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PARTICIPATORY LIVELIHOOD PLANNING

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A ppt on livelihood planning

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PARTICIPATORY LIVELIHOOD PLANNING

  1. 1. PARTCIPATORY LIVELIHOOD PLANNNING <ul><li>BY:BHUPAL NEOG, </li></ul><ul><li>MRDS/LIFCOM </li></ul>
  2. 2. Sub sector Analysis <ul><li>Sub sector analysis was first described and applied by the USAID-supported GEMINI project in the early 1990s as a way of identifying markets in which there are opportunities to help MSEs* grow (Haggblade & Gamser, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>It is intended to be diagnostic, as opposed to merely descriptive. It starts from recognition that Marginal & Small Enterprises operate as participants in complex economic systems, so their situation and growth prospects cannot be understood when viewed in isolation. It involves studying the networks of relationships linking suppliers, processors, transporters and traders in ways that connect MSEs with final consumers of goods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>A Sub sector is a sequence of activities required to produce a product or service </li></ul>
  3. 3. APPROACH FOR SUB SECTOR ANALYSIS STUDIES PARTICIPATORY WORKSHOPS LEARN AS YOU GO METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Uses classical approach using consultants who spend several weeks interviewing key informants, reviewing statistics, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is used as program design tool </li></ul><ul><li>Uses more streamlined approach bringing together informants, subsector reps for workshops, focus groups, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is used as program design tool </li></ul><ul><li>Target groups are selected and support initiatives begin immediately </li></ul>ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Provides a strong analytical background to subsector issues, constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly appropriate for development of new products or markets </li></ul><ul><li>Provides initial orientation to help select appropriate support initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters relationships with subsector representatives and sponsoring organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Less costly than in-depth analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids drawn out analysis and can save costs </li></ul><ul><li>Builds support initiatives on an in-depth understanding of target group needs and priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive to changing conditions </li></ul>DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Can be time consuming and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis can be excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Subsector reps are less involved in design/can be agency centered/or rigid </li></ul>- Analysis can be subjective and dependent on information from workshop or focus group participants and therefore may require validation <ul><li>Risk of getting involved in subsector for which no promising initiatives present themselves </li></ul>
  4. 4. Selected V.C SUB –SECTOR METHODOLOGY Sub-sector Analysis Identification Of Opportunities& constraints Identification of Business Services FIG Developed Micro-Enterprise start up Selection of Business Services Assessment of Business Services Packaging BDS Selection of Facilitation Services Backward & Forward Enterprises Demo Designing & Implementation Functioning , Commitment & behavior of V.C actors & support structures Market Viability Value added for selected areas Identification of Facilitation Services
  5. 5. STEPS FOR SUB SECTOR PLAN <ul><li>Orientation of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Participatory tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect secondary information's of the area/Try to explore feedback from stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Set a date </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Participatory Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct FGD/key informants interview </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul><ul><li>Do triangulation of livelihood activities to identify the potential sub sector </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Participatory workshop at cluster level, then at block level and district level </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the plan by focusing on value chains, projecting potential investments in demonstrations,enterprises,training,technical consultancy etc </li></ul><ul><li>Share the plan with line departments/communities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Inflow-Outflow Mapping Local Market Regional Market National Market International Market WBR-IV WBR-III WBR-II WBR-I
  7. 7. Resource Map <ul><li>Key questions </li></ul><ul><li>1. What resources are abundant? 2. What is the level of value addition for these resources? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What resources are scarce? 4. Does everyone have equal access to land? 5. Do women have access to land? 6. Do the poor have access to land? 7. Who makes decision on land allocation? 8. Where do people go to collect water? 9. Who collects water? 10. Where do people go to collect firewood? 11. Who collects firewood? 12. Where do people go graze livestock? 13. What kind of development activities do you carry out as a whole community? Where? 14. Which resource do you have the most problem with? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Resource Cards cum decision making matrix <ul><li>1. What are the resources that women use? 2. What are the resources that men use? 3. What resource do both use? 4. Who controls the use of these resources? 5. Who makes decisions about how resources are used </li></ul><ul><li>6. Who does the value addition of resources? etc </li></ul>
