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  1. 1. TEFL & ICT Master program The Teacher’s Grammar of English by: Ron Cowan Chapter 7: Nonreferencial It & There Presented by: Nadia BAT Supervised by: - Jennifer Evans - Youssef Tamer
  2. 2. Nonreferencial It Exercise 1 Outline Nonreferencial There Nonreferencial There in discourse Additional facts about Nonreferencial there Exercise 2 Problems that ESL / EFL Ss have with Nonreferencial IT & There
  3. 3. Nonreferencial IT & There o The words it and there commonly function as pronouns. o They refer to some other element in the same sentence or in the preceding discourse. o Sentences beginning with nonreferencial it and there occur frequently in all registers of spoken and written English.
  4. 4. Nonreferencial It Referncial/ Sentences with Special constractions with Nonreferencial? Nonreferencial It Nonreferencial It Weather Cleft sentences: He picked up a flat stone Temperature and skipped it across the Time It’s my brother who got surface of water. Days of the week and Holydays married,not me. Distance and environment It was 6 months ago that he got his promotion. It’s raining pretty hard. It’s sunny today Is it raining? What time is it? Extraposed subject clause: It’s been raining all day. It’s 27 degrees out there It was raining earlier,isn’t it? I don’t know what day of It’s interesting [that you It’s a rainy day. the week it is. beleive that]. It are raining. It’s Mother’s day It’s unusual [to find such It’s hot in here. wisdom in someone so young].
  5. 5. Exercise 1 Referencial or NonReferencial?
  6. 6. It was so smoky in that room that my eyes were watering. Nonreferencial
  7. 7. The lost and found department called.they think they found your watch, but you will have to go and identify it. Referencial
  8. 8. A: Are you going out? B: Are you kidding? It’s freezing out there. Nonreferencial
  9. 9. He is so disorganized that he doesn’t even know what day it is. Nonreferencial
  10. 10. He found a good solid stock and invested all his money in it. Referencial
  11. 11. Nonreferencial there Referncial/ Contractions and There Subject-Verb Agreement Nonreferencial? Occurrences referencial: With is before ingularNP the verbs that follows there With are before plural NP With modals should agree in number with Put the boxes over there With modal verbs the NP after it  units of measurement,currency&time • There’s a hole in my life. • There’re lots of deer. • There are two beds in any Nonreferencial: • There’s been some criticism room of his book. •There is a crack in the Are there any cookies left? • There must be another seiling There is something we need solution to this problem to talk about. •There was 20 dollars in his pocket
  12. 12. Nonreference there in discourse Sentences with nonreferencial there serve several basic functions:
  13. 13. Intoducing new information: There is a new sheriff in town. And he’s going to clean all the corruption
  14. 14. Responding to questions about existence of something: A:Where can i get some money? B: there’s a bank overe there.
  15. 15. Shifting the focus of a discussion: Using there to introduce new paragraph.
  16. 16. Calling something to mind: A: I can’t decide where to take Debbie for lunch. B: well, there’s that restaurant we ate at last month
  17. 17. Additional facts about nonreferencial there
  18. 18. Nonreferencial there sentences and their counterparts: Some sentences with nonreferencial there can be rewritten as sentences with indifinite subjects( a/an or some and a noun).
  19. 19. • There is a man standing under the tree. • A man is standing under the tree. •There are some flowers in front of your house. •Some flowers are in front of your house.
  20. 20. • There was an accident on the freeway last night. • An accident was on the freeway last night. no When the NP after be in a sentence with nonreferencial there describes an event or an occurance, it does not have a grammatical counterpart sentece with an indefinite subject
  21. 21. Indefinite NP Relative clause • There are [[several possibilities][ that we haven’t considered]]. • Several possibilities are that we haven’t considered
  22. 22. Nonreferencial there with verbs other than be:  There appeared a strange face in the window.  once upon a time, there lived ab ancient mariner  There remain only two more issues to dealt with
  23. 23. Idioms with nonreferencial there: There’s + no +present participle verb form • There’s no telling what he will do. • There’s no getting out of it.
  24. 24. Exercise 2
  25. 25. Is there any gas in that can cover there? No,there isn’t. Grammatical
  26. 26. There’s quite a lot of really strange looking characters hanging around in the supermarket parking lot . ungrammatical
  27. 27. There’s a number of ways to do that ungrammatical
  28. 28. She told me that there was a dozen place mats in that drawer. Grammatical
  29. 29. Problems that EFl/ESL Students have with nonreferencial IT & There
  30. 30. The absence of nonreferencial IT in many languages: • Today very hot. • It’s very hot today.
  31. 31. Missing relative pronoun in nonreferencial there is/are sentences (chinese). • There are many varieties of cancer exist. • There was a tire hanging from the roof served as their playground. There are many varieties of cancer that exist. There was a tire hanging from the roof served as their playground.
  32. 32. Incorrect use of polarity items with nonreferencial there (Korean): • There’s no any questions which check students’ reading comprehension. • There’s no particular difficulties in understanding cultural background.
  33. 33. Thank you!