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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Human...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
“The ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
pop-u...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/exampl...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/exampl...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
In wh...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
inter...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Reali...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
How a...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Users...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Web a...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Web a...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Web a...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Web a...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
www.f...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Knowi...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Utili...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Can w...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Utili...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
the n...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
anter...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
from ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
from ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
from ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
“Meta...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
the u...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Graph...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Graph...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Clair...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Graph...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Graph...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Bret ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
book
...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
green...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
green...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
human...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
exper...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
exper...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Prope...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Cogni...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Leet ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
notif...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Guide...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Empir...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/https:...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
A. St...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Stude...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Gus A...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
HTML5...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
Perso...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
discu...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
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HCI 2018 (2/10) Human Factor. From interaction idioms to human capacities & cognition. Modeling users, empirical laws, and personas

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A lecture delivered for Human-Computer Interaction, a post-graduate level discipline taught by Dr. Sabin Buraga at Faculty of Computer Science, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania.

Visit also https://profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/teach/courses/hci/hci-film.html

Publicado en: Tecnología
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HCI 2018 (2/10) Human Factor. From interaction idioms to human capacities & cognition. Modeling users, empirical laws, and personas

  1. 1. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Human-Computer Interaction the human factor usabilitygeek.com/an-introduction-to-website-usability-testing/
  2. 2. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ “The world is divided into people who think that they’re right.” Diedre McGrath
  3. 3. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms Jenifer Tidwell, 2006
  4. 4. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces
  5. 5. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces command-line languages instructions, keywords, abbreviations, special symbols, I/O mechanisms
  6. 6. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality a classical UNIX console – see @climagic on Twitter
  7. 7. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces interactive forms + spreadsheets
  8. 8. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  9. 9. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces menus
  10. 10. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ pop-up menus
  11. 11. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces direct manipulation + hypertext
  12. 12. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  13. 13. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces natural interaction typical examples: gestures, natural language (e.g., speech)
  14. 14. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces natural interaction  conversational UI (CUI)
  15. 15. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/examples: interconnected.org/home/2015/06/16/conversational_uis
  16. 16. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/examples: interconnected.org/home/2015/06/16/conversational_uis apps as chats
  17. 17. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces each has its own vocabulary of items, actions, sensorial – e.g., visual, auditory – representations
  18. 18. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms many familiar types/styles of user interfaces each has its own vocabulary of items, actions, sensorial – e.g., visual, auditory – representations user experience (UX)
  19. 19. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms forms text editors graphic editors spreadsheets Web browsers calendars
  20. 20. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple interaction idioms multimedia players charts immersive games Web pages social (virtual) environments e-commerce/e-business applications
  21. 21. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Heterogeneity of existing platforms Jean Vanderdonckt, 2006
  22. 22. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Heterogeneity of existing platforms desktop (personal) computers mobile devices: smartphone, tablet, automobile output means: printer, advertising screen, etc. home appliances – e.g., (smart) TV, washing machine,… wearable devices: watch, camera, smart clothing, etc. social-oriented devices: ATM, info kiosk, photo booth entertainment platforms – e.g., Blu-ray player, Wii, XBox
  23. 23. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality target users for smart clothing computing M. Chen et al., “Smart Clothing: Connecting Human with Clouds and Big Data for Sustainable Health Monitoring”, Mobile Net. App, 21 (2016) epic.hust.edu.cn/minchen2016/min_paper/2016/2016-1-MONET-1-SmartClothing.pdf
  24. 24. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Variety of performed tasks Jean Vanderdonckt, 2006
  25. 25. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Variety of performed tasks Nokia findings in the mobile context (2007): blogging, browsing, chatting, downloading, e-banking, instant messaging, playing games, searching: locations, people,…
  26. 26. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Variety of performed tasks domain-oriented tasks: business, programming, research, studying, training etc.
  27. 27. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple contexts Jean Vanderdonckt, 2006
  28. 28. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple contexts at work examples: business & office applications, IDEs, tools, etc.
