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"Breaking up pharma´s value chain - what can we expect", MICHAEL MÜLLER

  1. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare Breaking up pharma´s value chain - what can we expect Dr. Michael C. Müller
  2. MONACON The healthcare world is changing more quickly than we can believe 2  The Chinese middle class will be above 1 billion people by 2020  India will have to treat ~75 million people with diabetes by 2025 (today 8 million in Germany)  At constant prices, the total costs of diabetes in India would rise to $30bn in 2020, which equals $80bn based on US-prices [for comparison: today total drug spending in in Germany is appr. €50bn]  By 2050, 50% of the population in the developed world will be chronically ill Source: Monacon research © Monacon
  3. MONACON If healthcare expenditure continued simply following demographics, cost would reach 30% of total GDP 3 Projected Healthcare spend OECD countries 2005 2030 2050 2070 US 15.3 24.9 36.7 65.0 Switzerland 11.6 18.8 27.8 49.8 France 11.1 18.0 26.6 47.6 Germany 10.7 17.4 25.6 45.9 Greece 10.1 16.4 24.2 43.3 Canada 9.8 15.9 23.5 42.0 Netherlands 9.2 14.9 22.0 39.5 Denmark 9.1 14.8 21.8 39.0 Italy 8.9 14.5 21.3 38.2 UK 8.3 13.5 19.9 35.8 Turkey 7.6 12.3 18.2 32.6 Mexico 6.4 10.4 15.3 27.5 • Need for systematic change • Paradigm shift required • Traditional models in dead end now <10% 10-15% >25% 15-25% Percent of GDP Source: Extrapolation of current growth relative to OECD GDP growth
  4. MONACON Pharma today is investing 5 times as much in R&D as it was two decades ago 4© Monacon Trends in R&D expenditure, static IRR, and NME approved by the FDA 31 35 38 43 50 54 61 69 79 88 96 108 120 129 127 129 136 134 136 143 150 10.5 7.7 7.2 4.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 WorldwidepharmaR&Dspend($bio) StaticIRR(%) Source: CEPTON, EvaluatePharma, PWC publication # of FDA approved NME 33 58 46 40 37 35 34 26 32 25 25 22 30 35 26 35 41 35 50 56
  5. MONACON In the past year, many Big Pharma firms have underperformed the S&P 500 while smaller, more specialized companies rose to the top 5Source: CEPTON/CRA Analysis, Onvista -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Stock performance of major Big Pharma and Biotech – Nov. 17th 2013 vs. Nov. 17th 2016 Performance Big Pharma Biotechnology Index © Monacon
  6. MONACON In many major therapeutic areas - based on current therapeutic approaches - innovation is coming to an end (1) 6 Hypertension Expected innovation and market developments for Big 71 – 2010-2020 [US$bn] Source: Decision resources 2011/2012 1) US, GER, UK, FR, IT, SP, JPN existing MoAs innovative MoAs 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2009 2019 Renin inhib./AIIRA FDCs CCB/RAAS inh./Diuretic FDCs Cross Indication FDCs Renin inhib./Diuretic FDCs Renin inhib. Beta blockers Alpha blockers Aldosterone antag. Diuretics CCB/RAAS inhib. FDCs CCB AIIRAs/Diuretic FDCs AIIRAs ACEIs/Diuretic FDCs ACEIs 27 $bn 23 $bn © Monacon
  7. MONACON In many major therapeutic areas - based on current therapeutic approaches - innovation is coming to an end (2) 7 Expected innovation and market developments for Big 71 – 2010-2020 [US$bn] Source: Decision resources 2011/2012 1) US, GER, UK, FR, IT, SP, JPN existing MoAs innovative MoAs 0 1 2 3 2010 2020 Adenosine A2A receptor ant. Noradrenaline precursors Antiepileptic drugs Antipsychotic agents Anti-dementia agents MAO-B inhibitors Anticholinergic agents Antiglutamatergic agents Dopamine agonists Dopamine precursors 2.7 $bn 2.6 $bn Parkinson’s Disease © Monacon
  8. MONACON The classical model has come to an end – bridging needed until real new innovation will be ready 8 The innovation cycle challenge Modify symptoms 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Attainment of symptomatic unmet medical need Curative approaches 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100% Attainment of curative unmet medical need • Symptomatic approaches reaching saturation • Increasing efforts required to achieve steadily decreasing effects • Less and less willingness to accept minor increments in markets and by payors • Real innovation • Understanding fundamental disease pathology • Treating pathology to ultimately cure the disease Manage outcome Treat underlying pathology Symptomatic approaches Need to bridge © Monacon
