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By,
Devanshu dev
PALB 3256
welcome
VIROIDS
VIROIDS: The Plant Invaders…
A VIROID is a…
VIR(virus)OID(like) particle.
Viroids are“sub-viruses” composed
exclusively of...
VIROIDS: DID YOU KNOW VIROIDS…
Very small, covalently closed, circular RNA molecules
capable of autonomous replication and...
No coding capacity - do not program their own polymerase.
Use host-encoded polymerase for replication.
Mechanically transm...
 Thesmallestviroididentifiedsofarisa220nucleobase
scRNA(smallcytoplasmicRNA)associatedwiththerice
yellowmottlesobemovirus...
1974:
Confirmation that
viroids are non-
coding
1973: Electron
micrograph shows
viroid’s hairpin
structure
Discovery
Early...
Nomenclature
e
Viroid =
“virus- like”
Example Members
Genus Pospiviroids:
PSTVd (potato spindle tuber)
Genus Hostuviroids:
HSVd (hop stunt)
Genus Cocadviroids:
...
Viroid Diseases
• Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)
• May be limiting to potato growers
• First viroid characterized
• M...
• Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd)
• Causes stunting of plants, shelling of bark
• May result in little yield loss
• May be ...
1. Disinfection of cutting tools
2. Cold treatment
E.g storage at 4 °C for 6months or more, followed
by apical shoot-tip-c...
Transmission
 Most mechanically transmitted
 Some seed or pollen transmitted
 Tomato planta macho viroid-aphid
transmit...
Human pathologies induced by viroids
 The only human disease known to be caused
by a viroid is hepatitis D. This disease ...
HEPATITIS D
Host factors RNA silencing
Viroid RNA structural elements
Factors responsible – viroid pathogenesis
Viroids and RNA silencing
The evidence indicates that when viroids replicate
via a double stranded intermediate RNA, they...
• Some viroids are ribozymes, having RNA enzyme
properties that allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-
size genomes fro...
Viroid structures
Two main groups of viroids: self-cleaving and non-self-
cleaving
Non-self cleaving viroids replicate i...
The closed single-stranded RNA circle has
extensive intrastrand base pairing and
interspersed unpaired loops.
Viroids ha...
Contd…..
Schematic models of viroid structures
i. (A) Rod-like secondary structure proposed for PSTVd, the
type member of family Po...
Pospiviroidae:
 Intra cellular movement
 cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata
 long distance through phloem
Viroid moveme...
Host factors responsible for viroid movement
 Cellular proteins
 Phloem proteins- Phloem lectin PP2(CsPP2)
 Viroid bind...
Viroid replication
 Viroid RNA does not code for any known protein;
some even lack the AUG initiation codon.
 Nonetheles...
Asymmetric rolling circle replication
Viroid replication
(Biao Ding et al., 2005)
Member of Pospiviroidae replicate via a...
Enzymes involved in
replication
RNA polymerase
RNA cleavage
RNA ligase
Asymmetric Symmetric
Symmetric rolling circle replication
 Member of Avsunviroidae replicate via an symmetric
 The circular (+)-RNA is transc...
Viroids
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Viroids

  1. 1. By, Devanshu dev PALB 3256 welcome
  2. 2. VIROIDS
  3. 3. VIROIDS: The Plant Invaders… A VIROID is a… VIR(virus)OID(like) particle. Viroids are“sub-viruses” composed exclusively of a single circular strand of nucleic acid (RNA) that codes for a single protein. OR Small, circular RNA molecules without a protein coat
  4. 4. VIROIDS: DID YOU KNOW VIROIDS… Very small, covalently closed, circular RNA molecules capable of autonomous replication and induction of disease. Range in size from approximately 20 nm (8 x 10-7 inches) ... Are infectious particles. Cause certain plant and human diseases. Consists only of Nucleic Acid (RNA) .
  5. 5. No coding capacity - do not program their own polymerase. Use host-encoded polymerase for replication. Mechanically transmitted; often seed transmitted. More than 40 viroid species and many variants have been characterized. “Classical” viroids have been found only in plants. Viroids differ from viruses in that viruses, at their most basic level, consist of genetic material (DNA or RNA) contained within a protective protein shell. Viroids differ from prions, another type of subviral infectious agent, in that prions are made only of protein, lacking nucleic acid. Contd….
  6. 6.  Thesmallestviroididentifiedsofarisa220nucleobase scRNA(smallcytoplasmicRNA)associatedwiththerice yellowmottlesobemovirus(RYMV)(Collinsetal.1998). Incomparison,thegenomeofthesmallestknownviruses capableofcausinganinfectionbythemselvesarearoundtwo kilobasesinsize. Manyviroidsconsistofonly300to400nucleotides.