  9. 9. RESOURCES AND BENEFITS DECISION MADE FEMALE MALE <ul><li>Home stead gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Type of crop </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Use of products ( food/sale/barter) </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Crop </li></ul><ul><li>Type of crop </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Use of products ( food/sale/barter) </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Buying and selling of cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from products </li></ul><ul><li>Pig </li></ul><ul><li>Pig husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>Buying and selling of pig </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from Pig </li></ul><ul><li>NTFP </li></ul><ul><li>Use of honey </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from honey </li></ul><ul><li>Use of bamboo </li></ul><ul><li>Cash from bamboo </li></ul><ul><li>Income generation & Employment </li></ul><ul><li>When and who will go to market </li></ul><ul><li>Earned cash </li></ul><ul><li>Lab our :when /where </li></ul><ul><li>Migration : When/Where </li></ul>
  10. 10. Seasonal Calendar <ul><li>1 . What are the busiest months of the year? 2. At what time of the year is food scarce? 3. How does income vary over the year for men and women? 4. How does expenditure vary over the year for men and women? 5. How does rainfall vary over the year? 6. How does water availability for human consumption vary over the year? 7. How does livestock forage availability vary over the year? 8. How does credit availability vary over the year? 9. When are holidays and how many days in which month? 10. When are most agricultural work carried out by women? 11. When are most agricultural work carried out by men? 12. When is most non-agricultural work carried out by women? 13. When is most non-agricultural work carried out by men? 14. Which could be the most appropriate season for additional activities for men and women? What time constraints do exist and for what reason? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Income and Expenditure Matrix <ul><li>Income matrix: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most important sources of income in the community, both cash and in kind? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has only a few sources of income? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has many sources of income? </li></ul><ul><li>How do poor peoples sources of income compare to rich people's? </li></ul><ul><li>How do women's sources of income compare to men's? </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure matrix: </li></ul><ul><li>How are expenditures spread out over the year? </li></ul><ul><li>Which expenditures are common to almost every one? </li></ul><ul><li>For each social group, what proportion of income is spent on basic needs like food, clothing, housing, health care and education? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can save? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can buy equipment, tools, agricultural inputs, or other things that help improve their work? </li></ul><ul><li>How do women's expenditures compare to men's? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Daily Activity Clocks <ul><li>1.For each person, how is his or her time divided? 2. What is the difference between the women's and the men's clocks? 3. Who has the heaviest workload? 4. Who has time for rest and leisure? 5. How much time per day do women or girls spend collecting water and fuel wood? </li></ul>
  13. 13. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SERVICES MATRIX <ul><li>1 . Identify the categories of services to be analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the following categories of BDS can be distinguished: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market access; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training and technical assistance; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input supply; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology and product development; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and logistics; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy/advocacy; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>2. Formulate for each category of service the following aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints and opportunities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required services and target of those services; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing provision of services; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints to the provision of services; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comments on the (MIS) match between required services and existing services. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. FACTOGRAMME <ul><li>Objective : To identify and classify external factors which are of influence to the field of analysis (for example, enterprise development) — it helps to answer the following questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which relevant factors (positive and negative) are influencing it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the importance of those factors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the degree of power over each factor (ability to influence)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done to address the factors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What partners can be used to influence the factors? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material Papers, meta-cards, pens, markers, and flip charts </li></ul>Process 1. Define your field of analysis. 2. List all (external) factors influencing your field of analysis: - political/legal, physical, infrastructural, technological, psychological, sociocultural, economical, etc .
