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ESTHETICS
IN
FIXED PARTIAL PROSTHODONTICS
Presented by : Hemal Patel
Guided by : Dr. Smita Athavale
1
CONTENTS
1.Definitions
2.General principles of Esthetics
3.Factors of esthetic dentofacial composition
4. Esthetic conside...
ESTHETICS
Branch of philosophy dealing with beauty.
Esthetic dentistry
Art and science of dentistry applied to create or e...
Appearance Zone :
•This is the anterior oral area where esthetics is of prime
concern & which is visible on smiling, from ...
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ESTHETICS
1.Composition :
Facial composition Dentofacial composition Dental
composition
2.Unity:
i. ...
Thus, to achieve unity, the teeth are arranged with tectonic
spacing, that is, an esthetic and functional arrangement.
Cen...
4. Color, form and lines:
These provide dominance to a composition.
Color predominates over forms, lines and angles.
Accor...
MUNSELL’S COLOR WHEEL
Many factors that are part of biologic or structural beauty
depend on the visualization of LINES.
The direction of lines c...
Any FORM can be created from the three basic shapes of a
circle, triangle and square.
10
5. Proportion and Ratios:
Golden Proportion: The Golden Proportion results from the
division of a straight line in such a ...
FACTORS OF ESTHETIC DENTOFACIAL COMPOSITION
A. FACIAL COMPONENTS
B. DENTAL COMPONENTS
C. GINGIVAL COMPONENTS
D. PHYSICAL C...
c. Sagittal references:
Upper and lower lip contours
E-line
d. Phonetic references:
"M" sound: amount of incisal display a...
2. Facial Proportions:
14
3. Visibility:
•The amount of tooth exposure when lips part slightly in a
relative rest state governed by muscles.
•Age
•S...
Lower lip line helps to evaluate buccolingual position of the
incisal edge of the maxillary incisors and the curvature of ...
d. Smile line or incisal curve is composed of the incisal edges
of the maxillary anterior teeth and parallels the inner cu...
f. Smile symmetry:
•Perceived in reference to central midline.
•Horizontal and radiating symmetry.
•In a natural pleasing ...
B. DENTAL COMPONENTS:
1. Dental midline :
•Anatomical landmarks like the incisive papilla or
the labial frenum..
•Not nece...
3. Axial inclination:
20
4. Teeth arrangement:
10.2 mm
21
Arch form
5. Gradation :
Front-back progression
22
6. Teeth morphology :
a. Contact area:
b. Texture :
• Texture can be noted by the light reflection
pattern.
• The surface ...
c. Characterization :
According to age, sex and
personality.
d. Embrasure form : facial, lingual, incisal and gingival
emb...
e. Line angles:
•Transition from the labial surface at the
mesial and distal lobes to the interproximal
embrasures.
•Chang...
7. Symmetry:
Automatically obtained if previous
principles are followed.
26
C. GINGIVAL COMPONENTS:
•Gingival line
•Gingival apex/zenith
•Gingival contour and scalloping
•Gingival embrasure
•Gingiva...
D. PHYSICAL COMPONENTS:
Perception:
Visual perception is:
•· Increased by increasing contrast
•· Increased by increasing l...
NARROWING
WIDENING
SHORTENING
LENGTHENING
COLOR:
1. BASE COLOR :
Base color is selected on the basis of hue, chroma and value selection
using shade guides and tabs,...
3. GINGIVAL THIRD :
•Enamel gets thinner in the gingival third of teeth so darker dentin
shows through and the area looks ...
TRANSLUCENCY:
•Degree to which light is transmitted rather than reflected.
OPALESCENCE:
•Important component of the percei...
Guidelines for shade selection:
• Stains and deposits must be cleaned off the tooth, and the tooth must
be kept wet throug...
•· Shade evaluation :
-First visit after cleaning OR Next visit after tooth preparation
or bleaching or a strenuous appoin...
•Shade tabs :
•Custom shade guides
•Photographs
ESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR PONTICS
36
FACTORS AFFECTING PONTIC DESIGN
A. Pontic space
B. Residual ridge contour
C. Occlusal load
A
B B C
SURGICAL MODIFICATION FOR RIDGE DEFECTS
ROLL FLAP TECHNIQUE
•The Roll Flap Technique to Improve Esthetics in Anterior Cera...