  29. 29. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple contexts at home examples: entertainment & leisure software, media players, social applications, games, smart appliances/home
  30. 30. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple contexts during travelling examples: PIMs (Personal Info Managers), planners, geo-related services, instant messaging software, recommenders,…
  31. 31. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality Multiple contexts specific locations concert places, hospitals, malls, restaurants,… examples: “smart” apps/services provided by mobile and/or wearable devices/appliances, vending machines
  32. 32. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ In which context, tablet computers (and/or related devices) could be the best choice? discussion
  33. 33. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ interacting with reverse vending machines case studies: plastic bottle recycling, safe collection of CFL (mercury containing) Domestic Light Bulbs discussion IKEA (2016) reversevending.wordpress.com on subway (China, 2012) tinyurl.com/pq22s6f
  34. 34. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality User volume and diversity Jean Vanderdonckt, 2006
  35. 35. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Reality User volume and diversity traditional users a community of interest vs. population of a country + special users having certain disabilities and/or needs
  36. 36. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ How about users? buffalobillgates.tumblr.com
  37. 37. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Who is the user?
  38. 38. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Probably, we do not like her/him!
  39. 39. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… We must discuss with her/him
  40. 40. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… We need to observe her/him e.g., RUM (real user monitoring)
  41. 41. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… RUM used to perform retail analytics
  42. 42. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… RUM for Web analytics (user engagement, Web application performance)
  43. 43. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… The user is the person who… directly interact to the (software) product/service
  44. 44. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… The user is the person who… involve others to use the product/service
  45. 45. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… The user is the person who… obtain output from a given product/service
  46. 46. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… The user is the person who… is making decisions regarding the acquisition of a product/service
  47. 47. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… The user is the person who… is using the product/service provided by our competitor
  48. 48. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… User types (Eason, 1987) primary directly involved in the use of the product (frequent hands-on beneficiary)
  49. 49. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… User types (Eason, 1987) secondary occasionally and/or indirectly uses the product/service
  50. 50. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… User types (Eason, 1987) tertiary affected by a product/service presentation or influenced by a certain product/service
  51. 51. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population demographics age, gender, ethnicity + psychological profile
  52. 52. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population education elementary school vs. doctoral studies
  53. 53. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population physical abilities senses & perception – e.g., visual acuity (short/long-term) memory anatomic features: length of arms, height, muscles,…
  54. 54. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population computer-related abilities general knowledge regarding the use of computers or the target platform – e.g., a specific game console
  55. 55. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population computer-related abilities aspect of interest: technophobic persons
  56. 56. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population skills reading using devices – keyboard, mouse, remote control,… interpreting the output etc.
  57. 57. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population experience related to the application domain
  58. 58. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Users without prior knowledge about semantic Web can understand and operate this user interface? discussion
  59. 59. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population experience regarding the type of (software) product/service
  60. 60. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population working environment + other social factors
  61. 61. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population relations with other persons + the use of communication patterns (1:1, 1:n, m:n)
  62. 62. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Web application providing online communication services used in the context of winter Olympic games discussion
  63. 63. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Web application providing online communication services used in the context of winter Olympic games user population main user categories: athletes, their friends & families, administration personnel, audience, sport reporters,… discussion
  64. 64. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Web application providing online communication services used in the context of winter Olympic games interaction types of devices: desktop PCs, mobile phones, info kiosks, public screens, Web-friendly devices (smart phones, tablets),… discussion
  65. 65. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Web application providing online communication services used in the context of winter Olympic games conveying information multiple formats charts rich versus limited data/interaction search possibilities filtering reusing – e.g., sharing data to other apps/services etc. discussion
  66. 66. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population techniques: user surveys interviews (in)direct observations: user tracking, feedback real user testing
  67. 67. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Identifying characteristics of the user population techniques: user surveys interviews (in)direct observations: user tracking, feedback real user testing user research
  68. 68. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… www.nngroup.com/articles/which-ux-research-methods/
  69. 69. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Remark: a software application could have multiple audiences
  70. 70. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Remark (Rogers, 2007): there are few cases when users really know what they want
  71. 71. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Remark (Rogers, 2007): “natural” tasks must be anticipated by software on the basis of the perceived users’ behavior
  72. 72. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Remark (Raskin, 2000): few persons could pretend that newer products are easier to be used than old ones
  73. 73. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Laws of human-computer interaction (Raskin, 2000) a computer shall not harm your work or, through inaction, allow your work to come to harm
  74. 74. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ www.flickr.com/groups/insults/
  75. 75. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… Laws of human-computer interaction (Raskin, 2000) a computer shall not waste your time or require you to do more work than is strictly necessary
  76. 76. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  77. 77. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… User InterfaceHumane Interface (Raskin, 2000) an interface is humane if it is responsive to human needs and considerate of human frailties
  78. 78. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Knowing users… User InterfaceHumane Interface (Raskin, 2000) an interface is humane if it is responsive to human needs and considerate of human frailties existing UIs are too complex for the majority of users
  79. 79. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Utilizatorii thanks to our graduate Alexandru Rugină
  80. 80. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Can we model users?
