholders including indigenouspeople, local communities, visitors, industry andgovernment.• where tourists can enjoy their holiday and at thesame time respect the culture of people and alsorespect the environment. It also means that localpeople get a fair say about tourism and also receivesome money from the profit which the game reservemake.• The environment is being damaged quite a lot bytourists and part of Sustainable tourism is to makesure that the damaging does not carry on.Responsible Tourism, have the following characteristics:– minimises negative economic, environmental, andsocial impacts– generates greater economic benefits for local peopleand enhances the well-being of hostcommunities, improves working conditions and accessto the industry– involves local people in decisions that affect their livesand life chances– makes positive contributions to the conservation ofnatural and cultural heritage, to the maintenance ofthe world’s diversity– provides more enjoyable experiences for touriststhrough more meaningful connections with localpeople, and a greater understanding of localcultural, social and environmental issues– provides access for people with disabilities and– is culturally sensitive, engenders respect betweentourists and hosts, and builds local pride andconfidence.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 35
  36. 36. Tourism Carrying Capacity• "Tourism CarryingCapacity" is defined bythe WTO as “Themaximum number ofpeople that may visit atourist destination atthe same time, withoutcausing destruction ofthe physical, economic,socio-culturalenvironment and anunacceptable decreasein the quality of visitorssatisfaction”• Physical carrying capacity– This is the max number that area is actually able to support. In the caseof an individual tourist attraction it is the maximum number that can fiton the site at any given time and still allow people to be able to move.This is normally assumed to be around 1m per person. “PCC per a day =area (in metres squared) x visitors per metre x daily duration"(Mowforth and Munt) This is a formula which has been used tocalculate the physical carrying capacity.• Economic carrying capacity– This relates to a level of unacceptable change within the local economyof a tourist destination, it is the extent to which a tourist destination isable to accommodate tourist functions without the loss of localactivates, take for example a souvenir store taking the place of a shopselling essential items to the local community. Economic carryingcapacity can also be used to describe the point at which the increasedrevenue brought by tourism development is overtaken by the inflationcaused by tourism.• Social carrying capacity– This relates to the negative socio-cultural related to tourismdevelopment. The indicators of when the social carrying capacity hasbeen exceeded are a reduced local tolerance for tourism as describedby Doxey’s Index of irritation. Reduced visitor enjoyment and increasedcrime are also indicators of when the social carrying capacity has beenexceeded.• Biophysical carrying capacity– This deals with the extent to which the natural environment is able totolerate interference from tourists. This is made more complicated bythe fact that because it deals with ecology which is able to regenerateto some extent so in this case the carrying capacity is when the damageexceeds the habitats ability to regenerate.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 36
  37. 37. Factors affecting Carrying Capacity• 1. Alien factors– Mass tourism– Length of stay– Concentration of visitors– Degree of seasonality– Type of tourism activity– Education level will affect theimpact– Degree of exposure• 2. Local factors– Fragile eco systems– Socio culture of hostcommunity– Economic and political– Availability of local resources– Tourism policies• 3. Combined factors– Difference between thetourist and the host– Differences in wealth andculture– Amount of contact– Segregation of touristsreduces demonstrationeffectRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 37