POUCH TECHNIQUE
INTERPOSITIONAL GRAFT
Free gingival
graft
PONTIC DESIGN
B. Mesiodistal width C. Gingival interface
A. Inciso-gingival height
ESTHETIC PONTICS
Saddle / Ridge lap pontic
•Esthetics : Resembles a tooth &
replaces all the contours of the
missing tooth .
•Concave tissu...
Modified ridge lap pontic
• It combines the best features of the hygienic
and saddle pontic designs, combining
esthetics w...
Ovate pontic
• First described by DEWEY and
ZUGSMITH in 1933.
•Most esthetically appealing pontic
design and ease of hygie...
PONTIC INDICATION ESTHETIC
CONCERN
HYGIENE DIAGRAM
Saddle-
ridge lap
Anterior and
Posterior
teeth
Reasonably
good
esthetic...
Use of a Modified Ovate Pontic in Areas of Ridge Defects
CHIUN-LIN STEVEN LIU:
J Esthet Restor Dent 16:273-283, 2004
A mod...
Pontic
system
Advantages Disadvantages Indications Contraindications
Metal-
ceramic
Esthetics
Biocompatible
Difficult if a...
ESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONNECTORS
A. Connector size
B. Connector shape
C. Connector position
Connectors are component...
Fig 1 Fig 2
49
ESTHETIC PERIODONTAL CORRECTIVE PROCEDURES
Inadequate tooth structure for restoration:
1.surgical crown lengthening
2.Forc...
•Pontic design:
-Tooth-colored
-Pink ceramic in cervical area
•Gingival mask
•FPDs with pink porcelain flanges
ESTHETIC NO...
TYPES OF ESTHETIC RESTORATIVE MATERIALS
1. Ceramic :
- Aluminous
- Feldspathic reinforced with Zirconia
- Feldspathic rein...
ESTHETIC FIXED RESTORATIONS
Missing teeth
Crowding/Malaligned anteriors
Mild rotations
Stains/Discoloration
Abrasions/Attr...
54
Metal-ceramic All-ceramic
METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATIONS
Facial Tooth Reduction:
•A minimum reduction of 1.5 mm typically is required for optimal
appear...
Incisal Reduction:
•An incisal reduction of 2 mm is recommended for translucency
at the incisal 1/3rd.
•Excessive incisal ...
Proximal Surface:
The proximal surfaces of these
anterior metal-ceramic crowns are
restored in porcelain, which allows
lig...
Proximal margin:
Mesial margin: just buccal to the proximal contact area, where
metal will be hidden by the distal line an...
Fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial restoration
Consists of a fiber-reinforced composite substructure veneered with a...
Resin-retained fixed partial restoration
Short span FPDs supported by thin metal retainers bonded lingually
and proximally...
IMPLANT-SUPPORTED BRIDGES
LAMINATES/VENEERS
AFTER
BEFO
RE
62
BEFORE AFTER
PORCELAIN
COMPOSITE
ARTICLES
Collarless metal ceramic fixed partial denture: Clinical
report.
W. Matsumoto et al.
Braz Dent J (2001) 12(1) 215-218.
• A...
•An Alveolar Bone Augmentation Technique to Improve Esthetics
in Anterior Ceramic FPDs: A Clinical Report
Burak Taskonak a...
Tissue sculpturing: An alternative method for improving esthetics of
anterior fixed prosthodontics
Jacques et al.
J Prosth...
References
1. Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics: Shillingburg 3rd
Edition.
2. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics : Rosen...
7. Use of a Modified Ovate Pontic in Areas of Ridge Defects:
Case reports.
Liu CS.
J Esthet Restor Dent 16:273-283, 2004.
...
THANK YOU
Next seminar by Dr. on
Resin-retained fixed partials:
Fiber-reinforced fixed partials:
Short span FPDs supported by thin metal retainers bonded l...
