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Institute for Regional Development and Location Management Optical fiber infrastructure as a location factor in rural and mountain areas:Realization models and socio-economic consequences in South Tyrol and beyond Mag. Michael Volgger DANTE lecture 23/01/2013 – Ljubljana (Slovenia)
EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF BOZEN/BOLZANO (EURAC)Volgger 23/01/2013
Volgger 4 RESEARCH AREAS – 11 RESEARCH INSTITUTES 23/01/2013
• Institute for Renewable Energy Technologies • Institute for Alpine Environment Mountains • Institute for Applied Remote Sensing • Institute for Regional Development and Location Management • Center for Biomedicine Health • Institute for Mummies and the Iceman • Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine • Institute for Minority Rights Autonomies • Institute for Public Management • Institute for Specialized Communication and Multilingualism • Institute for Studies on Federalism and RegionalismVolgger 23/01/2013 4
Bandwidth requirements Narrowband Broadband Next-generation broadband Tele-Medicine Social networks Tele-Learning E-Mail Applications Video conferences Browsing Multilocation collaboration Online HD TV Bandwidth 64-256 Kbit/s 2 Mbit/s >20 Mbit/s Technology PSTN DSL, 3G FTTx, LTEVolgger 23/01/2013 5
Background of the study Fiber optic initiative of South Tyrol Initiative of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen-South Tyrol: Connect all 116 municipalities to the backbone of the fiber optic network until the end of 2013 (FTTN) to prevent a so-called „digital divide“ in South Tyrol Unresolved issue in South Tyrol: Realization of the so-called „last mile“, i.e. to realize the last part of the telecommunication network that reaches the final customer in fiber Sources: http://www.provinz.bz.it/breitband/suedtirol/breitband-in-suedtirol.aspVolgger 23/01/2013 6
Broadband initiative in South TyrolHistorical overview1) Until 2004: Development of broadband access left up to the market2) 1st step: promotion of internet solutions via radio by an active involvement of the regional government3) 2nd step: Fiber optic strategy – connect all municipalities by the end of 2013, provide a faster ADSL connection (7 Mbit/s upwards until the end of 2014)4) 3rd and still largely unresolved step: Realization of the last mileVolgger 23/01/2013 7
Study objectives 1) Analyze socioeconomic consequences of connecting citizens and businesses directly to the optical fiber network 2) Explore framework conditions and realization models for the roll-out of the optical fiber network on the last mile 3) Reveal specific needs and wants of South Tyrolean telecommunication customers Image source: http://web-de.digitalhub-frm.de/2012/03/neues-glasfaser-kabel-verbindet.htmlVolgger 23/01/2013 8
Qualitative study 11 case studies in South Tyrol and other Alpine and pre-Alpine regions: Villnöss Taufers i.M. Vahrn Bruneck Pfalzen Tiers Oberhausen a.d. Donau (D) Friedrichshafen (D) Pfyn (CH) Blons (A) Storo (TN) Data collection: 3-5 qualitative interviews with political representatives & representatives from the business sector Data analysis: GABEK-analysis to reduce complexity of the collected information and to visually represent the results (causal net graph) (see. Zelger, 1999; 2000) Comparative analysis: Qualitative comparative analysis to discover conditions under which specific effects can be realized (see. Ragin, 1987; Ragin, 2000)Volgger 23/01/2013 10
Quantitative studyData collection:• Standardized online-survey among citizens and businesses in South Tyrol, about some aspects of demand concerning optical fiber infrastructure• Time period: 15.07.2012 until 19.10.2012• Using web portals of some municipalities and professional associations• N=840 utilizable answersData analysis:Analysis with the statistics software SPSSVolgger 23/01/2013 11
