TEFL & ICT Master program
The Teacher’s Grammar of English
by: Ron Cowan
Nonreferencial It & There
Presented by: Nadia BAT
Supervised by: - Jennifer Evans
- Youssef Tamer
Exercise 1 Outline
Nonreferencial There in discourse
Additional facts about Nonreferencial there
Problems that ESL / EFL Ss have with
Nonreferencial IT & There
Nonreferencial IT & There
o The words it and there commonly function as
o They refer to some other element in the same
sentence or in the preceding discourse.
o Sentences beginning with nonreferencial it
and there occur frequently in all registers of
spoken and written English.
Referncial/ Sentences with Special constractions with
Nonreferencial? Nonreferencial It Nonreferencial It
Weather Cleft sentences:
He picked up a flat stone Temperature
and skipped it across the Time It’s my brother who got
surface of water. Days of the week and Holydays married,not me.
Distance and environment It was 6 months ago that
he got his promotion.
It’s raining pretty hard. It’s sunny today
Is it raining? What time is it? Extraposed subject clause:
It’s been raining all day. It’s 27 degrees out there
It was raining earlier,isn’t it? I don’t know what day of It’s interesting [that you
It’s a rainy day. the week it is. beleive that].
It are raining. It’s Mother’s day It’s unusual [to find such
It’s hot in here. wisdom in someone so
It was so smoky in that room that my eyes
The lost and found department called.they think they found
your watch, but you will have to go and identify it.
A: Are you going out?
B: Are you kidding? It’s freezing out there.
He is so disorganized that he doesn’t even know
what day it is.
He found a good solid stock and invested all his
money in it.
Referncial/ Contractions and There
referencial: With is before ingularNP the verbs that follows there
With are before plural NP
should agree in number with
Put the boxes over there With modal verbs the NP after it
units of measurement,currency&time
• There’s a hole in my life.
• There’re lots of deer. • There are two beds in any
Nonreferencial: • There’s been some criticism room
of his book. •There is a crack in the
Are there any cookies left? • There must be another seiling
There is something we need solution to this problem
to talk about. •There was 20 dollars in his
Nonreference there in discourse
Sentences with nonreferencial there serve
several basic functions:
Intoducing new information:
There is a new sheriff in town. And he’s going to
clean all the corruption
Responding to questions about existence of
A:Where can i get some money?
B: there’s a bank overe there.
Shifting the focus of a discussion:
Using there to introduce new paragraph.
Calling something to mind:
A: I can’t decide where to take Debbie for lunch.
B: well, there’s that restaurant we ate at last
Nonreferencial there sentences and their
Some sentences with nonreferencial there
can be rewritten as sentences with indifinite
subjects( a/an or some and a noun).
• There is a man standing under the tree.
• A man is standing under the tree.
•There are some flowers in front of your
•Some flowers are in front of your house.
• There was an accident on the freeway last night.
• An accident was on the freeway last night.
When the NP after be in a sentence with nonreferencial
there describes an event or an occurance, it does not have
a grammatical counterpart sentece with an indefinite
Indefinite NP Relative clause
• There are [[several possibilities][ that we haven’t considered]].
• Several possibilities are that we haven’t considered
Nonreferencial there with verbs other than be:
There appeared a strange face in the window.
once upon a time, there lived ab ancient mariner
There remain only two more issues to dealt with
Idioms with nonreferencial there:
There’s + no +present participle verb form
• There’s no telling what he will do.
• There’s no getting out of it.
Is there any gas in that can cover there?
There’s quite a lot of really strange looking characters hanging
around in the supermarket parking lot .
There’s a number of ways to do that
She told me that there was a dozen place mats
in that drawer.
Problems that EFl/ESL Students have
with nonreferencial IT & There
The absence of nonreferencial IT in many
• Today very hot.
• It’s very hot today.
Missing relative pronoun in nonreferencial there
is/are sentences (chinese).
• There are many varieties of cancer exist.
• There was a tire hanging from the roof served
as their playground.
There are many varieties of cancer that exist.
There was a tire hanging from the roof served
as their playground.
Incorrect use of polarity items with nonreferencial
• There’s no any questions which check students’
• There’s no particular difficulties in understanding
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