Esthetics in FPD
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Esthetics in FPD

  1. 1. ESTHETICS IN FIXED PARTIAL PROSTHODONTICS Presented by : Hemal Patel Guided by : Dr. Smita Athavale 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1.Definitions 2.General principles of Esthetics 3.Factors of esthetic dentofacial composition 4. Esthetic considerations for Pontics 5. Esthetic considerations for Connectors 6. Surgical & non-surgical methods to improve esthetics 7. Types of esthetic restorative materials 8. Esthetic fixed restorations 9. References 2
  3. 3. ESTHETICS Branch of philosophy dealing with beauty. Esthetic dentistry Art and science of dentistry applied to create or enhance the beauty of an individual within functional and physiological limits. Why needed in fixed partial prosthodontics? ? ? 3
  4. 4. Appearance Zone : •This is the anterior oral area where esthetics is of prime concern & which is visible on smiling, from maxillary premolar to premolar (usually 1st molars also),. •Depends on the person’s self-image, mouth size, teeth size, smile width, lip size and tightness. 4
  5. 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ESTHETICS 1.Composition : Facial composition Dentofacial composition Dental composition 2.Unity: i. Static unity ii. Dynamic unity The following visual forces play a role in unity. i. Cohesive forces ii. Segregative forces5
  6. 6. Thus, to achieve unity, the teeth are arranged with tectonic spacing, that is, an esthetic and functional arrangement. Centric occlusion Anterior protrusion of the mandible 3. Symmetry: Regularity in the arrangement of forms or objects. i. Horizontal symmetry ii. Radiating symmetry 6
  7. 7. 4. Color, form and lines: These provide dominance to a composition. Color predominates over forms, lines and angles. According to A. H. Munsell, CHROMA HUE VALUE Specific color produced by a specific wavelength acting on the retina. SATURATION : Purity of a color. BRILLIANCE : Lightness or darkness o 7
  8. 8. MUNSELL’S COLOR WHEEL
  9. 9. Many factors that are part of biologic or structural beauty depend on the visualization of LINES. The direction of lines can also create optical illusions. Vertical lines = longer tooth Horizontal lines = wide and short tooth Imaginary anterio-posterior line of the incisal edges/cusps tips representing the curve of Spee Lines & Planes 9
  10. 10. Any FORM can be created from the three basic shapes of a circle, triangle and square. 10
  11. 11. 5. Proportion and Ratios: Golden Proportion: The Golden Proportion results from the division of a straight line in such a way that the shorter part is to the longer part as the longer part is to the whole. Each ratio equals 0.618. CB/AC = AC/AB = 0.618A C B A/B = A+B/ C = C/B = B+C/A = 1.618 = phi Golden Rectangle Golden mean gauge 11
  12. 12. FACTORS OF ESTHETIC DENTOFACIAL COMPOSITION A. FACIAL COMPONENTS B. DENTAL COMPONENTS C. GINGIVAL COMPONENTS D. PHYSICAL COMPONENTS A.FACIAL COMPONENTS: 1. References: a. Horizontal references -Interpupillary line -Ophriac line -Commissural line b. Vertical references: -Facial midline 12
  13. 13. c. Sagittal references: Upper and lower lip contours E-line d. Phonetic references: "M" sound: amount of incisal display at rest. "F" or "V" sounds: lingual tilt of the maxillary central incisor length. "S" and "Z" sounds: vertical dimension of speech. 13
  14. 14. 2. Facial Proportions: 14
  15. 15. 3. Visibility: •The amount of tooth exposure when lips part slightly in a relative rest state governed by muscles. •Age •Short upper lips : upper incisors •Long upper lips: lower incisors 4. Components of the Smile: a. Lip line : Upper lip line: • Exposure of teeth at rest/smiling and gingival margins on smiling. • Evaluate the need for esthetic gingival contouring/crown lengthening in anterior area.15 Young Old
  16. 16. Lower lip line helps to evaluate buccolingual position of the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors and the curvature of the incisal plane. b. Incisal plane: Convex Gull wing effect c. Incisal edge position: 16 INCISAL EDGE POSITION AT REST ON SMILING
  17. 17. d. Smile line or incisal curve is composed of the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth and parallels the inner curvature of the lower lip. •Degree of curvature more pronounced in women than in men. e. Negative space: 17
  18. 18. f. Smile symmetry: •Perceived in reference to central midline. •Horizontal and radiating symmetry. •In a natural pleasing smile, pleasing tooth symmetry is found close to the midline and pleasing irregularity away from the midline, creating a balance between idealism and diversity. 18
  19. 19. B. DENTAL COMPONENTS: 1. Dental midline : •Anatomical landmarks like the incisive papilla or the labial frenum.. •Not necessarily should coincide with facial midline. •Balance and symmetry. 2. Tooth proportion: •Golden proportion (61.8 %) •Proportion determined by face form •Proportion by statistical averages (75-89%) 19 “A” 85% ratio, square appearance. “B” 78% ratio, normal ratio. “C” 65% ratio, teeth appear taller.