  81. 81. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognition is a knowledge acquisition process to understand the external world via sensation, perception, and reasoning Wang, 2008
  82. 82. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognition is a knowledge acquisition process to understand the external world via sensation, perception, and reasoning Wang, 2008
  83. 83. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognition is a knowledge acquisition process to understand the external world via sensation, perception, and reasoning Wang, 2008
  84. 84. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive engineering is a software engineering principle that states the cognitive complexity and human intelligent manageability should be addressed as the dominant problem in almost all processes of software design, implementation, and maintenance Wang, 2008
  85. 85. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Important aspects: knowledge behaviors experience skills
  86. 86. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Important aspects: knowledge behaviors experience skills modeling the user
  87. 87. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive abilities define, in an abstract manner, the model of a user
  88. 88. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Utilizatorii
  89. 89. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition 5 major senses: sight – ophthalmoception hearing – audioception touch – tactioception taste – gustaoception smell – olfacception www.tutis.ca/Senses/
  90. 90. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Non-traditional senses: balance – equilibrioception temperature – thermoception kinesthetic sense – proprioception pain – nociception time – chronoception
  91. 91. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Non-human senses (not analogous to human senses): echolocation electroreception magnetoception
  92. 92. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Card, Moran & Newell, 1983; Wickens, 1984
  93. 93. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory short-term (working) memory + long-term memory
  94. 94. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory data codification types of stored things, associations
  95. 95. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory capacity number of remembered things
  96. 96. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory duration (decay time) how long a thing persists into memory
  97. 97. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory visual data codification = images no pixels, but physical properties: edges, curves, lengths capacity: 7—17 symbols decay: ~200 ms
  98. 98. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ the need of visual representation www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html RDFSpecies by C. Serban & D. A. Popovici (2012)
  99. 99. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory audio data codification = sounds capacity: ~5 decay: ~1500 ms
  100. 100. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Memory audio data is pre-intentional “What you’re saying?...”
  101. 101. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Bottom-up perception uses stimuli
  102. 102. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Top-down perception based on context spatial and/or temporal data influence over long-term memory
  103. 103. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Chunk = perceptual/cognitive unit
  104. 104. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Chunk division – e.g., grouping – depends on the user background knowledge and how data is presented
  105. 105. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Chunk division – e.g., grouping – depends on the user background knowledge and how data is presented remember IA?
  106. 106. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Common technique: TLA (Three-Letter Acronyms)
  107. 107. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Chunking – example: B M W R C A A O L I B M F B I MWR CAA OLI BMF BIB BMW RCA AOL IBM FBI
  108. 108. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Common technique: the codification of unrelated digits uses 2—4 chunks
  109. 109. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Users memorize phone numbers by grouping: 0232201090 0232 20 10 90
  110. 110. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Working memory: capacity: 7 ± 2 chunks – George Miller decay: 7 sec. (5—226 sec.)repetitions
  111. 111. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Working memory: capacity: 7 ± 2 chunks – George Miller decay: 7 sec. (5—226 sec.)repetitions influenced by interferences
  112. 112. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ anterograde amnesia – inability to store new memories Memento (2000): www.imdb.com/title/tt0209144/
  113. 113. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Long-time memory: elaborate repetitions move chunks from working memory to long-time memory via connections (associations) with other chunks
  114. 114. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Long-time memory: elaborate repetitions move chunks from working memory to long-time memory via connections (associations) with other chunks influenced by context
  115. 115. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall representations must easily be perceived and recognized metaphors + idioms
  116. 116. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ from icons & symbols to visual metaphors discussion
  117. 117. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ from icons & symbols to visual metaphors discussion
  118. 118. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ from icons & symbols to visual metaphors discussion
  119. 119. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion visual metaphors and/or idioms?
