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LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 1BETROTHALLAW 604 – Family Law I (Islamic)azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 1Chapter OverviewA. Whether Betrothal Exist/Practice in Islam?B. Ceremony of Betrothal According to CustomC. Whether Customary Practice of Betrothal isEncouraged in Islam?D. Status of Betrothal AgreementE. Effect for Breach of Betrothal AgreementF. S.15 of IFLA 1984G. Casesazrinhafiz/march-july 2013 2• Betrothal, also known as engagement• Arabic term: khitbah• Malay term: pertunanganazrinhafiz/march-july 2013 3
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 2A. Whether Betrothal Exist/Practice In Islam?• By virtue of al-Quran:If any of you die and leave widows behind, they shall waitconcerning themselves four months and ten days: When they havefulfilled dispose of themselves in a just and reasonable manner.And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do.There is no blame on you if ye make an offer of betrothal or hold it inyour hearts. Allah knows that ye cherish them in your hearts: But donot make a secret contract with them except in terms Honourable,nor resolve on the tie of marriage till the term prescribed is fulfilled.And know that Allah Knoweth what is in your hearts, and take heed ofHim and know that Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.surah al-Baqarah (2): 234-235azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 4The relevant gist of the verses:For one whose husband dies,must keep themselves waiting(iddah) for four months and tendays.There is no wrong to make anoffer of betrothal, but do notmake a promise to themsecretly except you do it in alegally manner.Do not resolve on contract ofmarriage until the prescribedtime is reached.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 5• By virtue of Hadith:Ibnu Umar narrated that:A person should not enter into a transaction whenhis brother is already making a transaction andhe should not make a proposal (khitbah) when hisbrother has already made a proposalexcept when lie gives permission.Sahih Muslim, Book 10, number 3618Uthman bin Affan narrated that:A Muhrim must neither marry himself, norarrange the marriage of another one, norshould he make the proposal of marriage.Sahih Muslim Book 008, Number 3278azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 6
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 3It is haram to make a proposal of marriage to awoman to whom a proposal has been made,unless the first proposal has been rejected..: betrothal can be practiced in Islam.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 7B. Ceremony of Betrothal According To Custom(Malay customary practice)azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 8MerisikMeminang(betrothal)Akad NikahBersandingTo ask whether the woman isstill single or belonged to another manBring along a ring and tepak sireh. Ifthe ring is not accepted, simply meansthe woman is belonged to another manC. Whether customary practice of betrothal isencouraged in Islam?- As long as the customary practice is not contrary to syarak, then it can be followed.“A matter or deed which is regarded as good by Muslims community,is also good with Allah.”Imam Ahmadazrinhafiz/march-july 2013 9Parties may beacquainted with oneanother before themarriage, then themarriage can takeplace after have seenand assessed eachother.Helps to bringtogether the familiesof partiesEncourages theparties to givepresents to oneanother and thushelps to increaserespect and love forone another
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 4D. Status of Betrothal Agreement• Whether betrothal agreement is legally binding?In Islam, betrothal is considered as moral agreementas it is preliminary step to marriage but does notconstitute an actual marriage.Such agreement should not be broken without goodreason, as stated in:“O you who believed, fulfill all obligations”Surah al-Maidah (5): 1azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 10• There is also a hadith saying of the Prophet tothe effect:“Muslims are bound by their promises and theconditions which they have agreed to.”Hadithazrinhafiz/march-july 2013 11A person whobreaches thepromiseMunafikis called asThis action will becondemned by Allah swtand Muslims, inter se# However, by virtue of S.15 of IFLA 1984, betrothalis a legal contractE. Effect for Breach of Betrothal Agreement• According to syarak, no specific remedy.• What if there are alimonies given?- should it be retained or returnes?§ Ibn Umar has donated a horse in path of Allah,then found it being sold and he decided to buy it.However Prophet said, “Umar, do not get backwhat you have given in charity”.Sahih Muslim Kitab al-Hibah, Vol 3, at p 858azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 12
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 5• Ibn Abbas narrated that Prophet as saying:„One who gets back the gift is like a dog whichvomits and then eats its vomit‟Sahih Muslim Kitab al-Hibah, Vol 3, at p 858azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 13If a man gives a giftwithout expecting anythingThen, he should notask for it backBut, if he gives a gift inreturn for something lawful,which expects form a doneeThen, he can ask forits return if thecondition for whichthe gift was given isnot fulfilledThus the jurists havereconciled theabovementionedhadiths by saying that:Views by ImamsHanafiWhere the gifts are still intact and has notchanged their character or been consumed ordestroyed, the giver can ask for the return ofgifts, if breach by the other party.MalikiIf man breaches – he has no right to ask back.If woman breaches – he has right to ask backwhether it is still exist or not; if destroyed, paymonetary value.ShafieThe gift should be returned whether it is existor not.If the used has been used or destroyed, itsvalue should be returned.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 14F. Sect 15 of Islamic Family Law (FederalTerritories) Act 1984*• Refused to marry without lawful reason, theparty in default will be liable to return the gift,or the value thereof.• The party in default also has to pay whatevermoney incurred in preparation of the marriage.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 15*hereinafter will be referred as IFLA 1984
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 6G. CasesAishah v Jamaluddin (1978)Fact:the man broke his promise to marry, and the womanclaimed the payment of RM25 maskahwin, RM800marriage expenses and right to keep the engagement ring.Held:The learned Chief Kadi ordered accordingly and alsoorder the man to pay RM25 for clothes prepared formarriage and RM400 the cost of repair of house inpreparation of marriage.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 16Salbiah Othman v Hj. Ahmad (2002)Fact:Plaintiff claimed for RM60,000 for injuredfeeling and preparation of marriage including therenovation of house for marriageHeld:Court allowed the claimed, provided that she canproduce the receipt.azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 17ReferenceAhmad Ibrahim (1997), Family law in Malaysia(3rd ed), LexisNexis, Singapore.Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories) Act1984azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 18
LAW 604 - Family Law I (Islamic) 5/12/2013azrinhafiz/march-july 2013 7Thank you for your attentionazrinhafiz/march-july 2013 19