  20. 20. 3. Axial inclination: 20 4. Teeth arrangement: 10.2 mm
  21. 21. 21 Arch form
  22. 22. 5. Gradation : Front-back progression 22
  23. 23. 6. Teeth morphology : a. Contact area: b. Texture : • Texture can be noted by the light reflection pattern. • The surface texture of a crown should simulate the reflectance pattern of the adjacent natural teeth. 23
  24. 24. c. Characterization : According to age, sex and personality. d. Embrasure form : facial, lingual, incisal and gingival embrasures. •Affects perception : large embrasures make tooth appear smaller and vice versa. •Incisal embrasures increase in size from central incisor to canine. 24 Frush and Fisher Rufenacht
  25. 25. e. Line angles: •Transition from the labial surface at the mesial and distal lobes to the interproximal embrasures. •Changes in their positions control the appearance of the width of the tooth and affect light reflection pattern. f. Emergence Profile: A tooth's emergence profile is the angle at which the tooth emerges from the gums when viewed from the side. 25
  26. 26. 7. Symmetry: Automatically obtained if previous principles are followed. 26
  27. 27. C. GINGIVAL COMPONENTS: •Gingival line •Gingival apex/zenith •Gingival contour and scalloping •Gingival embrasure •Gingival symmetry 27
  28. 28. D. PHYSICAL COMPONENTS: Perception: Visual perception is: •· Increased by increasing contrast •· Increased by increasing light reflection •· Increased by decreasing light deflection Illusion: •Is the art of changing perception making an object appear different than it actually is. •Principle of Illumination •Principle of Lines •Solve/hide esthetically difficult situations. 28
  29. 29. NARROWING WIDENING SHORTENING LENGTHENING
  30. 30. COLOR: 1. BASE COLOR : Base color is selected on the basis of hue, chroma and value selection using shade guides and tabs, comparing with adjacent teeth. 2. INTERPROXIMAL : Interproximal color provides a silhouette for the tooth. Dark colors makes teeth look smaller while no change in color will give a broader appearance. 30
  31. 31. 3. GINGIVAL THIRD : •Enamel gets thinner in the gingival third of teeth so darker dentin shows through and the area looks more yellow. •Staining . 4. INCISAL EDGE : The incisal edge is translucent enamel resulting in translucency, a halo effect, or no change as it is worn away with age. 5. CHARACTERIZATION : •There are many different colors which can occur within a tooth as might be seen with craze lines or hypocalcifications. •Staining. 31
  32. 32. TRANSLUCENCY: •Degree to which light is transmitted rather than reflected. OPALESCENCE: •Important component of the perceived enamel colour •Subtle bluish gleam characteristic appearance. 32
  33. 33. Guidelines for shade selection: • Stains and deposits must be cleaned off the tooth, and the tooth must be kept wet throughout shade determination. •Remove bright make-up like lipstick and use neutral-colored drape to avoid distraction. •The teeth should be viewed at eye level so that most color-sensitive part of the retina will be used. • The color of the luting agent must also be taken into consideration. 33
  34. 34. •· Shade evaluation : -First visit after cleaning OR Next visit after tooth preparation or bleaching or a strenuous appointment, but following color stabilization. -Under different lighting conditions and wet conditions. •· Hue, chroma and value should be matched in that order. •· When in doubt, always select higher value and lower chroma, since it is easy to lower the value and increase the chroma. •First impression of the chosen color is best and sometimes, squinting may help to choose the right value of color.
  35. 35. •Shade tabs : •Custom shade guides •Photographs
  36. 36. ESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR PONTICS 36
  37. 37. FACTORS AFFECTING PONTIC DESIGN A. Pontic space B. Residual ridge contour C. Occlusal load A B B C
  38. 38. SURGICAL MODIFICATION FOR RIDGE DEFECTS ROLL FLAP TECHNIQUE •The Roll Flap Technique to Improve Esthetics in Anterior Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures: Perio-Prostho Relationship - A Case Report Kalpesh Vaishnav, Anita Panchal, Dipti Shah
  39. 39. POUCH TECHNIQUE INTERPOSITIONAL GRAFT Free gingival graft
  40. 40. PONTIC DESIGN B. Mesiodistal width C. Gingival interface A. Inciso-gingival height
  41. 41. ESTHETIC PONTICS
  42. 42. Saddle / Ridge lap pontic •Esthetics : Resembles a tooth & replaces all the contours of the missing tooth . •Concave tissue surface. •Overlaps the residual ridge buccolingually. •Disadvantage : Difficult flossing due to concave tissue surface.