  120. 120. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion visual metaphors and/or idioms?
  121. 121. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ “Metaphors create insight. But they also distort. They have strengths. But they also have limitations.” Gareth Morgan www.orangecone.com/archives/2010/05/smart_things_ch_7.html discussion
  122. 122. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ the use of metaphors and idioms in the context of wearable devices discussion
  123. 123. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall humans remember visual properties of things e.g., color, shape,…
  124. 124. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall humans have difficulties in memorizing/recalling arbitrary data e.g., phone numbers, software serial numbers
  125. 125. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall UIs must facilitate recognition
  126. 126. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall users tend to annotate things using external means to modify existing (mental, internal) representations
  127. 127. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall users tend to annotate things using external means to modify existing (mental, internal) representations examples: underlining words, taking written/electronic notes,…
  128. 128. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall cognitive tracing implies external manipulation of things in order to (re)structure or (re)arrange them
  129. 129. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall cognitive tracing implies external manipulation of things in order to (re)structure or (re)arrange them examples: scrabble, bookmarking, tagging,…
  130. 130. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception discussion How about cognitive tracing in the context of a distributed version control system?
  131. 131. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Recognition versus recall UIs must offer external representations of the concepts used by the software decreasing the cognitive overload
  132. 132. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Graphic Resources Correspondence Design Uses Marks Shape Orientation Size Texture Saturation Color Line Literal (visual imitation of physical features) Mapping (quantity, relative scale) Conventional (arbitrary) Mark position, identify category (shape, texture color) Indicate direction (orientation, line) Express magnitude (saturation, size, length) Simple symbols and color codes graphical representations in the context of UI design Alan Blackwell (2011)
  133. 133. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  134. 134. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Graphic Resources Correspondence Design Uses Symbols Geometric elements Letter forms Logos and icons Picture elements Connective elements Topological (linking) Depictive (pictorial conventions) Figurative (metonym, visual puns) Connotative (professional and cultural association) Acquired Texts and symbolic calculi Diagram elements Branding Visual rhetoric Definition of regions graphical representations in the context of UI design Alan Blackwell (2011)
  135. 135. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Claire Rowland, User Experience Design for the Internet of Things, O’Reilly, 2016 www.oreilly.com/design/free/user-experience-for-iot.csp
  136. 136. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Graphic Resources Correspondence Design Uses Regions Alignment grids Borders and frames Area fills White space Gestalt integration Containment Separation Framing (composition, photography) Layering Identifying shared membership Segregating or nesting multiple surface conventions in panels Accommodating labels, captions or legends graphical representations in the context of UI design Alan Blackwell (2011)
  137. 137. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  138. 138. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Graphic Resources Correspondence Design Uses Surfaces The plane Material object on which the marks are imposed (paper, stone) Mounting, orientation and display context Display medium Literal (map) Euclidean (scale and angle) Metrical (quantitative axes) Juxtaposed or ordered (regions, catalogues) Image-schematic Embodied/situated Typographic layouts Graphs & charts Relational diagrams Visual interfaces Secondary notations Signs and displays graphical representations in the context of UI design Alan Blackwell (2011)
  139. 139. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Bret Victor worrydream.com
  140. 140. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention humans can focus – using their perceptual processor – on a single input channel at a given moment
  141. 141. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention humans can focus – using their perceptual processor – on a single input channel at a given moment spotlight metaphor
  142. 142. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention the spotlight could track multiple input communication channels in sequential manner only
  143. 143. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention visual attention is more important than the aural one
  144. 144. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention within a input channel, the stimuli are processed in parallel
  145. 145. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Attention within a input channel, the stimuli are processed in parallel interferences
  146. 146. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ book painting ballet penguin astringent melon Please, indicate the color of each word:
  147. 147. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ green yellow white magenta red blue Please, indicate the color of each word:
  148. 148. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ green yellow white magenta red blue Please, indicate the color of each word: interferences – the Stroup effect
  149. 149. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Visual attention (John Miyamoto, 2016) location-based versus object-based
  150. 150. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Visual attention location-based attention is organized around spatial locations in the visual field
  151. 151. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception Visual attention object-based attention is organized around the structure of objects
  152. 152. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception spotlight metaphor location-based object-based attention attention
  153. 153. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor the brain compares stimuli and selects a response
  154. 154. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction human-computer interaction for details, see www.slideshare.net/andresbaravalle/im2044-week-2-lecture
  155. 155. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor the decision making process is based on skills, rules, and knowledge
  156. 156. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor skill-based decision making learning by doing: walking, talking, driving, etc.