  9. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare Paradigms are shifting 1. Genome sequencing and personalized medicine will revolutionize diagnostics and treatment 2. Prevention will develop into an essential market segment, preventing diseases from the earliest possible point on and will monitor disease progression or rehabilitation of patients closely 3. IT and communication will become an integral part of pharma & healthcare, allowing firms and institutions to generate and access big data and share knowledge in real-time 4. Payors will adapt to a new paradigm, using risk shared financing and novel infrastructure 5. The industry will break fresh grounds, turning away from the conventional model of R&D and sales, focusing on innovations generated outside the traditional core competences 6. Secrecy has become a dogma of the past
  10. MONACON Pharma´s value chain of the past was more or less fully controlled and done in-house 10 Research Development Manufacturing Distribution/ Logistics Marketing Sales Pharma Value chain of the past Outsourcing Aquisition & Licensing Partnering sharing risk and reward © Monacon
  11. MONACON 11 In the future, the value chain will be broken up, allowing for full partnership with other players Biotech Academia Tech Giants Big Data Social Media CRO Med Devices Social Media other Pharma Pharma Digital Services Homecare Tech Giants CRO/CSO Logistics providers Small-scale Manufacturers Pharma service providers Data Value chain of the future Research Development Manufacturing & Distribution/ Logistics Marketing Sales Pharma Outsourcing Classical licensing Partnering sharing risk and reward Pharma Tech Giants CSO © Monacon
  12. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare Genome sequencing changing the face of healthcare
  13. MONACON Personalized Medicine represents a drastic departure from the conventional treatment paradigm 13 Stratified Medicine Personalized Medicine – the scope shifts from standardized to highly individualized solutions „One fits all“ Personalized medicine Gene Therapy Heterologous Tissue Engineering Autologous Tissue Engineering Patient individual onco. Vaccinations stem cell vector+ ø  Stratified Oncological Vaccinations Source: Cepton © Monacon
  14. MONACON Based on individual mutations, a drug will work in a certain patient or not 14 Targeted therapies – anti-EGFR therapy1 and KRAS4 / HER2+ and Herceptin® 1) e.g. Cetuximab or Panitumumab 2) mCRC = metastatic colorectal carcinoma; wildtype KRAS in NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer) 80-90% and in head-and-neck cancer 95% 3) EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor 4) KRAS = Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homologue, a signaling protein activating among other the MAP-kinase singaling pathway Source: CEPTON HER2 antibodies binding to receptors thereby inhibiting tumor growth HER21 normally expressing cell HER2 over- expression causing increased cell proliferation Signal down-regulated due to receptor inhibition by anti-EGFR antibody Signal up-regulated due to constitutive KRAS activation ! © Monacon
  15. MONACON # Product Company Phas e Pharmacological Class WW 2022 Sales ($m) NPV ($bn) Indication 1 Ocrevus Roche Filed Anti-CD20 Mab 3,962 16,965 MS 2 Dupilumab Sanofi Ph. III Anti-interleukin-4 & interleukin-13(IL-13) Mab 3,725 12,884 Dermatitis 3 Ozanimod Celgene Ph. III Sphingosine-1-phosphate(S1P)1&5 receptor modul. 2,112 9,458 MS 4 Durvalumab AstraZeneca Ph. III Anti-programmed death-1 ligand-1(PD-L1) Mab 1,673 8,276 Oncology 5 Abemaciclib Eli Lilly Ph. III Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 & 6 inhibitor 1,619 7,919 Oncology 6 Veliparib AbbVie Ph. III Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor 1,714 7,502 Oncology 7 Semaglutide Novo Nordisk Ph. III Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) agonist 2,356 6,889 Diabetes 8 Abducanumab Biogen Ph. III Anti-beta-amyloid (Abeta) Mab 939 6,889 Alzheimer’s 9 LEE011 Novartis Ph. III Cyclin-dependet kinase (CDK) 4 & 6 inhibitor 1,410 6,370 Oncology 10 Emicizumab Roche Ph. III Anti-factor Ixa/X bispecific Mab 1,765 6,336 Hemophilia A 11 ABP 501 Amgen Filed Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) Mab 810 6,273 Oncology 12 Lanadelumab Shire Ph. III Anti-plasma kallikrein Mab 1,064 5,915 HAE 13 Solanezumab Eli Lilly Ph. III Anti-beta-amyloid (Abeta) Mab 1,556 5,577 Alzheimer’s 14 Fovista Ophthotech Ph. III Anti-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-B aptamer 1,973 