  43. 43. Modified ridge lap pontic • It combines the best features of the hygienic and saddle pontic designs, combining esthetics with easy cleaning. • Overlaps the residual ridge facially only. • Lingual surface has a slight deflective contour to prevent food impaction and minimize plaque accumulation. . • “T” shaped tissue contact whose vertical arm ends at the crest of the ridge.
  44. 44. Ovate pontic • First described by DEWEY and ZUGSMITH in 1933. •Most esthetically appealing pontic design and ease of hygiene. •Convex tissue surface resides in a soft tissue depression or hollow in the residual ridge. •Appears to grow out of ridge.
  45. 45. PONTIC INDICATION ESTHETIC CONCERN HYGIENE DIAGRAM Saddle- ridge lap Anterior and Posterior teeth Reasonably good esthetics Difficult Modified ridge lap Easier than above Ovate Anterior and Posterior teeth; High lip line Excellent esthetics & emergence profile Easier than above 45
  46. 46. Use of a Modified Ovate Pontic in Areas of Ridge Defects CHIUN-LIN STEVEN LIU: J Esthet Restor Dent 16:273-283, 2004 A modified ovate pontic has the following advantages: •Excellent esthetics •Fulfilled functional requirements •Greater ease of cleaning as compared with the ovate pontic •An effective air seal, which eliminates air or saliva leakage •The appearance of a free gingival margin and interdental papilla •Elimination or minimization of the "black triangle" between the teeth •Little or no ridge augmentation required. 46
  47. 47. Pontic system Advantages Disadvantages Indications Contraindications Metal- ceramic Esthetics Biocompatible Difficult if an abutment is not metal-ceramic Weaker than all metal Most situations Long spans with high stress All metals Strength Non-esthetic Mandibular molars especially under high stress Where esthetics is important Fiber- reinforced all-resin Conservative when used with inlay preparations Esthetics Easy to repair Long-term success unknown Limited to short spans Areas of high esthetics concern Long-span FPDs Facings Rarely used Available Pontic Systems
  48. 48. ESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONNECTORS A. Connector size B. Connector shape C. Connector position Connectors are components of FPD that connect the pontic(s) to retainer(s). -Rigid -Non-rigid
  49. 49. Fig 1 Fig 2 49
  50. 50. ESTHETIC PERIODONTAL CORRECTIVE PROCEDURES Inadequate tooth structure for restoration: 1.surgical crown lengthening 2.Forced eruption with fiberotomy. Recession: 1.Free gingival / lateral pedicle graft 2.Subepithelial connective tissue graft 3.Guided tissue regeneration Edentulous ridge defects: 1.Onlay/inlay grafts 2.Synthetic bone grafts Gingival overgrowth: 1.Gingivectomy / Gingivoplasty 2.Apically postioned flap with or without ostectomy Electrosurgery/laser for esthetic contouring
  51. 51. •Pontic design: -Tooth-colored -Pink ceramic in cervical area •Gingival mask •FPDs with pink porcelain flanges ESTHETIC NON-SURGICAL CORRECTIONS
  52. 52. TYPES OF ESTHETIC RESTORATIVE MATERIALS 1. Ceramic : - Aluminous - Feldspathic reinforced with Zirconia - Feldspathic reinforced with Leucite - Ceromers 2. Composite : - Conventional - Fibre-reinforced (glass, polyethylene, carbon) 3. Gingiva-colored materials: - Ceramic like d.SIGN - Acrylic - Silicone
  53. 53. ESTHETIC FIXED RESTORATIONS Missing teeth Crowding/Malaligned anteriors Mild rotations Stains/Discoloration Abrasions/Attrised anteriors Erosions/Destructed tooth Spacing Bridges Onlays Crowns Veneers/Laminates INDICATIONS ESTHETIC FIXED RESTORATIONS Full-coverage FPD Partial-coverage FPD Resin-retained FPD Fibre-reinforced composite FPD Implant-supported FPD
  54. 54. 54 Metal-ceramic All-ceramic
  55. 55. METAL-CERAMIC RESTORATIONS Facial Tooth Reduction: •A minimum reduction of 1.5 mm typically is required for optimal appearance. Reduction in 2 distinct planes Adequate porcelain thickness 55
  56. 56. Incisal Reduction: •An incisal reduction of 2 mm is recommended for translucency at the incisal 1/3rd. •Excessive incisal reduction must be avoided because it reduces the resistance and retention form of the preparation. 56
  57. 57. Proximal Surface: The proximal surfaces of these anterior metal-ceramic crowns are restored in porcelain, which allows light to be transmitted for maximum esthetics. Margin Placement: Should follow free gingival contour. Supragingival margins : Easy to prepare, finish, maintain hygiene, make impressions and evaluate on recall visits. Low lip line. Subgingival margins: Caries/restorations involving root High lip line.57
  58. 58. Proximal margin: Mesial margin: just buccal to the proximal contact area, where metal will be hidden by the distal line angle of the neighboring tooth. Facial margin: •Just beyond the occlusofacial line angle. •Short bevel (to prevent enamel chipping) •Chamfer (for more bulk of material in molars, if needed) 58 PARTIAL-COVERAGE RESTORATIONS
  59. 59. Fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial restoration Consists of a fiber-reinforced composite substructure veneered with a particulate composite material.