  157. 157. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor skill-based decision making learning by doing: walking, talking, driving, etc. influenced by age
  158. 158. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor rule-based decision making e.g., social rules of proper manners If I’ll see an elderly person, then I’ll politely say “Hello”.
  159. 159. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor rule-based decision making e.g., social rules of proper manners cultural factors could be important
  160. 160. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition: perception laundry rules denoted by metaphors/idioms example: traditional Japanese laundry symbols vs international ones discussion
  161. 161. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Cognitive processor knowledge-based decision making uses the prior background knowledge, even in unfamiliar/unexpected situations
  162. 162. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ experiment Try to compute the two mathematical expressions below: 74 + 46 LXXIV + XLVI in your head by using a piece of paper with a calculator
  163. 163. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ experiment Try to compute the two mathematical expressions below: 74 + 46 LXXIV + XLVI in your head by using a piece of paper with a calculator Which is easiest and why?
  164. 164. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking attention is a resource that could be shared in order to perform multiple activities in the same time
  165. 165. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the activity structure: multi-modality e.g., visual + auditory + tactile interaction
  166. 166. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the activity structure: codification e.g., spatial data versus spoken data
  167. 167. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the activity structure: involved components using perceptual/cognitive processor versus motor processor
  168. 168. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the activity structure: involved components example: playing chess versus pinball
  169. 169. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the difficulty: well-practiced tasks are easier to be performed
  170. 170. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition User multi-tasking depends on the difficulty: well-practiced tasks are easier to be performed example: it’s easier to ride the bike on an empty street
  171. 171. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Motor processor open-loop control autonomic sending the same directives to the muscles no feedback from perceptual processor cycle time: ~70 ms
  172. 172. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Motor processor close-loop control muscles movements – or their effects – are perceived and compared to the desired result cycle time: ~240 ms
  173. 173. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition   multimodal man-machine interaction model (Dumas et al., 2009)
  174. 174. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition cognitive conscious versus cognitive unconscious
  175. 175. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Property Conscious Unconscious Engaged by Novelty Emergencies Danger Repetition Expected Events Safety Used in New circumstances Routine situations Can handle Decisions Nonbranching tasks Accepts Logical propositions Logic or inconsistencies Operates Sequentially Simultaneously Controls Volition Habits Capacity Tiny Huge Persists for Tenths of seconds Decades (lifelong) Jef Raskin, The Humane Interface, Addison Wesley, 2000
  176. 176. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition Distributed cognition (Edwin Hutchins, 1995) cognitive resources are shared socially in order to extend individual cognitive resources or to accomplish something that an individual agent could not achieve alone
  177. 177. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Cognition distributed cognition in aviation hci.ucsd.edu/hutchins/dcogAviation.html
  178. 178. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Reading: place information and instruction in context employ lists chunk information present content in sequence
  179. 179. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Reading: maintain consistency in language and procedures highlight critical/new information, information structure use familiar terms, and avoid acronyms and jargon
