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Gentech Design Center
1
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Gentech Design Center 2
Gentech Design Center 3
A STEAM TURBINE ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS
OF A FOLLOWING PARTS
Major Parts
Gentech Design Center 4
Gentech Design Center 5
COMPONENTS OF STEAM TURBINES
 Casing (Cast Steel)Casing (Cast Steel)
 Nozzle Block (11% - 13% Cr. Steel for Nozzles)Nozz...
A) CASING
a)a) Generally Turbine casings are used for split horizontalGenerally Turbine casings are used for split horizon...
B) NOzzLES
 In the nozzle stam is expanded from ahigh pressure toIn the nozzle stam is expanded from ahigh pressure to
lo...
TURBINE ROTOR
Design:
 The Turbine rotor consists of three principal portions: Front
Portion (1 to 6); Blading Portion (7...
Gentech Design Center 10
d) governor
 Governor is a device, Which senses the speed ofGovernor is a device, Which senses the speed of
turbine and c...
Speed Setting
Mech.
Speed Governer. Transducer Control Valve
Actuator.
Speed
Sensor
T
Inlet
Steam
Gentech Design Center 12
governor
It regulates the speed of the Turbine
It operates a built in valve in the steam inlet line
It is either Mechan...
e) Servo mechaniSm.
 This mechanism works and an amplifier of governorThis mechanism works and an amplifier of governor
s...
Gentech Design Center 15
F) oiL pumpS
 Generally oil is containated in the reservoir which formsGenerally oil is containated in the reservoir whic...
main oiL pump
 The main oil pump is driven by the low spoeed gear box /The main oil pump is driven by the low spoeed gear...
TypeS oF Turbine
A. Impulse Turbine
The steam pressure at the outlet side of the
blade is equal to inlet side such a turbi...
diFFerence
Gentech Design Center 19
(i) SimpLe impuLSe
Expansion of Steam takes place in one set of Nozzles.
Hence called Impulse Turbines.
Employed for Small...
(II) PRESSURE COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE
Number of Impulse Machines in series on the same shaft, allowing
the exhaust of o...
(III) VELOCITY COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE (CURTIS TYPE)
This type comprises of a Nozzle of a wheel with two or more rows o...
STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED
INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES:
a) According to the method of steam expansion in
the turbine.
...
STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED
INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES:
c) According to the final delivery pressure (or)
Exhaust condit...
STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED
INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES:
d) According to the number of stages of turbines.
 Single stag...
SafETY DEVICES
(MEChaNICaL DEVICES)
1. Over speed Trip
2. Master trip
3. LP Trip
Gentech Design Center 26
Gentech Design Center 27
Gentech Design Center 28
Gentech Design Center 29
DaNgER SIgNaLS
UNUSUaL VIBRaTION
NOISY BEaRINgS
aBNORMaLLY hOT BEaRINgS
OIL RINgS NOT TURNINg
DISCOLOURED OIL
LOw OIL PRES...
Starting the turbine
Gentech Design Center 31
Protection SyStem
Special Purpose Turbines
Low Lub. Oil Pressure Trip
High Brg. Temp. Trip
High Vibn. Trip
High Axial ...
What to check for in running turbineS
Noise Levels
Leakage from Glands
Vibration at Bearing Housings
Bearing Temperatures
...
StandardS
API 611
General purpose steam turbines for refinery service (non-
critical)
API 612
Special purpose steam turb...
Parameter range
Gentech Design Center 35
Inlet Pressure : ~ 4 ATA to 140 ATA
Inlet Temperature : ~ 1400
C to 5400
C
Ext...
Gentech Design Center 36
trouble Shooting
• - Progressively increasing Vibration.
- Steam Leakage
- Seal Damage
Causes
* J...
Gentech Design Center 37
trouble Shooting
- Damage to Bearing
- Vibration Causes
* Oil Contamination.
* Inlet temp of Oil ...
Gentech Design Center 38
trouble Shooting
Governor - Hunting
- Cycle variations in speed above and below the normal
set sp...