  7. 7. 1974: Confirmation that viroids are non- coding 1973: Electron micrograph shows viroid’s hairpin structure Discovery Early 1960s: Raymer and O’Brien develop a bioassay for the agent causing potato spindle tuber disease 1965: Raymer teams up with Diener; they show that agent is not a typical virion 1971: Diener demonstrates that the agent is a free non-coding RNA, coins the term viroid 1968: Characterization of chrysanthemum stunt and citrus exocortis as non- typical viruses 1978: PSTVd is sequenced 1976: EM shows that viroids form closed circular RNAs Theodore O. Diener
  8. 8. Nomenclature e Viroid = “virus- like”
  9. 9. Example Members Genus Pospiviroids: PSTVd (potato spindle tuber) Genus Hostuviroids: HSVd (hop stunt) Genus Cocadviroids: CCCVd (coconut cadang-cadang) Genus Apscaviroids: ASSVd (apple scar skin) Genus Coleviroids: CbVd 1 (coleus blumei 1) Genus Avsunviroids: ASBVd (avocado sunblotch) Genus Pelamoviroids: PLMVd (peach latent mosaic)
  10. 10. Viroid Diseases • Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) • May be limiting to potato growers • First viroid characterized • Many variants described • Control with detection in mother stock, clean seed PSTVd in tomato PSTVd in potato
  11. 11. • Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) • Causes stunting of plants, shelling of bark • May result in little yield loss • May be useful to promote dwarfing for agronomic advantage • Transmitted through stock, graft • Control by removal of infected plants, detection, clean stock Citrus exocortis viroid Contd…..
  12. 12. 1. Disinfection of cutting tools 2. Cold treatment E.g storage at 4 °C for 6months or more, followed by apical shoot-tip-culture, grafting, can be used to eliminate CSVd and HSVd. 3. Pre-inoculation with protective mild strains of viroid has proved effective to control PSTVd Viroid disease control
  13. 13. Transmission  Most mechanically transmitted  Some seed or pollen transmitted  Tomato planta macho viroid-aphid transmitted (Ricardo Flores et al., 2005)
  14. 14. Human pathologies induced by viroids  The only human disease known to be caused by a viroid is hepatitis D. This disease was previously discribed to a defective virus called the delta agent.  However, it now is known that the delta agent is a viroid enclosed in a hepatitis B virus capsid.  For hepatitis D to occur there must be simultaneous infection of a cell with both the hepatitis B virus and the hepatitis D viroid.
  15. 15. HEPATITIS D
  16. 16. Host factors RNA silencing Viroid RNA structural elements Factors responsible – viroid pathogenesis
  17. 17. Viroids and RNA silencing The evidence indicates that when viroids replicate via a double stranded intermediate RNA, they are targeted by a dicer enzyme and cleaved into siRNAs that are then loaded onto the RNA-induced silencing complex. The viroid siRNAs actually contain sequences capable of complementary base pairing with the plant's own messenger RNAs and induction of degradation or inhibition of translation is what causes the classic viroid symptoms.
  18. 18. • Some viroids are ribozymes, having RNA enzyme properties that allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit- size genomes from larger replication intermediates. It has been proposed that viroids are "escaped introns." Not all viroids are known to be pathogenic, but some are serious pathogens of plants. Viroids are usually transmitted by seed or pollen, but may be transported by farm implements as well. Infected plants can show distorted growth and sometimes are killed by the viroid.
  19. 19. Viroid structures Two main groups of viroids: self-cleaving and non-self- cleaving Non-self cleaving viroids replicate in nucleus and fold into “dog bone” or rod-like structure All are covalently closed circular RNAs fold to tightly base-paired structures Five domains identifiable in non-self-cleaving Terminal left (TL) Terminal right (TR) Pathogenicity (P) Central (C) Variable (V)
  20. 20. The closed single-stranded RNA circle has extensive intrastrand base pairing and interspersed unpaired loops. Viroids have five domains. Most changes in viroid pathogenicity seem to arise from variations in the P and TL domains.
  21. 21. Contd…..
  22. 22. Schematic models of viroid structures i. (A) Rod-like secondary structure proposed for PSTVd, the type member of family Pospiviroidae. ii. (B) Quasi rod-like secondary structure proposed for ASBVd, the type member of family Avsunviroidae. iii. (C) Complex branched conformation proposed for PLMVd.
  23. 23. Pospiviroidae:  Intra cellular movement  cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata  long distance through phloem Viroid movement
  24. 24. Host factors responsible for viroid movement  Cellular proteins  Phloem proteins- Phloem lectin PP2(CsPP2)  Viroid binding protiens-Virp1  specific sequence or Structural motifs.
  25. 25. Viroid replication  Viroid RNA does not code for any known protein; some even lack the AUG initiation codon.  Nonetheless, they replicate autonomously in host cells.  The replication mechanism involves interaction with RNA polymerase II, an enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA, and "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA.
  26. 26. Asymmetric rolling circle replication Viroid replication (Biao Ding et al., 2005) Member of Pospiviroidae replicate via an asymmetric  Incoming (+)-circular RNA initially is transcribed into concatemeric linear (-)-strand RNA  Which then serves as the replication intermediate for the synthesis of concatemeric, linear (+)- strand RNA  This (+)- strand RNA subsequently is cleaved into unit length monomers that are ligated into circles viroids replicate autonomously by using host-encoded RNA polymerase Concatemer: Multiple copies of a DNA sequence arranged end to end in tandem.
  27. 27. Enzymes involved in replication RNA polymerase RNA cleavage RNA ligase
  28. 28. Asymmetric Symmetric
  29. 29. Symmetric rolling circle replication  Member of Avsunviroidae replicate via an symmetric  The circular (+)-RNA is transcribed into linear, concatemeric (-)- strand RNA  Instead of serving as the direct template for the synthesis of linear concatemeric (+)- strand RNA  The concatemeric (-)- strand RNA is cleaved into unit length molecules followed by circularization  The circular (-)- RNA then serves as the template for the synthesis of linear, concatemeric (+)- strand RNA  When subsequently is cleaved into unit-length monomers and circularized
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this presentation will give useful information about viroids..

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