2. WHAT IS
LINUX IS OPEN SOURCE OPERATING SYSTEM, OR
LINUX OS, IS A FREELY DISTRIBUTABLE, CROSS-
PLATFORM OPERATING SYSTEM BASED ON UNIX THAT
CAN BE INSTALLED ON PCS, LAPTOPS, NETBOOKS,
MOBILE AND TABLET DEVICES, VIDEO GAME
CONSOLES, SERVERS, SUPERCOMPUTERS AND MORE.
3. HISTORY OF
THE HISTORY OF LINUX BEGAN IN 1991 WITH
THE COMMENCEMENT OF A PERSONAL
PROJECT BY FINNISH STUDENT LINUS
TORVALDS TO CREATE A NEW FREE OPERATING
SYSTEM KERNEL. SINCE THEN, THE
RESULTING LINUX KERNEL. SINCE THE INITIAL
RELEASE OF ITS SOURCE CODE IN 1991, IT HAS
GROWN FROM A SMALL NUMBER OF C FILES
UNDER THE GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
• Hardware consists of all peripheral devices (RAM/ HDD/ CPU
• Kernel is the core part of Linux. It is
responsible for all major activities of this
operating system. It consists of various
modules and it interacts directly with the
• An interface to kernel, hiding complexity of kernel’s functions from
users. Takes commands from user and executes kernel’s functions.
• Utility programs giving user most of the
functionalities of an operating systems.
10. 2) Open Source
• Portability means software's can works
on different types of hardware's in same
way. Linux kernel and application
programs supports their installation on
any kind of hardware platform.
• Linux source code is freely available
and it is community based
development project. Multiple teams
works in collaboration to enhance
the capability of Linux operating
system and it is continuously
11. 4) Multi-tasking
• Linux is a multiuser system
means multiple users can
access system resources like
memory/ ram/ application
programs at same time.
• Linux is a multitasking system
means multiple tasks can be
done at same time.
12. 6) Security
• Linux provides a special
interpreter program which can be
used to execute commands of the
operating system. It can be used
to do various types of operations,
call application programs etc.
• Linux provides user security
using authentication features
like password protection/
controlled access to specific
files/ encryption of data.
14. Command Name Syntax Description
MAKE DIRECTORY Mkdir
Make directory command create a new directory.
CREATE FILE Cat>filename It is used to create new file with content.
COPY FILE Cp src_file desti_file It copies a file from one location to another
CHANGE DIRECTORY cd dir_name It is used for changing the directory.
MOVE FILE Mv source
The “mv” command moves a file from one location
HELP Whatis command It is helpful to get brief information about Linux
CALCULATOR bc It means the basic calculator, used for basic
PROCESS STATUS Ps Process gives the status of running processes with
the unique ID called PID
Passwd It is used for changing the password.
CALENDAR Cal It is used to display calendar of the present month
or any another month.
CLEAR SCREEN Clear It is used to clear the screen.
16. Web Serving
Nearly 60% of all websites on the Internet are
run using an Open Source program named
"Apache." Most often, it's run on Linux. If you've
ever surfed the web, you've (indirectly) used
Linux is used to run some parts of the
Internet, as well as to run small and large
networks in corporations, offices and
Since Linux is stable, secure and robust, it's
perfect for storing huge databases of
And, of course, people like us, and
people like you, can and do use Linux on
a daily basis at home and in the office!
Many dozens (or even hundreds or thousands) of Linux
systems can be clustered together to work on a single task
(like weather forecasting, physics simulations, computer
graphics rendering, etc.)A large collection of inexpensive PCs
running Linux can be just as powerful as a mainframe
computer, but at a tenth of the cost.
19. Low cost:
You don’t need to spend time and
money to obtain licenses since Linux and
much of its software come with the GNU
General Public License. Additionally,
there are large repositories from which
you can freely download high quality
software for almost any task you can
Linux doesn’t need to be rebooted periodically to maintain
performance levels. It doesn’t freeze up or slow down over time
due to memory leaks and such. Continuous up-times of hundreds
of days (up to a year or more) are not uncommon.
20. Open Source:
If you develop software that requires
knowledge or modification of the
operating system code, Linux’s source
code is at your fingertips. Most Linux
applications are Open Source as well.
Linux is designed to do many things at
the same time; e.g., a large printing job
in the background won’t slow down your
Linux provides persistent high performance on
workstations and on networks. It can handle
unusually large numbers of users simultaneously,
and can make old computers sufficiently
responsive to be useful again.
The large number of Linux distributions gives you a choice. Each
distribution is developed and supported by a different
organization. You can pick the one you like best; the core
functionalities are the same; most software runs on most
24. No Standard
While Windows and Mac have several definite versions, there is no
one standard edition of Linux.
In fact, there are hundreds of different user-developed editions.
It can be challenging to figure out which one is best for you, and
making that decision can be overwhelming for a new user.
25. Learning Curve
The simplest way to put it: Linux is not as easy to use as Windows
It requires a broader base of knowledge about computing than
other operating systems, and this can be very challenging for a
If you are used to using Windows or Mac, you will have to unlearn
and relearn many different functions and processes.
It can take some time, and the less technical understanding you
have the more it will require of you to learn.
While it is certainly possible to gain a functional understanding of
Linux with practice and self-teaching, it will require more effort
than with other operating systems.
A disadvantage to using a Linux OS is that the majority of your
favourite programs will not run on it.
If you are used to certain software, you will have to find a
comparable Linux option.
There are hundreds of choices of programs, and there are many
that are similar to specific Windows or Mac software.
However, a lot of times the user interface is very different and not
every function you want is always available.
You will have to do some searching and testing of different
programs until you find ones that you like and meet your needs.
There is less computer hardware that is compatible with Linux,
There is a much smaller selection of drivers that will work with
Linux, although more are being added on a consistent basis.
Oftentimes it takes a while for new hardware to be supported,
and you may find that a lot of the hardware you already have will
be tough to run on Linux.
For some reason, many people encounter problems with running
their printers on Linux.
Blu-ray discs are also not able to be played using Linux.