  180. 180. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Leet (1337) speak like other languages, 1337 is dynamic symbols as shapes and not as their meanings common phonetic replacements + inconsistencies many acronyms and random capitalization discussion M. Perea, J. Duñabeitia, M. Carreiras, “R34D1NG W0RD5 W1TH NUMB3R5”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2007
  181. 181. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Reading: use illustrations to complement text avoid the gratuitous use of animations & other movement use familiar typefaces
  182. 182. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Reading: allow user control to repeat output avoid background noise with auditory output maintain higher contrast
  183. 183. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion a bad designed email message from Twitter – annotated twitter.com/pwnallthethings/status/817923705993043968
  184. 184. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Memory: leverage existing knowledge, behaviors, and tasks avoid splitting attention between two tasks focus on the user goals limit information and features to what is really needed
  185. 185. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ notifications are the most distracting elements towardsbetterinteraction.wordpress.com
  186. 186. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Memory: partition tasks in reasonably sized groups support mental calculations, decisions, and comparisons limit choices
  187. 187. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Memory: complete information automatically in forms & fields use mnemonics minimize screen clutter
  188. 188. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Guidelines (William Gribbons, ‘08) Memory: provide extra time for tasks eliminate the anxiety of timeouts provide reminders
  189. 189. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Fitts’ Law (1954) predicts the pointing (movement) average time as a function of the distance to and width of the given target
  190. 190. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Fitts’ Law (1954) how fast we can move the mouse to point to a given UI component having a specific size
  191. 191. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Fitts’ Law (1954) T = a + b * log2 (2*D / S) T = time, D = distance, S = size
  192. 192. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Fitts’ Law (1954) consequence: macOS menu is more ergonomic than the main menu of each window in Windows
  193. 193. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Fitts’ Law (1954) consequence: pie (radial) menus are easier to be used than pop-up linear ones
  194. 194. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/
  195. 195. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Hick’s Law (1952) predicts the decision time for a set of choices (e.g., in a menu)
  196. 196. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Hick’s Law T = b*log2 (n + 1) T = average reaction time (entropy of the decision), n = number of equally probably alternatives, b = a constant to be empirically determined
  197. 197. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion Hick’s law in the context of wizard (anti)pattern designinginterfaces.com/patterns/wizard/
  198. 198. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Hick’s Law example – measuring the user’s reaction time: if a Web page has ~70 links, then the time used to make a choice (i.e., visiting a link) will be ~105 seconds (70*1.5)  the more choices are eliminated, the more enjoyable the experience will be
  199. 199. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion reducing the number of choices Twitter’s front-page (2010 vs. 2017)
  200. 200. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion reducing the number of choices Twitter’s front-page (2017 vs. 2018)
  201. 201. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Steering Law predicting the time of moving the hand through a “tunnel” having the length D and width S S D
  202. 202. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Steering Law T = a + b * D/S the difficulty varies linearly, not logarithmic guiding the mouse is harder than pointing it
  203. 203. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Empirical laws Steering Law consequence: cascading menus are hard to be used
  204. 204. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/https://xtensio.com/user-persona/ UI design without knowing the real audience of the application?