  38. 38. Environmental Impact Analysis• The Ministry of Environment andForests (MoEF) of India have been in agreat effort in Environmental ImpactAssessment in India.• The main laws in nation are WaterAct(1974), The Indian Wildlife(Protection) Act (1972), The Air(Prevention and Control of Pollution)Act (1981) and The Environment(Protection) Act (1986).• The responsible body for this is CentralPollution Control Board.• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)studies need a significant amount ofprimary and secondary environmentaldata.• The primary data are those which needto be collected in the field to define thestatus of environment (like air qualitydata, water quality data etc.).• The secondary data are those datawhich have been collected over theyears and can be used to understandthe existing environmental scenario ofthe study area.• The environmental impact assessment(EIA) studies are conducted over a shortperiod of time and therefore theunderstanding the environmentaltrends based on few months of primarydata has its own limitations.• Ideally, the primary data has to beconsidered along with the secondarydata for complete understanding of theexisting environmental status of thearea. In many EIA studies, thesecondary data needs could be as highas 80% of the total data requirement.• EIC is the repository of one stopsecondary data source forenvironmental impact assessment inIndia.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 38
  39. 39. • The Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) experience in India indicates thatthe lack of timely availability of reliableand authentic environmental data hasbeen a major bottle neck in achievingthe full benefits of EIA.• The environment being a multi-disciplinary subject, a multitude ofagencies is involved in collection ofenvironmental data.• However, there is no single organizationin India which tracks the data availableamongst these agencies and makes itavailable in one place, in a form andmanner required by practitioners in thefield of environmental impactassessment in India.• Further, the environmental data is notavailable in value added forms that canenhance the quality of the EIA.• This in turn adversely affects the timeand efforts required for conducting theenvironmental impact assessments(EIAs) by project proponents and alsotimely environmental clearances by theregulators.• With this background, EnvironmentalInformation Centre (EIC) has been setup to serve as a professionally managedclearing house of environmentalinformation that can be used by MoEF,project proponents, consultants, NGOsand other stakeholders involved in theprocess of environmental impactassessment in India.• EIC caters to the need of creating anddisseminating of organizedenvironmental data for variousdevelopmental initiatives all over thecountry.• EIC stores data in GIS format and makesit available to all environmental impactassessment studies and to EIAstakeholders in a cost effective andtimely manner.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 39
  40. 40. Tourism Business ethics and laws• Business ethics (also corporate ethics)is a form of appliedethics or professional ethics thatexamines ethical principles and moralor ethical problems that arise in abusiness environment. It applies to allaspects of business conduct and isrelevant to the conduct of individualsand entire organizations.• an emerging typology for applied ethics(Porter, 2006) uses six domains to helpimprove organizations and social issuesat the national and global level:– Decision ethics, or ethical theories andethical decision processes– Professional ethics, or ethics to improveprofessionalism– Clinical ethics, or ethics to improve ourbasic health needs– Business ethics, or individual based moralsto improve ethics in an organization– Organizational ethics, or ethics amongorganizations– Social ethics, or ethics among nations andas one global unit• The major areas of business laware:– Antitrust– Bankruptcy– Consumer protection andproduct liability– Contracts– Employment– Intellectual property– Securities regulationRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 40
  41. 41. • Money lost to Fraud• Money lost to Embezzlement• Accuracy ofbooks, records, and expensereports• Proper use of organizationalassets• Protecting proprietaryinformation• Discrimination• Lying• Over charging• Charging for work that wasnot necessary• Withholding neededinformation• Abusive or intimidatingbehavior toward others• Misreporting actual time orhours worked• False insurance claims• Kickbacks and bribery• Proper exercise of authority• Theft of business equipmentand supplies• Trading or accepting goodsfor unauthorized favors• Moonlighting, which causespoorer work performance• Knowingly ignoring thehealth and safety ofemployees• Sexual harassment• Evading someone’s privacyRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 41
  42. 42. Tourism Law & LegislationAccording to Ronald A. Kaiser(Travel and TourismLaw, 1994), tourism law createsand defines• seven basic concepts:– 1) Travel is a legal right,– 2) Reliable and safe transportationmust be readily available,– 3) Safe and adequateaccommodations must await thetraveller,– 4) All travellers should have accessto such accommodations,– 5) Travel and accommodationcosts must be reasonable,– 6) Regulation of the travel andtourism industry is necessary, and– 7) Redressal mechanism fortransgressions of rights andregulations is necessary.functional areas:– 1) Those related to the protectionof tourists,– 2) Those related to bordercontrols,– 3) Those related to quality ofservices,– 4) Those related to protection ofenvironment,– 5) Those related to conservationof historical sites andmonuments,– 6) Those related to economicdevelopment,– 7) Those determining therelationship of various segmentsof the tourism industry, etc.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 42