Selected results Qualitative studyRealization of the “last mile” of an optical fiber infrastructure may lead toan increase in quality of life, service quality and networking quality connection of peripheral areas regional development location factor possibilities immigration innovation place of incentive residence idea tourism exchange Development advertising quality Innovation e-government quality smart metering informationcomunication e-health cooperation projects Networking retail problem quality fiber optic netw ork access solution mobile applications security Service quality speed video services Quality of life Semantic network based television on qualitative interviews packages in the 11 case study makes a Costs/risks telephone municipalities; each difference connection is based on 2 internet to 3 mentions by fantastic quality enthusiasm complexity respondents. comfort added civil w orks Method GABEK (Holistic value facilitation connection fee competence & handling of complexity) save money save time responsibility (Zelger 1999; 2000) start-up difficultiesVolgger 23/01/2013 12
Selected results Qualitative study Realization of the “last mile” may lead to an increase of quality of life and competitiveness of peripheral areas Degree of urbanization Perceived positive economic effects seems to have an effect on the perceived economic effects of the “last mile” Legend: 0 … does (rather) not apply 0,33 … partly applies 0,66 … mostly applies 1 … (almost) completely applies Low urbanization Quantification based on qualitative interviews; method QCA (qualitative comparative analysis) (Ragin, 1987; 2000) Points above the bisecting line (the points represent the case study municipalities) suggest that the variable on the horizontal axis is a “sufficient condition” Volgger 23/01/2013 13
Selected results Quantitative studyReliability is perceived to be the most important attribute of an opticalfiber connection Online survey in South Tyrol 2012; n = 837, missing = 61 Parallels between physical and digital reachability: Reliability as most important factor Basic quality is crucialVolgger 23/01/2013 14
Selected results Quantitative studyThe surveyed South Tyrolean citizens and firms show a substantial demandfor optical fiber connections • no significant influence of: - age - sex - monthly net income - type of previous internet access - industry sector (businesses) - firm size measured in employees (businesses) - firm size measured in sales (businesses) Online survey in South Tyrol 2012; n = 818, missing = 19 Willingness to switch is consistently high and largely independent of several socio-economic variablesVolgger 23/01/2013 15
Selected results Quantitative study The surveyed citizens and firms show willingness to pay for optical fiber connections Currently In future Monthly costs for the current internet connection (n = 837) - Arithmetic mean: 34,57 € - Median: 29 € Willigness to pay a monthly extra charge (max) (online survey in South Tyrol 2012; n = 812, missing = 25) In absolut terms: - Arithmetic mean: 9,0 € (Median: 5,0 €) In relative terms: - Arithmetic mean: 31% (Median: 14%)South Tyrolean citizens and firms show a willingness to pay an extra charge from 15 to 30%: this willingness is mostly independent ofsocioeconomic variables (however: men, businesses – especially in rural municipalities – show a higher willingness to pay) Volgger 23/01/2013 16
Selected results Quantitative studyThe surveyed citizens and firms consider public-sector investments inoptical fiber infrastructure as relatively important Online survey in South Tyrol 2012; n = 837, missing = 76Investments in the optical fiber infrastructure are considered as more important than investments in the mobilephone networkComparable importance of investments in physical and digital reachabilityVolgger 23/01/2013 17
Selected results Qualitative study Cooperation and finance as two crucial, critical elements for the realization of the last mile fiber optic netw ork access External factors: Human factors: thinking ahead pressure Time spirit Competences vision andnecessity idea farsightedness future planning decision today younger contemporary Relational factors: Internal factors: expertise lifestyle people Cooperation Finance excavation w ork restructuring involvement investment netw orking municipality electric supply pow er station economy laying the empty discussions conduit telecom district heating plant support combination providers cooperation Semantic network based on qualitative interviews in the 11 case study municipalities; each connection is based on at least 4 mentions by respondents. Method GABEK (Holistic handling of complexity) (Zelger 1999; 2000) Volgger 23/01/2013 18