  60. 60. Resin-retained fixed partial restoration Short span FPDs supported by thin metal retainers bonded lingually and proximally to the abutment enamel. Etched resin-retained (Maryland bridge) Cast perforated resin-retained fixed
  61. 61. IMPLANT-SUPPORTED BRIDGES
  62. 62. LAMINATES/VENEERS AFTER BEFO RE 62 BEFORE AFTER PORCELAIN COMPOSITE
  63. 63. ARTICLES
  64. 64. Collarless metal ceramic fixed partial denture: Clinical report. W. Matsumoto et al. Braz Dent J (2001) 12(1) 215-218. • Advantages: - Esthetic - Excellent biocompatibility of the glazed porcelain - No special equipment required. - Less plaque because of smooth glazed porcelain collar. • Although, it requires skill and there is always the risk of producing restorations with poorer marginal fit.
  65. 65. •An Alveolar Bone Augmentation Technique to Improve Esthetics in Anterior Ceramic FPDs: A Clinical Report Burak Taskonak and Yasar Ozkan J Prosthodont 2006;15:32-36. This article describes an alvelolar bone augmentation technique so as to preserve the edentulous space after extraction which is nothing but the pontic space.
  66. 66. Tissue sculpturing: An alternative method for improving esthetics of anterior fixed prosthodontics Jacques et al. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:630-3. •An unfavorable relationship between residual ridge, pontic, and gingival papilla commonly compromises the final result. •This article describes a technique for the improvement of esthetics with conditioning of the tissue beneath the pontics, by displacing tissue with a treatment restoration. •Lateral displacement of tissue under gradual, controlled pressure enhances the interdental papilla, which improves esthetics.
  67. 67. References 1. Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics: Shillingburg 3rd Edition. 2. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics : Rosenstiel 3rd Edition. 3. Library dissertation “Esthetics in FPD” by Dr. Guruprasad Handal ; Dr. DY Patil Dental College. 4. South African Dental Technology Journal : Aesthetic s Issue,Vol 1 Issue 3. 5. The art of a beautiful smile. Journal of Cosmetic Dentistry, Fall 2008 Volume 24 Number 3.
  68. 68. 7. Use of a Modified Ovate Pontic in Areas of Ridge Defects: Case reports. Liu CS. J Esthet Restor Dent 16:273-283, 2004. 8. Levin El. Dental Esthetics and the Golden Proportion. J Prosthetic Dentistry 40:244-252 1978. 9. Lombardi RE. The principles of visual perception and their clinical application to dental esthetics. J Prost Dent. 1973;29:358-381. 10.McLaren EA and Tran Cao P. Smile Analysis and Esthetic Design: “In the Zone”. Inside Dentistry- Esthetics, July/August 2009.
  69. 69. THANK YOU Next seminar by Dr. on
  70. 70. Resin-retained fixed partials: Fiber-reinforced fixed partials: Short span FPDs supported by thin metal retainers bonded lingually and proximally to the abutment enamel. Consists of a fiber-reinforced composite substructure veneered with a particulate composite material. Etched resin-retained (Maryland bridge) Cast perforated resin-retained fixed
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