  43. 43. categorised under the following heads :– 1) Laws related to trans-bordermovements like customs, visaregulations, foreign exchangeregulations, immigration laws, etc.– 2) Laws related to transportation likeairline regulations, railways, road andwater transport; fares and tariffs, etc.– 3) Laws related to accommodationlike classification/grading/rating ofhotels, etc.– 4) Consumer Protection Laws relatedto health, hygiene, service qualitystandards, etc.– 5) Laws related to land use,infrastructure development, etc.– 6) Labour laws related to employees’working conditions, wages, etc.– 7) Laws regarding the functioning oftourism organisations at variouslevels.– 8) Conservation related laws onenvironment protection, monumentsand historical sites, etc.– 9) Laws related to human resourcedevelopment.– 10) Laws for regulating the serviceproviders, etc.There are variety of laws in India whichare directly or indirectly related totourism. Some of these are asfollows:– 1) Environment related• ·The Indian Forest Act• The Wildlife Protection Act• The Forest Conservation Act• The Air Prevention and Control ofPollution Act• The Environment Act• The National Environment Tribunal Act• Coastal Zone Regulations, etc.– 2) Monuments• The Ancient Monuments Act• Regulations made by the ArchaeologicalSurvey of India• Guidelines issued by the Ministry ofCulture, etc.– 3) Accommodation• The Sarais Act• Department of Tourism Regulations forCategor isation of Hotels, etc.– 4) Protection of Tourists and Health– Indian Penal Code• Consumer Protection Act• Prevention of Food AdulterationAct, etc.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 43
  45. 45. Preservation & ConversationArchaeological sites• The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), as anattached office under the Department ofCulture, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, is thepremier organization for the archaeologicalresearches and protection of the culturalheritage of the nation.• Maintenance of ancient monuments andarchaeological sites and remains of nationalimportance is the prime concern of the ASI.• Besides it regulate all archaeological activities inthe country as per the provisions of the AncientMonuments and Archaeological Sites andRemains Act, 1958.• It also regulates Antiquities and Art TreasureAct, 1972.For the maintenance of ancientmonuments and archaeological sites andremains of national importance the entirecountry is divided into 24 Circles.• The organization has a large work force oftrainedarchaeologists, conservators, epigraphist, architects and scientists for conducting archaeologicalresearch projects through its ExcavationBranches, Prehistory Branch, EpigraphyBranches, Science Branch, HorticultureBranch, Building Survey Project, Temple SurveyProjects and Underwater Archaeology Wing.CHEMICAL PRESERVATION• The Archaeological Survey of India’s ScienceBranch is responsible mainly for the chemicalconservation treatment and preservation of somethree thousand five hundred ninety threeProtected monuments besides chemicalpreservation of museum and excavated objectscountrywide.• The real challenge before us is to plan thenecessary measures of conservation with a viewto assure the survival of these built culturalheritage and unique symbols of our civilizationsfor centuries to come, with as little interventionas possible but without altering or modifying inany way the authenticity of their originalcharacter.• To ensure the stability as well as properconservation of our cultural heritage, there is aneed to give more thrust to the scientific researchin conservation options must be based on apreliminary investigation which includes theknowledge of physical nature of the object(constituent materials, architecturalcharacteristics, production techniques, state ofdecay) and of the factors which induce or couldinduced its decay.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 45