Selected results Qualitative study “South Tyrolean model”: Many pioneering municipalities in South Tyrol have opted for a uniform approach on the last mile REALIZATION MODEL LAST MILE Local ownership of Separation networks ownership-providing Specific civil works Hybrid technology 1 1 0 0,33 1 1 0 1 0,66 1 0 0,33 Municipalities in 1 0 0 0 South Tyrol 1 1 0 0,66 1 1 0 1 0 0 0,33 0,33 0,33 0 0,66 0,66 Municipalities outside 0,33 0,33 1 0 of South Tyrol 0,33 0,66 0,33 0 1 0 0 0 Legend: 0 … does (rather) not apply Quantification based on qualitative interviews; method QCA (qualitative comparative analysis) (Ragin, 1987; 2000) 0,33 … partly applies 0,66 … mostly applies 1 … (almost) completely applies Elements of the “South Tyrolean model”:• Local ownership of the network (fiber network owner tends to have also other network infrastructures)• Separation of network ownership and providing• Avoidance of specific civil works exclusively for the realization of the fiber infrastructure• Recourse to hybrid technologies for particularly remote locations (combination radio – optical fiber cable)Volgger 23/01/2013 19
Selected results Categorization“South Tyrolean model” as middle course between internalized andmarket-based realization models of the „last mile“ Association Cooperative South Internalization Dual Tyrolean Model model model model Friedrichshafen Net- MarketHierarchy work e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. Friedrichshafen Blons Oberhausen Villnöss, (association), a.d. Donau, Taufers i.M. Storo Pfyn (cooperative) “South Tyrolean model”: inter-organizational collaboration (municipality, provider and in some cases local cooperatives)Volgger 23/01/2013 20
Selected results Categorization “South Tyrolean model” as middle course between public and private realization models of the „last mile“ Association Cooperative South Model Dual Tyrolean Internalization Model Friedrichshafen model model model Friedrichshafen Public Private e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. Friedrichshafen Oberhausen Friedrichshafen Villnöss, Blons a.d. Donau, Taufers i.M. (association), Pfyn Storo (cooperative)„South Tyrolean model“: often collective ownership of the network infrastructure (public or cooperatives) but private providing Volgger 23/01/2013 21
Selected results Categorization “South Tyrolean model” as middle course between local and regional/supra-regional realization models of the „last mile“ Association Cooperatives South Tyrolean Dual Model Internalization model model model Friedrichshafen Local Supra- regional e.g. e.g. Storo e.g. e.g. e.g. Oberhausen Friedrichshafen Blons Villnöss, Taufers i.M. a.d. Donau, Pfyn“South Tyrolean model”: often local ownership of the network and regional providing Volgger 23/01/2013 22
Selected results Qualitative study“South Tyrolean model” seems to be particularly suited for peripheral,rural areas Perceived positive economic effects Legend: 0 … does (rather) not apply 0,33 … partly applies 0,66 … mostly applies 1 … (almost) completely applies Points above the bisecting line (the points represent the case study municipalities) suggest that the variable on the horizontal axis is a “sufficient condition” Low urbanization and “South Tyrolean model” Quantification based on qualitative interviews; method QCA (qualitative comparative analysis) (Ragin, 1987; 2000)Volgger 23/01/2013 23
Selected results Qualitative studyTo increase the value of the last mile for citizens and businesses, it isnecessary to expand the specific services offered Specific services offered 0,33 0,33 0 Municipalities in 0 South Tyrol 0 0 0,66 1 Municipalities outside Legend: 0,66 0 … does (rather) not apply of South Tyrol 0,33 … partly applies 0,66 0,66 … mostly applies 1 … (almost) completely applies 0,66 Quantification based on qualitative interviews; method QCA (qualitative comparative analysis) (Ragin, 1987; 2000)South Tyrol: still low number of services that exploit the potential of an optical fiber connection (e.g. telemedicine)Volgger 23/01/2013 24
ContactEuropean Academy of Bozen/BolzanoInstitute for Regional Development and Location ManagementViale Druso 139100 Bozen/Bolzanowww.eurac.eduMag. Michael Volggerp 0471-055325f firstname.lastname@example.orgVolgger 23/01/2013 25
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