  16. 16. <ul><li>3. Identify if the factor has a positive or negative impact on </li></ul><ul><li>your field of analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>- positive: green card; or </li></ul><ul><li>negative: red card. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Identify if the factor is likely to happen: </li></ul><ul><li>if not, leave the factor out. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Identify if you can influence the factors directly or not. Classify the factors as related to: </li></ul><ul><li>- policies/rules/regulations; </li></ul><ul><li>- supply/inputs of the project/organization; </li></ul><ul><li>- demand/outputs of the organization; and </li></ul><ul><li>- competition/cooperation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>6. Mark the factors that have the highest impact on your field of analysis with (*) </li></ul><ul><li>maximum five positive factors (opportunities) and five negative factors (threats). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Analyse the factogramme. </li></ul><ul><li>- What are the major positive factors (opportunities)? </li></ul><ul><li>- What are the major negative factors (threats)? </li></ul><ul><li>- Which ones can you influence directly and which not? </li></ul><ul><li>- How could you address those factors that you can not influence directly (through which other actors)? </li></ul>
  18. 18. SUB-SECTOR FREQUENCY MATRIX Objective: The sub-sector frequency matrix is used to identify sub-sectors with potential for enterprise development based on the number of villages for which the various sub-sectors are relevant. Material: Papers, meta-cards, pens, markers, and flip charts Time: Half-day Process 1. To provide input for this matrix, workshops and interviews need to be held in a number of villages scattered in different production zones of the district. 2. This needs to be followed by an assessment with the respondents of the main sub-sectors of production which have potential for that village. 3. Information needs to be gathered on both production and resource availability of a product group and on existing skills and interest in that sub-sector. 4. List identified sub-sectors. 5. For each sub-sector, indicate the number of villages showing potential for a particular sub-sector (sub-sectors which appeared in the highest number of villages are those with the potential to have the most impact across a large population). The score indicates the number of villages with potential to supply products in the sub-sector. 6. Select high potential sub-sectors for more in-depth sub-sector analysis in which markets will be assessed. Comments and Application - A proper selection of sub-sectors needs to be based on a thorough analysis of the local economy. Involvement from all the key stakeholders from the government, private sector, and civil society is desirable.
  19. 19. SUB SECTOR RANKING GRID Objective: The sub-sector ranking grid is used to come to a selection of sub-sectors based on number of criteria and weighing of those criteria for the various sub-sectors. Material: Papers, meta-cards, pens, markers, and flip charts Time: Two hours Process 1. Select proposed sub-sectors (amongst others based on district overview). 2. Define criteria to select sub-sectors. 3. Draw matrix with selected sub-sectors and criteria. 4. Rank criteria for each proposed sub-sector on a scale of five with one being the lowest score and five being the highest. (If one desires to give more weight to particular criteria, then a ‘weighted ranking system’ can be established. In this system, one could assign, for example, a weighted value of two to particular criteria. If that criterion is ranked with a three, for example, then its score would be 2 x 3 = 6.) 5. Total the numbers and select sub-sector(s). Comments and Application The ranking exercise should not be used as a straightjacket, but rather as a tool to facilitate discussion and making choices. A proper selection of proposed sub-sectors and criteria is critical to the selection process and needs to be based on a thorough analysis of the local economy. Involvement of all the key stakeholders from the government, private sector, and civil society is desirable. Gender could be addressed by including a separate criterion on the potential for income generation for women and/or concentration of women in the sub-sector.
  20. 20. Example of Sub –Sector Ranking Grid Criteria Proposed Sub Sectors Sub –Sector-1 Sub –Sector-2 Sub –Sector-3 Unmet market demand ( weighted 2 *) Opportunities for linkages ( weighted 2*) Potential for employment generation Government or Donor Interest Total
  21. 21. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION Objectives - To discuss specific topics in detail - To cover a maximum range of relevant topics - To provide specific information so as to direct the discussion toward concrete and detailed accounts of the participants’ experiences - To foster interaction that explores the participants’ feelings and opinions in some depth - To take into account the personal context that participants use in generating responses Material Paper, markers, prepared questions, cassette recorder, or video camera Time Depends upon the given situation Process 1. Plan and write questions before the discussion. 2. For an unstructured discussion, two broadly-stated topic questions will usually do.
  22. 22. 3. For a structured discussion, use four or five topic questions with more specific points under each major topic. 4. In some focus groups, each participant makes an individual, uninterrupted statement about herself or himself at the start of the session. 5. Invite a small group of people (six to 12) to participate in the focus group discussion who are knowledgeable and are interested in the topic. 6. Make all participants interested to participate and talk. 7. Be careful that the discussion does not diverge too far from the original topic and no participants dominate the discussion. 8. End session with final summary statements from participants
  23. 23. Entrepreneurial Mapping <ul><li>Creativity exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Tower building </li></ul><ul><li>Ring throw </li></ul><ul><li>Boat making </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial Assessment </li></ul>
  24. 24. PARTICIPATORY WORKSHOPS <ul><li>Organize it at cluster level then at block level and district level with the help of a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Organize it only when you have completed data collection at village level </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the workshop sector wise only after triangulation process </li></ul><ul><li>Invite all key stakeholders of the sector </li></ul><ul><li>Take the opinion of the stakeholder/actors in the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Also try to analyze the seriousness of the value chain players </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the experiences of the value chain players </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate the cluster level plan after the workshop </li></ul>

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