  46. 46. STRUCTURAL CONSERVATION• Although there have been references ofconservation of structures way back in theearly Historic Period as evidenced atJunagadh, Gujarat, it was done on structuresthat were beneficial to the contemporarysociety.• Even the dawn of vision for the need topreserve monuments for its worth as amonument, mainly credited to the British wasnot less haphazard in the earlier times.• The earlier attempts to give a legal frameworkfor preventing vandalism were the twolegislations namely the Bengal Regulation of1810 and Madras Regulation of 1817.• The monuments and sties that receivednominal funds and attention way back in 19thcentury was Taj Mahal, Tomb atSikandara, Qutb Minar, Sanchi and Mathura.• Based on the proposal submitted in 1898, 5Circles were constituted to do theArchaeological work in India. These Circleswere required to devote themselves entirelyto conservation work.• Later the ‘Ancient Monuments and PreservationAct, 1904’ was passed with the prime objective toensure the proper upkeep and repair of ancientbuildings in private ownership excepting such asthose used for religious purposes.• From the first decade of the last century thereforemany monuments could be taken up forconservation.• One of the foremost conservators, J. Marshall wholaid down the principles of conservation was alsoinstrumental in preserving a number ofmonuments some of which are now under theWorld Heritage List.• The conservation work of stupas at Sanchi earlierlying in a maze of ruins gave the site its pristinelooks. The conservation processes had now becomequite formalized and the later workers in the fieldwere acquiring cumulative knowledge of severalgenerations.• Even before Independence, thus, theArchaeological Survey of India had developedsignificant expertise so much as that it was invitedfor conservation work in other countries. Some ofthe outstanding examples of such works are that ofBamiyan in Afghanistan and later in the Angkor Vatof Cambodia.Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 46
  47. 47. Conservation of wildlife in India• The need for conservation of wildlife inIndia is often questioned because of theapparently incorrect priority in the faceof dire poverty of the people.• However Article 48 of the Constitutionof India specifies that "the state shallendeavour to protect and improve theenvironment and to safeguard theforests and wildlife of the country" andArticle 51-A states that "it shall be theduty of every citizen of India to protectand improve the natural environmentincluding forests, lakes, rivers, andwildlife and to have compassion forliving creatures."• Large and charismatic mammals areimportant for wildlife tourism in Indiaand several national parks and wildlifesanctuaries cater to these needs.Project Tiger started in 1972 is a majoreffort to conserve the tiger and itshabitats.• At the turn of the 20th century, oneestimate of the tiger population in Indiaplaced the figure at 40,000, yet anIndian tiger census conducted in 1972revealed the existence of only 1827tigers.• Various pressures in the later part ofthe 20th century led to the progressivedecline of wilderness resulting in thedisturbance of viable tiger habitats.• At the International Union forConservation of Nature and NaturalResources (IUCN) General Assemblymeeting in Delhi in 1969, seriousconcern was voiced about the threat toseveral species of wildlife and theshrinkage of wilderness in the IndiaRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 47
  48. 48. • . In 1970, a national ban on tigerhunting was imposed and in 1972 theWildlife Protection Act came into force.• The framework was then set up toformulate a project for tigerconservation with an ecologicalapproach.• Project Tiger which was launched onApril 1, 1973, has become one of themost successful conservation venturesin modern history.• The project aims at tiger conservation inspecially constituted tiger reserveswhich are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India.• It strives to maintain a viable tigerpopulation in their naturalenvironment.• Today, there are 27 Project Tiger wildlifereserves in India covering an area of37,761 km².Project Elephant, thoughless known, started in 1992 and worksfor elephant protection in India.• Most of Indias rhinos today survive inthe Kaziranga National Park. The wildlifeinstitute of India (WII) is a governmentinstitution run by the Indian Council ofForestry Research and Education whichtrains wildlife managers and wildliferesearchers.• Trained personnel from WII havecontributed in studying and protectingwildlife in India.• WII has also popularized wildlife studiesand careers. The institute is based inDehradun, India. It is located inChandrabani, which is close to thesouthern forests of Dehradun.• The Indian Council of Forestry Researchand Education also runs the ForestResearch Institute and the IndianInstitute of Forest ManagementRtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 48
  49. 49. Thank You…Rtist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 49