  205. 205. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona By using laws and abstract models of the humans, we can specify classes of users  personas
  206. 206. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona A precise description of the user of a system, and of what (s)he wishes to accomplish user archetype Alan Cooper www.cooper.com/journal/2008/05/the_origin_of_personas
  207. 207. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ PersonaAlthough personas are not real people, they represent them throughout the design stage (Blomkvist, 2002)
  208. 208. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Although personas are not real people, they represent them throughout the design stage (Blomkvist, 2002)  creates a concrete profile of the typical user (reliable & realistic representations of the key audience segments)
  209. 209. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Danger of the average users
  210. 210. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona The design must be performed regarding the necessities and goals of each user category www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/personas.html
  211. 211. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Important aspects: age, abilities, ethnicity, social context, etc.  user profile
  212. 212. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ A. Stanciu, I. Schiopu, A. Grigoriu, I. Lazar (2011) – aisquared.wordpress.com Student Tourist Single (wo)man Name Andreea G. Paul R. Ioana P. Age 19 32 27 Location Iasi, Romania Paris, France Bucharest, Romania Social Life For her, going to university was a challenge because she had to leave home, separate from her parents and beginning the process of finding her identity, as an adult, and her place in the world. Because his earnings are above average and because he works at least 50 hours per week, when he has some free time he likes to make the most of it. She doesn’t have time for dating wrong persons. Work Life She is a student in her freshman year at Computer Science. He works as a software developer, but now he is on vacation. She is a hard working woman. Goals A new city meant new people & new friends. That is why she was glad to take part of a Social Speed event. From her point of view, it’s a fun way to He believes that the person blesses the place. That is way when he travels he thinks it is very important to know and understand the residents. Because of From her point of view, this application is the perfect combination between online dating and real life dating. She knew from the start that this was not a
  213. 213. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Student Tourist Single (wo)man Name Andreea G. Paul R. Ioana P. Age 19 32 27 Location Iasi, Romania Paris, France Bucharest, Romania Social Life For her, going to university was a challenge because she had to leave home, separate from her parents and beginning the process of finding her identity, as an adult, and her place in the world. Because his earnings are above average and because he works at least 50 hours per week, when he has some free time he likes to make the most of it. She doesn’t have time for dating wrong persons. Work Life She is a student in her freshman year at Computer Science. He works as a software developer, but now he is on vacation. She is a hard working woman. Goals A new city meant new people & new friends. That is why she was glad to take part of a Social Speed event. From her point of view, it’s a fun way to He believes that the person blesses the place. That is way when he travels he thinks it is very important to know and understand the residents. Because of From her point of view, this application is the perfect combination between online dating and real life dating. She knew from the start that this was not a a persona includes a name & a photo, plus some demographics A. Stanciu, I. Schiopu, A. Grigoriu, I. Lazar (2011) – aisquared.wordpress.com
  214. 214. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Gus Andrews, User Personas for Privacy and Security (2015) medium.com/@gusandrews/user-personas-for-privacy-and-security-a8b35ae5a63b specific characteristics for particular usages of personas low technical expertise high technical expertise needs to be very private needs to be very public
  215. 215. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ HTML5 Personas Template type: primary/secondary/negative/… background info main points goals (practical, personal, business) frustrations + pain points description profs.info.uaic.ro/~stefan.negru/personas/
  216. 216. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ personas for PaMI (Patient Monitoring Interface) project A. Berila, A. Bulai, C. Chiric, M. Plesca, 2012
  217. 217. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Remarks (Donald Norman, 2004) the purpose of the persona is to add empathetic focus to the design the personas must reflect the target group for the design team
  218. 218. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Proto-personas “Unlike the standard persona, proto-personas are based on the assumptions of the stakeholders, and further checked against actual data. […] They ultimately represent what we think our users are like.” Andrew Jacobs (2016) uxdesign.cc/ux-creating-proto-personas-76a1738401a2
  219. 219. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona a proto-persona template offers a collection of heuristics, market research, and intuition in order to articulate the target audience(s), their needs, and behaviors drawing, name, role demographic factors which influence behavior age marital status outcome … needs frustra- tions desires examples: uxmag.com/articles/using-proto-personas-for-executive-alignment
  220. 220. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ Persona Main processes: conduct user research condense the research brainstorm (make classifications)proto-personas refine make them realistic
  221. 221. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion It’s not important how smart users are; it’s important to be effective Stephen Turbek, 2011 boxesandarrows.com/are-your-users-s-t-u-p-i-d/
  222. 222. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ discussion S.T.U.P.I.D. user Stressed Tired Untrained Passive Independent Distracted  S.M.A.R.T. design Simply Memorable Accept autopilot Recovery Test in realistic situations boxesandarrows.com/are-your-users-s-t-u-p-i-d/
  223. 223. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ human capacities, cognition, modeling users, empirical laws, personas “Conclusion”
  224. 224. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/ next lecture: design models & methodologies

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