SlideShare emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Política de privacidad para más información.
SlideShare emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información.
EMERGENCE OF MODERN
Modern architecture is a term applied to an period in
architectural history during the 20th century, with its
exact definition and scope varying widely.
Modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th
century with advancement and the modernization of
efforts to reconcile the principles underlying
architectural design with rapid technological society.
When compared to that which preceded it,
modernism in architecture is broadly characterized by
simplification of form and subtraction of ornament
from the structure and theme of the building.
Common themes of modern architecture include:
"Form follows function", meaning that the result of design
should derive directly from its purpose.
Simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of
Visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of
The related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that
the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought
to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent
Use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the
There are multiple lenses through which the evolution
of modern architecture may be viewed.
Some historians see it as a social matter, closely tied to
the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment.
Modern architecture developed, in their opinion, as a
result of social and political revolutions.
Others see Modern architecture as primarily driven by
technological and engineering developments.
Still other historians regard Modernism as a matter of
taste, the lavish stylistic excesses of architecture.
With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of
newly-available building materials such as iron, steel,
and sheet glass drove the invention of new building
It was not until the early 1830s that Eaton Hodgkinson
introduced the section beam, leading to widespread
use of iron construction.
A further development was that of the steel-framed
skyscraper in Chicago around 1890 by William Le
Baron Jenney and Louis Sullivan.
The Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne
(CIAM) would be a force in the shaping Modernist
urban planning, and consequently the design of cities
and the structures within, from 1928 to 1959.
Following its principles, in the late 1950s the entirely-
new city of Brasília was built as a new capital for Brazil,
designed by Lucio Costa, with prominent works for it
designed by Oscar Niemeyer.
In the Eastern Bloc, mass housing would take the form
of prefabricated panel buildings, such as the
Plattenbau of East Germany, Khrushchyovka of Russia
and the Panelák of Czechoslovakia.
As the International Style took hold, others architects
reacted to or strayed from its the purely functionalist
forms, while at the same time retaining highly
Mid-century modernism, or organic modernism, was
very popular, due to its democratic and playful nature.
Expressionist exploration of form was revived, such as
in the Sydney Opera House in Australia by Jørn Utzon.
Tube architecture :-
"a three dimensional space structure composed of
three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or
shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a
vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting
lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the
The first building to apply the tube-frame construction
was the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building which
Khan designed and was completed in Chicago by 1963.
Chicago, Illinois. IBM Plaza (right), by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
The Salk Institute complex in La Jolla, California, by architect Louis Kahn.
The Bauhaus building at Dessau, designed by Walter Gropius
National Congress of Brazil, by Oscar Niemeyer, in the modernist-designed city of
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York City, illustrating an example of "New
The Sony Building (formerly AT&T building) in New York City, 1984, by Philip
In 2007, the Sydney Opera House by Jørn Utzon was listed as a World Heritage Site.
Modern architecture met with some criticism,
which began in the 1960s on the grounds that it
seemed universal, elitist, and lacked meaning.
The loss of traditionalist structures to make way
for new modernist construction, especially via the
Urban Renewal movement, led to further
Architects explored Postmodern architecture which
offered a blend of some pre-modern elements, and
deliberately sought to move away from rectilinear
designs, towards more eclectic styles.
High Postmodern aesthetics lacked traction and by
the mid-1990s, a new surge of modern architecture
once again established international pre-eminence.
Although modern and postmodern design compete
with a revival of traditional architectural design in
commercial and institutional architecture; residential
design continues to be dominated by a traditional
In Ancient Architecture their was use of natural
resources or readily available materials like stone,
But as emergence of modern Architecture started
the use of new and different types of materials like
steel, cement, etc started.
As the emergence started the way and techniques
of designing also started changing time to time.