5,514 AMD4 15 Apalutamide Jonson & Jonson Ph. III Anti-androgen 1,160 5,366 Oncology 16 Bictegravir/F Gilead Sciences Ph. III Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) & HIV integrase inhibitor 3,489 5,276 Alzheimer’s 17 Verubecestat Merck & Co Ph. III Beta secretase cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 inhibitor 1,480 5,219 Alzheimer’s 18 JCAR017 Juno Therapeutics Ph. II Anti-CD 19 chimeric antigen recept. (CAR) T cell ther. 1,086 4,836 Leukaemia 19 Mongersen Celgene Ph. III Smad7 mRNA antisense 1,205 4,719 Crohn`s 20 Sirukumab Jonson & Jonson Ph. III Anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) MAb 1,134 4,708 Dermatitis Looking into “most valuable pipeline” reveals new kids on the block on almost all “is personal medicine” 15© MonaconSource: CRA / EvaluatePharma 1) Primary biliary cirrhosis 2) Dry age-related macular degeneration 3) Chronic lymphocytic Leukaemia 4) Wet age-related macular degeneration; * Organic, In-licensed, Acquisition Most Valuable R&D Projects Big Pharma Biotech/Niche
  16. MONACON Breakthrough research suggests that pancreatic ß-cells can be grown for transplantation 16Source: Pagliuca et al., Cell (2014; 159: 428-439) • For the first time, fully functional ß-cells could be grown from embryonic stem cells • Cells are capable of sustainably secreting insulin, controlling the blood sugar like intrinsic ß-cells • Stem cells could be grown individually for each patient, minimizing autoimmune response of the body • Break through would make conventional insulin therapies or complex closed loop systems/artificial pancreas obsolete © Monacon
  17. MONACON Therapeutic vaccination is not only fully personalized, it offers healing of cancer for the first time 17Source: Bayer Innovation / Scientific American / CEPTON Bayer’s/Icon`s plant-cloned idiotype NHL vaccine Idiotype production Cloning idiotype gene magnICON® Leukine® (GM-CSF) Biopsy Conjugation to KLH © Monacon
  18. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare Prevention by “Dr. Pepper”
  19. MONACON Smart-phone apps and mobile devices are combined to create entire warning systems for medical urgencies 19 Vicinity’s new Asthma monitor ‘Wheezy’ warns patients of Asthma attacks • Small monitor is connected to the smart phone • When patient blows into phone, device scans the sound along 40 Asthma-related characteristics • Device warns patients of asthma attacks and informs caregivers and relatives • If risk is too high, phone automatically calls ambulance Source: Vicinity Health © Monacon
  20. MONACON Biostamps and implantable chips are a new generation of “wearable electronics”, helping prevent diseases by non-invasive monitoring 20 Utilization of patches for non-invasive monitoring Source: MC10 Inc., 1) VMed Publication • Flexible “biostamps” stick directly to the skin • Monitors temperature, hydration and strain without external support, more accurately than under controlled conditions • Widely used in newborns and babies to monitor them continuously and non-invasively • Implantable chips serve as storage device for personal health data: patients can keep track of their health, always having the data with them © Monacon
  21. MONACON Foot mats and shoe soles can prevent diabetic foot ulcers 21 • Sensor-enabled mat, scanning feet and collecting data about blood flow • Automatic transmission of data to cloud • Analyzes of changes in blood flow and early alerts • Surro Sense Rx – insole that collects data on pressure patients put on feet • Wireless transmission of data to a wristwatch display or smartphone • Alerts to users at pressure that can lead to ulcers or be an early sign of ulcers • Reduction of amputations by up to 85% due to early alerts Patient empowerment as a new business model to prevent secondary complications Source: CEPTON research / Podimetrics / Orpyx © Monacon
  22. MONACON New, ultra-fast genomic sequencing technologies allow to prevent genetic diseases in newborns before they manifest 22 Genomic sequencing allows to prevent rare genetic disease Phenylketoneuria Source: Foxnews Health, Press releases PKU is a hereditary disease, yet just one in four children of carrier parents develop overt PKU • Phenylketonuria (PKU) causes severe damage to nervous system and brain if undetected (1 in 15,000 newborns positive) • Immediate therapy after birth is needed to prevent disease from manifesting, at later stages no therapy is available • New, fast genomic sequencing technology allows to run tests within two days, quick enough to deliver prevention in all cases © Monacon