Gentech Design Center 39
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Steam turbine

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Steam Turbine - An Overview to Trainees

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Steam turbine

  1. 1. Gentech Design Center 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Gentech Design Center 2
  3. 3. Gentech Design Center 3 A STEAM TURBINE ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF A FOLLOWING PARTS
  4. 4. Major Parts Gentech Design Center 4
  5. 5. Gentech Design Center 5
  6. 6. COMPONENTS OF STEAM TURBINES  Casing (Cast Steel)Casing (Cast Steel)  Nozzle Block (11% - 13% Cr. Steel for Nozzles)Nozzle Block (11% - 13% Cr. Steel for Nozzles)  Rotor (Wheel with sets of rotating blades – 11% - 13%Rotor (Wheel with sets of rotating blades – 11% - 13% Cr. Steel for blades)Cr. Steel for blades)  Glands (carbon rings / labyrinths)Glands (carbon rings / labyrinths)  Bearings (Journal / anti-frictionBearings (Journal / anti-friction  Thrust Bearings (Tilting Pad / anti-friction)Thrust Bearings (Tilting Pad / anti-friction)  Over Speed DeviceOver Speed Device  GovernorGovernor  Governor ValveGovernor Valve  Emergency Steam Stop ValveEmergency Steam Stop Valve Gentech Design Center 6
  7. 7. A) CASING a)a) Generally Turbine casings are used for split horizontalGenerally Turbine casings are used for split horizontal and vertical position.The casing houses the bladed rotorand vertical position.The casing houses the bladed rotor Nozzles, Diaphrams.Nozzles, Diaphrams. b)b) It also holds glands for steam sealing each end forIt also holds glands for steam sealing each end for preventing leakage of steam.preventing leakage of steam. c)c) Steam casing are generally of cast steel of BS 3100Steam casing are generally of cast steel of BS 3100 B2/A2.It can stand with temperature. 400oC.B2/A2.It can stand with temperature. 400oC. Gentech Design Center 7
  8. 8. B) NOzzLES  In the nozzle stam is expanded from ahigh pressure toIn the nozzle stam is expanded from ahigh pressure to low pressure. Thus a certain amount of heat energy islow pressure. Thus a certain amount of heat energy is converted into kinetic energy.converted into kinetic energy. C) BLAdES  The Steam with high velocity flows over curved bladesThe Steam with high velocity flows over curved blades and its direction of motion changed. The Blades whichand its direction of motion changed. The Blades which change the directiuo of steam issuing from nozzles.Thischange the directiuo of steam issuing from nozzles.This causes a change of momentum and force thuscauses a change of momentum and force thus developed devices the turbine shaft. Material Ofdeveloped devices the turbine shaft. Material Of Construction : 21cr mov 57Construction : 21cr mov 57Gentech Design Center 8
  9. 9. TURBINE ROTOR Design:  The Turbine rotor consists of three principal portions: Front Portion (1 to 6); Blading Portion (7 to 9) and Rear Portion (10 to 14) Gentech Design Center 9
  10. 10. Gentech Design Center 10
  11. 11. d) governor  Governor is a device, Which senses the speed ofGovernor is a device, Which senses the speed of turbine and controls the steam to the turbine to maintainturbine and controls the steam to the turbine to maintain the speed at a desired level to meet changes in loadthe speed at a desired level to meet changes in load (or) steam flow.(or) steam flow. Gentech Design Center 11
  12. 12. Speed Setting Mech. Speed Governer. Transducer Control Valve Actuator. Speed Sensor T Inlet Steam Gentech Design Center 12
  13. 13. governor It regulates the speed of the Turbine It operates a built in valve in the steam inlet line It is either Mechanical or Hydraulic In Mechanical type, the fly weights open out or close in, which inturn opens or shuts the steam inlet vlave thereby increasing or decreasing the speed respectively In Hydraulic type, the oil pump pressure increases or decreases raising or lowering the plunger or piston which in turn actuates the steam valveGentech Design Center 13
  14. 14. e) Servo mechaniSm.  This mechanism works and an amplifier of governorThis mechanism works and an amplifier of governor signal for throttle valve activation.signal for throttle valve activation.  This consists of a pressure balanced pilot valveThis consists of a pressure balanced pilot valve controlling the supply of high pressure oil to the powercontrolling the supply of high pressure oil to the power piston.piston. Gentech Design Center 14
  15. 15. Gentech Design Center 15
  16. 16. F) oiL pumpS  Generally oil is containated in the reservoir which formsGenerally oil is containated in the reservoir which forms the turbine and gear box base plate.the turbine and gear box base plate.  Normally two oil pumps are available in turbines.Normally two oil pumps are available in turbines. Main oil pumpMain oil pump Auxiliary oil pumpAuxiliary oil pump Gentech Design Center 16
  17. 17. main oiL pump  The main oil pump is driven by the low spoeed gear box /The main oil pump is driven by the low spoeed gear box / extension.extension.  Main oil pump delivery pressure is approx.Main oil pump delivery pressure is approx. 5.0 to 6.0 kg/cm5.0 to 6.0 kg/cm22 .. auxiLiary oiL pump  The auxiliary oil pump is driven by an electricalThe auxiliary oil pump is driven by an electrical motor/steam and is provided for use when starting andmotor/steam and is provided for use when starting and shutting down the turbine.shutting down the turbine.  Auxiliary oil pump delivery pressure is approx.Auxiliary oil pump delivery pressure is approx. 1.5 to 3.0 kg/cm1.5 to 3.0 kg/cm22 .. Gentech Design Center 17
