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Evaluation is an integral part of
teaching. It can be used as an ongoing
teaching tool to improve the effectiveness of
Evaluation is the process of
determining to what extent the educational
objectives are being realised.
The Education Commission
(1964-66) says that examination
reform has become crucial to all
progress and has to go , hand in
hand with improvements in
Present day examination System
Various educationists and
Education Commissions appointed by
Govt.of India have pointed out the
defects of the present exam system in
our universities. Dominance of final
end of the year exam gives the
impression to students that they do not
have to study through out the year.
In nursing, evaluation is meant for
effective strengthening of instruction for
attaining the goals of educational system.
Evaluation is a value judgment on an
observation ,“performance test” or indeed
any “data” whether directly measured or
(International Dictionary of Education,1977)
In India, we use several words for these
measuring devices like unit tests, final
exam. The Sanskrit term “Pareeksha”
refers to all these words. “Eeksha” is to
observe and “pari” means
comprehensively, hence “Pareeksha”
means comprehensive observation.
MODEL OF TEACHING – LEARNING PROCESS
III EVALUATE THE
EXTENT TO WHICH
OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN
RESULTS , MODIFY
I CHOOSE AND
FORMATIVE V/S SUMMATIVE EVALUATION
Formative evaluation is typically conducted
during the development of a program or
product and it is conducted , often more than
once, for in-house staff of the program with
the intend to improve.
Summative evaluation provides information
on the product’s efficacy ( it’s ability to do
what it was designed to do).
ORIGIN OF THE TERM
Scriven coined the term formative
evaluation in 1967.
Scriven (1967) first suggested a distinction
between formative and summative evaluation.
when describing two major functions of
Scriven described formative evaluation was
intended to foster development and
improvement within an ongoing activity.
Benjamin Bloom took up the term in 1968
in the book Learning for Mastery to consider
formative assessment as a tool for improving
teaching learning process for students.
A formative evaluation is a method for
judging the worth of a program while the
program activities are forming (in progress).
“Formative Evaluation include all those activities
undertaken by teachers , and/or by students
, which provide information to be used as
feedback to modify the teaching and learning
activities in which they are engaged,”
(Black and Wiliam )
Cowie and Bell defined formative assessment
as “the process used by teachers and students to
recognize and respond to student learning in order to
enhance that learning , during the learning”.
To provide feedback for teachers to modify
subsequent learning activities and
To identify and remediate group or individual
To move focus away from achieving grades
and onto learning processes, in order to
increase self efficacy and reduce the negative
impact of extrinsic motivation.
Major purpose of formative evaluation is to
make adjustments in an educational activity
as soon as they are needed.
Students find opportunity to revise and refine
their thinking by means of formative
FEEDBACK IS THE CENTRAL FUNCTION
Principles of good feedback practice
Clarifies what good performance is
Facilitates the development of self assessment
Provides high quality information to students
about their learning
Encourages teacher and peer dialogue around
Encourages positive motivational beliefs and
Provides opportunities to close the gap
between current and desired performance
Provides information to teachers that can be
used to help shape teaching.
To employ formative evaluation in the class room
, the teacher has to make sure that each student
participates in learning process.
EXAMPLE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
A faculty member looks at the previous year’s
student test results to help plan teacher
workshops, to address the areas of weakness
in student performance.
Eg. Medical Nursing for 2nd year BSc
Annually 3 internal exams
Evaluation of assignment
Eg. Medical Nursing for 2nd year BSc
Evaluation of care plan
Evaluation of clinical presentation
A teacher asks her students to write down , in
a brainstorm activity , all they know about
prevention of communicable diseases so that
she can discover what students already know
about the levels of prevention that she is
intended to teach.
Formative evaluation supports teachers and
students in decision-making during educational and
learning processes while summative evaluation
occurs at the end of a learning unit and determines if
the content being taught was retained.
PRINCIPLES OF FORMATIVE
1. Be part of effective planning of
teaching and learning.
2. Focus on how students learn.
3. Be recognized to as central to
4. Be regarded as a key professional
skill for teachers.
Be sensitive and constructive because
any assessment has an emotional
Take account of the importance of
Promote commitment to learning goals
and a shared understanding of the
criteria by which they are assessed.
Enable learners to receive constructive
guidance about how to improve.
Develop learners capacity for self
assessment so that they can become
reflective and self managing.
Recognize the full range of achievement
of all learners.
BENEFITS OF FORMATIVE EVALUATION
It encourages the students to learn from
mistakes and is not linked to grading
practice or other forms of judgment.
Faculty encourage a mastery goal
orientation(growth focus) over a
performance goal orientation (competition
Faculty provides models and instructions
to help students connect formative feed
back with meta cognitive practice.
BENEFITS FOR TEACHERS
Teachers are able to determine what students
already know and to what degree.
Teachers can decide what minor
modifications or changes in instruction they
need to make so that all students can
succeed in upcoming instruction.
BENEFITS FOR STUDENTS
Students are motivated to learn.
Students take responsibility for their
Students can become users of
assessment alongside the teacher.
Students learn valuable life long skills
such as self evaluation , self assessment
and goal setting.
DRAWBACKS OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Formative assessment can endanger the
relationship between a teacher and a
Difficulty in relating and comparing the
standards between institutions/ colleges.
It can give rise to suspicions in the mind of
users on the validity and reliability of the
results of assessment.
“When the cook tastes the
soup, that’s formative; when the
guests taste the soup, that is
( Robert Stakes)
It monitors how well the instructional goals
and objectives are being met.
Formative evaluation in an educational
program is useful in analyzing learning
materials, student learning and teacher
Formative evaluation is to catch deficiencies
so that proper learning interventions can
Formative evaluation is primarily a building
process which accumulates a series of components
of new materials , skills and problems into an
ultimate meaningful whole.
Formative assessment is a range of formal and
informal assessment procedures employed by
teachers during the learning process in order to
modify teaching and learning activities to improve
It typically involves qualitative feedback for
both student and teacher .
The students are encouraged to think
critically and develop analytical skills.
Introduction of internal assessment will
enable a teacher to assess certain
intellectual abilities and skills that are
not tested by the external and
The data obtained through internal
assessment should be used not just to
rank the students, but to improve the
Main purpose of introducing internal
assessment is to integrate teaching and
evaluation and to test those skills and abilities
which cannot be tested through a written
exam at the end of the course.
Teachers can create appropriate lessons and
activities for groups of learners or individual
Teachers can inform students about their
current progress in order to help them set
goals for improvement.
TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Written or Oral Quiz
Short duration objective type tests
Short answer questions
Essay type questions
“Point in time” using one minute paper
National Standardised testing system. Each
semester students take a test that identifies
the student’s competencies and their
Meta analysis of studies into formative
assessment have indicated significant learning
gains where formative assessment is used,
across all content areas.
Black and William (1998) reviewed 250
studies. Formative assessment produced more
powerful effect on students.
PRACTICAL TIPS FOR CONDUCTING
Patience for both teachers and students
Challenging and motivating experience
Uniformity in the assessment policy of
Principals of colleges must be involved in
Proper guideline for evaluation
Teachers should be trained through
workshops/ follow-up activities, to conduct
internal assessment programmes.
Preparation of teachers and students
Copy of syllabus
Implications for teaching
Evaluation is an integral part of
teaching. Both formative and summative
evaluation are important. Formative
evaluation is useful in analyzing learning
materials, student learning , achievements
and teacher effectiveness.