  23. MONACON You can find out what your DNA says about you and your family! 23 DNA sequencing as offered by 23andMe Source: 23andMe • Patients can order DNA sequencing online, obtaining full insight into their genome • With the help of physicians, consumers can read the risk of developing certain diseases from DNA and initiate steps to prevent them © Monacon
  24. MONACON 24Source: 23andMe Would you want to know that you will have ALS in 10 years from now with now available treatment against it today? Will your insurance ask you for testing? Will employers ask for it, once data is avaibale? Will there be different classes of men, depending on their gene-code? © Monacon
  25. MONACON 23andMe analyzes patient´s genetic patterns to help Pfizer in its search for novel drug targets 25 Patient diagnosed with Crohn‘s disease or ulcerative colitis DNA-saliva kit Online survey about IBS experience Analysis of genetic mutations linked to inflammatory bowel disease Pharma and independent genomics company cooperation • Together, 23andMe, a Google-backed genomics firm, and Pfizer will analyze data from the genetic information of over 10,000 patients to find genes linked to inflammatory bowel disease • Pfizer, not currently marketing any IBD drugs, is looking for potential targets of new therapies • Outsourcing this analysis to 23andMe who has specialized in genetic information gathering saves both time and R&D spend for Pfizer + Source: 23andMe, CEPTON research © Monacon
  26. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare Payors will adapt
  27. MONACON 27© CEPTON a CRA company
  28. MONACON Outcome based Risk Sharing helps to gain trust with stakeholders, thereby strengthening the own position in the market 28Source: Illustrated London News, 1895 Long history of risk-sharing © Monacon
  29. MONACON Sharing risk may apply to price reductions, volume caps or even total re-pays in case of therapy failures 29 Novartis funds the cost of its drug in cases where patients experience an osteoporotic fracture within 1 year following drug infusion Patients have to show clinical response every three months (based on rheumatoid factor) in order to continue reimbursement If annual spending for the scheme exceed A$100 million, Pfizer covers additional costs Criteria No-cure, no-pay deal (Germany) Aclasta (Novartis) Osteoporosis DAK and Barmer Ersatzkasse Fixed budget agreement (Australia) Enbrel (Wyeth/Pfizer) Rheumatoid Arthritis Pharmaceutical Benefits Pricing Authority (PBAC) NHS pays for the drug only when tumor shrinks and 50% reduction in blood serum M-protein levels within four treatment cycles is proven Performance based payment (UK) Velcade (Johnson & Johnson) Multiple Myeloma National Health Service (NHS) Source: press research © Monacon
  30. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare The industry has to break fresh grounds
  31. MONACON Rethinking the R&D approach means switching from a mono- directional in-house to a highly collaborative work model 31 Yesterday: Closed innovation Tomorrow: Open innovation 70% of all Phase 1 targets today, are not generated in-house anymore! Focused biotech IT Crowd research Gene labs Technoloy platforms Universities & Academia Source: CEPTON © Monacon
  32. MONACON Setting an early example, Roche has widened its innovative reach and discovery potential by creating research hubs with over 300 partners 32Source: CEPTON, Roche 1) Proof of concept Diagno- stics Diagno- stics Diagno- stics Early research & development through POC1 Starting phase III Independent research hubs working with numerous external partners under various forms of collaborations Product development Manufacturing Commercialization Secure diversity Roche pharmaGenen- tech © Monacon