  18. 18. TypeS oF Turbine A. Impulse Turbine The steam pressure at the outlet side of the blade is equal to inlet side such a turbine is termed as impulse Turbine. B. Reaction Turbine The steam pressure at the outlet side of the blade is less than at inlet side of the blade. A. Impulse Turbine The steam pressure at the outlet side of the blade is equal to inlet side such a turbine is termed as impulse Turbine. B. Reaction Turbine The steam pressure at the outlet side of the blade is less than at inlet side of the blade. Gentech Design Center 18
  19. 19. diFFerence Gentech Design Center 19
  20. 20. (i) SimpLe impuLSe Expansion of Steam takes place in one set of Nozzles. Hence called Impulse Turbines. Employed for Small PowerGentech Design Center 20
  21. 21. (II) PRESSURE COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE Number of Impulse Machines in series on the same shaft, allowing the exhaust of one turbine to enter the Nozzles of the succeeding turbine. Each simple Impulse Machine would be teamed as a ‘STAGE’. Gentech Design Center 21
  22. 22. (III) VELOCITY COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE (CURTIS TYPE) This type comprises of a Nozzle of a wheel with two or more rows of moving blades. There are also guide blades, suitably arranged between the moving blades and set in reverse manner. Features: More efficient, better control of speed than simple impulse turbines. (Coppus Turbines) Gentech Design Center 22
  23. 23. STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES: a) According to the method of steam expansion in the turbine.  Impulse turbine  Reaction Turbine  Combination of impulse and reaction turbine. b) According to the direction of flow of steam in the turbine  Axial flow turbine  Radial flow Turbine  Mixed flow Turbin Gentech Design Center 23
  24. 24. STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES: c) According to the final delivery pressure (or) Exhaust condition of steam turbine.  Condensing Turbine  Back Pressure Turbine.  Extraction Turbine. Gentech Design Center 24
  25. 25. STEaM TURBINES MaY BE CLaSSIfIED INTO ThE fOLLOwINg TYPES: d) According to the number of stages of turbines.  Single stage turbine.  Multi stage turbine. d) According to the pressure of steam turbines.  Low pressure turbine.  Medium pressure turbine.  High pressure turbine. Gentech Design Center 25
  26. 26. SafETY DEVICES (MEChaNICaL DEVICES) 1. Over speed Trip 2. Master trip 3. LP Trip Gentech Design Center 26
  27. 27. Gentech Design Center 27
  28. 28. Gentech Design Center 28
  29. 29. Gentech Design Center 29
  30. 30. DaNgER SIgNaLS UNUSUaL VIBRaTION NOISY BEaRINgS aBNORMaLLY hOT BEaRINgS OIL RINgS NOT TURNINg DISCOLOURED OIL LOw OIL PRESSURE ExCESSIVE gLaND LEakagE BROkEN LUBRICaTORS gOVERNOR hUNTINgGentech Design Center 30
  31. 31. Starting the turbine Gentech Design Center 31
  32. 32. Protection SyStem Special Purpose Turbines Low Lub. Oil Pressure Trip High Brg. Temp. Trip High Vibn. Trip High Axial Disp. Trip Const. Speed Governor Relief Valve in Exhaust Gentech Design Center 32
  33. 33. What to check for in running turbineS Noise Levels Leakage from Glands Vibration at Bearing Housings Bearing Temperatures Movement of Oil Rings of Sleeve Bearings Governor Oil Level (for Oil Relay Governors) Gentech Design Center 33
  34. 34. StandardS API 611 General purpose steam turbines for refinery service (non- critical) API 612 Special purpose steam turbine for refinery service (critical) Gentech Design Center 34
  35. 35. Parameter range Gentech Design Center 35 Inlet Pressure : ~ 4 ATA to 140 ATA Inlet Temperature : ~ 1400 C to 5400 C Extraction Pressure : ~ 3 ATA to 64 ATA Exhaust Pressure : ~ Condensing to 45 ATA Speeds : 3000 rpm to 25000 rpm Power : ~ 1 MW to ~ 100 MW Driven Machines : Generator Compressor Axial Turbo Blower Boiler Feed Pump Inlet Temperature upto 5700 C for Special Application
  36. 36. Gentech Design Center 36 trouble Shooting • - Progressively increasing Vibration. - Steam Leakage - Seal Damage Causes * Journal/ Thrust Bearing failure * Rotor Shaft Bent * Heavy fluctuations in inlet steam temperature Remedy * Check and replace Journal/ Thrust Bearing * Check & record readings of rotor * Proper operation of Boiler. Labyrinth Rubbing
  37. 37. Gentech Design Center 37 trouble Shooting - Damage to Bearing - Vibration Causes * Oil Contamination. * Inlet temp of Oil is high. * Less oil supply . Remedy * Rectify Laby Glands. * Check oil cooler supply. * Check oil supply line is not chocked. Bearing Failure
  38. 38. Gentech Design Center 38 trouble Shooting Governor - Hunting - Cycle variations in speed above and below the normal set speed. Causes * Worn out thrust carrier * worn out needle roller bearing of rocker arm * worn out Gov. weights. - Remedy * Check & replace the bearings * Check & replace needle roller bearing of rocker arm * Check & replace Gov. weights.
  39. 39. Gentech Design Center 39

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