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ISLAMIC INVASION POLITICAL AND
SOCIAL CONDITION IN THE
• Azizur Khan
• Tanvi Gujrathi
• Akshata Hase
• Swapnil Kanse
• Nikhil Mehta
• From the oasis cities of Makkah and Medina in the
Arabian desert, the message of Islam went forth
with electrifying speed. Within half a century of the
Prophet's death, Islam had spread to three
continents. Islam is not, as some imagine in the
West, a religion of the sword nor did it spread
primarily by means of war. It was only within Arabia,
where a crude form of idolatry was rampant, that
Islam was propagated by warring against those
tribes which did not accept the message of God –
whereas Christians and Jews were not forced to
• Outside of Arabia also the vast lands conquered by the Arab
armies in a short period became Muslim not by force of the
sword but by the appeal of the new religion. It was faith in
One God and emphasis upon His Mercy that brought vast
numbers of people into the fold of Islam.
• The new religion did not coerce people to convert. Many
continued to remain Jews and Christians and to this day
important communities of the followers of these faiths are
found in Muslim lands.Moreover, the spread of Islam was not
limited to its miraculous early expansion outside of Arabia.
During later centuries the Turks embraced Islam peacefully as
did a large number of the people of the Indian subcontinent
and the Malay-speaking world. In Africa also, Islam has spread
during the past two centuries even under the mighty power of
European colonial rulers. Today Islam continues to grow not
only in Africa but also in Europe and America where Muslims
now comprise a notable minority.
• Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori and their fanatical followers
poured down across the Khyber and Bolan passes of the Himalayan ranges
into the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. The Hindu civilization meanwhile
passed its prime by the 10th century of the Christian era. Shankaracharya
was the last great philosopher of Hindu India. Artistic inspiration died up
after 7th to 8th centuries so nothing like the Ajanta was created afterwards.
The Last great Poet in Sanskrit was Kalidasa. Universities like Taxila and
Nalanda stopped attracting brilliant minds from all over the world.
• The feudal decline and the consequent degeneration of society paved
way for foreign intervention. Mohmud Ghazni carried out 17 raids in
northern India, but this shock treatment did not produce any unified plan of
resistance among the Indian rulers. With the best horses the Afghans had
no natural barriers once they passed the Khyber-Bolan passes. Alberuni, a
great Arab Scholar was fascinated by the "Hindu" Indian thought .He
recorded the Hindu_Arabic cultural interaction in many of his works. The
Arab scholars adopted and popularized the Hindu Numerals, which are
now called ARABIC NUMERALS the world over, 1including the concept
CONQUEST OF INDIA FROM THE NORTHWESTERN
ROUTE BY THE MUSLIM DYNASTIES IS SUMMARIZED
AND GIVEN BELOW ACCORDING TO CHRONOLOGY.
712 A.D. Arab conquest of Sind.
997- 1030 A.D. Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni.
Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithiviraj
Slave dynasty established by qutb-ud-din -
Ala-ud-din Khilji's reign.
1325- 51 A.D. Muhammad bin Tughlak's reign.
1414- 50 A.D. Rule of Sayyids at Delhi.
1451 A.D. Accession of Bahlul Lodi
First Battle of Panipat. Babur establishes the
• The Delhi Sultanate came
around 1210, under the rule of
Qutubuddin Aibek and
continued till the foundation to
the Mughal Empire was laid by
Babar in 1526.
• He was followed by Iltumish who
completed the QUTB MINAR
which stands on the outskirts of
• A number of Sultans followed,
but each rule was punctuated
by bloody wars.
• Then followed the Tughlugs who
transferred the capital from
Delhi to Devagiri in the South
and they also introduced
leather currency, which was a
• By the 20th century the Muslims after 800 years of
domination could convert only 25% of the
population of India to Islam.
• The Muslims could not rule without Hindu assistance,
so many Hindus were inducted into the
bureaucracy. This resulted in the development of a
new common language, Urdu, which is now spoken
in most parts of Northern India.
SOUTH INDIA IN HISTORY
• In the absence of large-scale invasion, South India maintained
equilibrium till the advent of British rule.
• The agrarian integration took place in South India in the beginning of
the second millennium.
• The agricultural surplus in the Kaveri valley region projected Tanjore
,the Chola Capital under kings like Raja Raja, Rajendra and
• In the 9th century of the Christian era great Tamil works like
CHILAPADIKARAM, MANIMEGALAI AND JIVAKA CHINTAMANI were
made. Since the west coast of India had a world monopoly of
pepper, teak and spices, it attracted a lot of western adventurers.
• Between 1000 and 1300 AD, the Hoysala Empire, which had centers
in Belur, Halebid, and Somnathpur was at its peak. Meanwhile in
northern Karnataka the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar was founded
in 1336 by the famous brothers Harihara and Bukka. Its capital was
Hampi and perhaps it was the strongest Hindu kingdom.
MUGHAL RULE, AKBAR'S
• This rule started in India with the
arrival of Babar, a refuge prince
from Samarkhand. Akbar, the
Great, followed him. Birbal, the
court wit and Tansen, the
musician became legendary
figures during Akbar's period. His
religious views can be
considered to be the forerunner
of the ideas of Mahatma of our
• Fatehpur Sikri the monumental
work of Akbar speaks of his vigor
and dynamism. Akbar was
probably the greatest of the
Mughal Emperors, for he, not
only had great military power
but he was also a man of culture
MUGHAL RULE, AKBAR'S
• Jahangir (1605-27) and Shahjahan (1527-59) who
succeeded Akbar were both pleasure seekers,
caring more for power and wealth than reforms
and justice. The Mughal Empire is a unique
phenomenon in the history of India and it was
autocratic to the core. The Mughals had a great
passion for monumental architectures. It didn't take
long for revolts to take place on all sides and with
Aurangazeb's death in 1707; the Mughal Empire's
fortune began to decline sharply.
POLITICAL ASPECTS OF ISLAM
• Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur‘an,
the sunna (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad),
Muslim history, and elements of political movements
• Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership
by successors to the Prophet known as caliphs,
(imamate for shia ); the importance of following Islamic
law or sharia; the duty of rulers to seek shura or
consultation from their subjects; and the importance of
rebuking unjust rulers but not encouraging rebellion
• A sea change in the Islamic world was the abolition of
the ottaman caliphate in 1924, which some believed
meant an end to the Islamic state both in "symbolic and
MUHAMMAD, THE MEDINAN STATE
AND ISLAMIC POLITICAL IDEALS
• Islamist claim that the origins of Islam as a political movement are to
be found in the life and times of Islam's prophet, Muhammad and his
successors, (depending on the Islamist). In 622 CE, in recognition of
his claims to prophet hood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city
of medina. At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and khazraj
dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in
Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict.
Muhammad and his followers thus moved to Medina, where
Muhammad drafted the medina charter. This document made
Muhammad the ruler, and recognized him as the Prophet of Allah.
The laws Muhammad established during his rule, based on the
revelations of the Quran and doing of Muhammad, are considered
by Muslims to be Sharai Islamic law, which Islamic movements seek to
replicate in the present day. Muhammad gained a widespread
following and an army, and his rule expanded first to the city
of Mecca and then spread through the Arabian peninsula through a
combination of diplomacy and military conquest.