  33. MONACON 33© Monacon Big Pharma Partner Deal Type Rationale for deal/agreement Year Joint Venture Sanofi and Verily Life Sciences LL are teamed up on a $ 500 million joint venture named Onduo to develop a comprehensive diabetes platform for the type 2 diabetes community 2016 Partnership Developing epigenetic approach to central nervous system disease, crafting small-molecule therapies to modulate the process that governs heritable genes and how they express themselves 2016 Partnership Abbvie invests up to $750 million in letting Google’s biotech spinoff Calico do R&D on aging- related neurologic diseases such as neurodegeneration 2014 Acquisition Okairos’ platform technology is based on novel viral vectors (deliver genetic material into cells) that are designed to stimulate immune responses, (in particular T-cells) 2013 Attempted Acquisition Illumina rejected an acquisition offer by Roche, making a $6.7bn bid; the offer, equalling >30 times Illumina’s EBITA and 6 times their sales, reflected Roche’s firm belief in the future of genome sequencing in healthcare 2012 Partnership Developing a molecular companion diagnostic test intended to identify patients most likely to benefit from a new Bayer antibody-drug conjugate 2012 Partnership Collaborating on the regulatory submissions of Dako's HercepTest and HER2 FISH pharmDx as companion diagnostics for a Genentech’s trastuzumab emtansine in advanced HER2- positive breast cancer 2012 Big Pharma is turning externally for innovation – looking for unique partnerships in novel therapeutics and personalized medicine Selected collaboration agreements and acquisitions in Personalized and Innovative medicine
  34. MONACON Scientists and pharma try to leverage crowd-sourcing for research 34 • Current disease studied include Malaria, Tuberculosis and Sleeping Sickness • GSK created Open Lab and gave complete IP on their library and compounds away • Detailed data from GSK‘s many clinical trials is made available online to induce „open innovation“ • “Play to Cure™: Genes in Space is the world’s first free mobile game that uses the collective force of players to analyse real genetic data and help beat cancer sooner” • The players‘ routes through the dense space field help accelerate discovery of cancer-accelerating oncogenes Examples of crowd-sourcing research applications Source: CEPTON research, press releases © Monacon
  35. MONACON Secrecy has become a dogma of the past - pharma companies are cooperating to share information and escalate innovation 35© CEPTON a CRA company A data transparency and collaboration project which grants free access to clinical data in oncology trials Source: Project Data Sphere
  36. MONACON 36© CEPTON a CRA company
  37. MONACONadvice & investment in healthcare IT and communication will become an integral healthcare part
  38. MONACON Social media have become a serious healthcare player 38 Over 250,000 members share information on • Frequency and severity of therapy side effects • Adherence, frequency of medication intake / dosages • Reasons for therapy termination or switches • Provides firms with real-time data on treatment outcomes, disease progression, perceived effectiveness and adherence on their product Source: CEPTON research / PatientsLikeMe © Monacon
  39. MONACON Pharma partners with social media and big-data to use data for a new kind of clinical development 39 Examples of crowd-based social media data usage Source: Genentech, Pfizer, press releases • 5-year commercial agreement • Genentech can tap PatientsLikeMe’s network for focused research projects to evaluate and develop new medical evidence and measures • Communicate with a huge peer group, collecting real-time data • Great potential also cross-sectional searches conducted • 23andMe, a Google-backed genomics firm and Pfizer will analyze data from the genetic information of over 10,000 patients to find genes linked to inflammatory bowel disease • Genetic information matched with IBS history and anamnesis from social media query © Monacon
  40. MONACON Meanwhile, other companies have collaborated with medical technology to accurately monitor patients and better adherence levels 40 • Electronic pill bottles • Collect and send all adherence data (based on time and number of pills taken from bottle) in real- time • If doses are missed, patients receive customizable messaging and interventions • Sensor for the back of Respimat inhaler, collecting and transferring data on drug use • Understand reasons for nonadherence and gather data to improve adherence levels for asthma and COPD patients Source: CEPTON research • Signed an exclusive 15-year agreement • Genesis created a compact, ‘all-in- one’ artificial pancreas © Monacon
  41. MONACON Developing “smart pills”, monitoring administration and adherence, Proteus is said to be one of the next healthcare IPOs 41 Increase adherence – smart pills and patient monitoring solutions Continuous Medication sensing & Wireless upload to Raisin enabled mobile Device (Smartphone) to collect data and interact with patient • Patient directed Permissions • Web Server Interface • RaisinRx Population • Data Aggregation RN/Physician/Pharmacist Family Caregivers & Community • Alerts • Trends • Support • Wellness Index • Summary • Alerts • Cross-Patient benchmarks Informed Clinical Communication and Support + Tagged drugs (RFID, chip tag, chemical) Receiver carried on body (patch, watch, …) Proteus recently secured additional funding of >$360m from >20 prominent investors + + + Source: Proteus / press research © Monacon
  42. MONACON New implantable depots will be able to replace the daily pill by releasing medication continuously for 16 years 42 Prevention without substantial patient interaction • The implant contains a dose of a contraceptive sufficient for 16 years • Device releases 30 μg of the contraceptive every day • The drug is stored between ultra-thin layers and realeased when a layer dissolves as a rection to an electrical current • Patients can turn the device on and off remotely • The product is designed to hold any other drug to be administred that way Source: Microchips © Monacon
  43. MONACON Apple Research includes Apps which generates research data from patients • Symptoms, courses of a disease, therapies and after care for several diseases are collected and evaluated by researchers • Data is collected with Apple products like the iPhone or the iWatch and Apps like the Apple Health apps Apple Health on every iPhone generates massive research data 43Source: Apple © Monacon
  44. MONACON Samsung is making big moves into the healthcare arena Source: Cepton / Bloomberg BusinessWeek / Financial Times / Fiercebiotech 44 • Strategic partnership between Samsung (90%) and Quintiles (10%) • Provision of biopharmaceutical contract manufacturing solutions • Samsung plans to invest more than $2bn until 2020 into new biosimilar plant • Production of biosimilar versions of bestselling cancer and immunological disease at half of current western prices • $1.8bn annual revenue expected by 2020 Products easily shipped worldwide from Samsung‘s Korean facility © Monacon
  45. MONACON NO YES ELIGIBLE? AIS checks suitability Physician opens AIS file Intermedix / Compugroup and Pharma Partnering Source: intermedix Completed Merger of Equals transaction between IMS Health and Quintiles provides evidence on future role of “data” 45 Assess real time data Create virtual control arm Use doctors office file Certain set of therapies Potential patient for study • Integration of pop-up windows, when the physician opens an eligible patient file • Individual activation of selection of studies • Providing Case Record Form online (if required) Clinical trials automation by Quintiles Real time evidence creation by IMS • Collecting real time patient treatment data globally • Generating “virtual controll arms for clinical studies” • Provided to: © Monacon Clinical trial patients treatment arm
  46. MONACON Personalized medicine will require entirely new partners for the manufacturing and logistics value chain 46Source: Bayer Innovation, Scientific American, CEPTON • No “one” product any longer • No central manufacturing site • All new manufacturing partners • Limited number of patients –> one patient only • New payment schemes • Change of customer landscape and profiles • Completely different distribution model stem cell ø  vector+ Stratified Medicine Gene Therapy Autologous Tissue Engineering Heterologous Tissue Engineering Oncological Vaccinations Therapeutic Vaccinations © Monacon
  47. MONACON In the future, personalized treatment might be able to provide remote, cheap and easy genetic sequencing and therapy anywhere in the world 47 Tuesday, November 8th 2022 “Mail us your damaged genes and we’ll mend them and send them right back to you” • Future scenarios like to become reality, once bio-replication tools are developed that can create micro- organisms from genetic code • DNA-decoders will be capable of scanning and transcribing biological data so that it can be sent around the world • Changing full genetic code “in vivo” was already successful © Monacon
  48. MONACON 48 Plenty of room to grow - 10% of the world population still eating up 90% of resources Source: Worldmapper Global healthcare spending © Monacon
  49. MONACON 49 Plenty of room to grow - 10% of the world population still eating up 90% of resources Source: Worldmapper Global healthcare spending © Monacon