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Ppt. developing a conceptual framework

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Ppt. developing a conceptual framework

  2. 2. The structure of the presentation What is conceptual frame work? What are the purposes of conceptual framework ? What are ingredients of a conceptual framework? 2
  3. 3. The structure of the presentation What are the steps in Developing a conceptual framework. How will you present a conceptual framework? What are the pros and cons of conceptual frameworks. Conclusion. 2/18/2014 3
  4. 4. Introduction • Conceptual framework represent ways of thinking about a problem. • It deals with abstractions ( concepts) that are assembled by virtue of relevance to a common theme. 2/18/2014 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION • CF is an explanation of how a researcher sees the different concepts and outcomes of study and its relations with each other. • It can be developed from the researcher's personal experience, previous studies, or from more than one theory or models 2/18/2014 5
  6. 6. A written or visual presentation that: “explains either graphically, or by narration, the main things to be studied – the key factors, concepts or variables - and the presumed relationship among them”. (Miles and Huberman, 1994, P18) 2/18/2014 6
  7. 7. • A CF provides a coherent, unified and orderly way of seeing related events or processes relevant to a study/ research and less formal than theories. • It can be : • Rudimentary or elaborate, • Theory driven or commonsensical , • Descriptive or casual (Miles, and Huberman cited Veal p.54) 2/18/2014 7
  8. 8. • It broadly presents understanding of the phenomenon of interest and reflects the assumptions and philosophic view of the designer • It is researcher‟s own position on the problem- the way the researcher shapes it together. 2/18/2014 8
  9. 9. What it does? • Conceptual frameworks serve as the springboard for theory development • CF shows the relationship of the stated hypotheses with central factors or key concepts. • Part of CF offers a synopsis of the study's main points. 2/18/2014 9
  10. 10. What it does?? • Each framework highlights or emphasizes different aspects of a problem or research question. • Any one conceptual framework presents only a partial view of reality. • Focuses attention on and amplify certain elements of a problem like a magnifying glass 2/18/2014 10
  11. 11. Purposes • Conceptual Framework • Keeps research on track • Provides clear links from the literature to the research goals and questions • Helps the researcher to see clearly the variables of the study • Clarifies concepts and propose relationships among concepts 2/18/2014 11
  12. 12. Purposes • Provides an organizing structure for the research design and methods. • Useful to prepare research proposal using experimental or descriptive methods • Guides the development and testing of interventions and hypotheses 2/18/2014 12
  13. 13. Purposes • Provides general framework for data analysis • The interpretation of findings flows from the conceptualization represented by the framework • Makes research findings meaningful and generalizable 2/18/2014 13
  14. 14. Purposes • Provides reference points for discussion of the methodology and analysis of the data. • Explains observations • Contributes to the trustworthiness of the study. • Encourages theory development that is useful to practice 2/18/2014 14
  15. 15. Ingredients • A conceptual framework is composed of concepts and the relational linkages between them ( called propositional statements) • Concepts abstractly describes and names an object or phenomenon, thus providing it with separate identity or meaning. • It is actually the intellectual representation of some aspect of reality, derived from observations made from phenomenon. • Example: Anxiety, stress or pain 2/18/2014 15
  16. 16. Concepts Basic elements Relational statement as propositions. 2/18/2014 16
  17. 17. Concept synthesis Conceptual definition Concept derivation Concept analysis 2/18/2014 17
  18. 18. Concept synthesis • Process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept Eg:- Selye performed concept synthesis to identify and define the concept stress. Concept derivation • Meanings are derived from other disciplines may be modified and carefully evaluated to fit in the nursing knowledge 2/18/2014 18
  19. 19. Conceptual analysis • A strategy through a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. • A strategy that involves examining the attributes characteristics of a concept. (Walker & Avant 1983) 2/18/2014 19
  20. 20. A philosophical inquiry – Researcher explores various ways the term is used and try to identify set of characteristics that can be used to describe the concept. How? By × search of literature × personal experience and thought × Reasoning 2/18/2014 Walker & Avant 1985. 20
  21. 21. Types of concepts • Three types of concepts According to level of abstraction: 1. Abstract concepts or theoretical concepts 2. Empirical or descriptive concepts 2/18/2014 21
  22. 22. According to level of categorization: 1. Global or domain concepts 2. Middle range concepts 3. Empirical concepts 2/18/2014 22
  23. 23. • According to levels of measurements • 1. Nominal • 2. Ordinal • 3. Interval • 4. Ratio 2/18/2014 23
  24. 24. • Concepts are important because they provide a road map • Give the big picture ideas (the concepts) up front, and then fit in the smaller facts and details • Provide the context for the researcher 2/18/2014 24
  25. 25. Next steps is to state Relations with concepts. ? Relational statement- declares that a relationship of some kind exists between two or more concepts. (Walker & Avant 1980) 2/18/2014 25
  26. 26. Importance of relational statements/ propositions • Core of frame work • Relational statement are tested through research. • Relational statements determines the - Objectives - Research questions and hypothesis - Research design - Statistical analysis - Type of findings expected. N.B: For critiquing a study too the link between the hypothesis, design and frame work are examined. 2/18/2014 26
  27. 27. Special features It describes * Direction * Sequencing * Shape * Probability of occurrence * Strength * Necessity * Symmetry * Sufficiency Depicted with diagrams or by literary means. 2/18/2014 27
  28. 28. What inputs go into developing a conceptual framework? • Experiential knowledge of researcher and supervisor – Literature review – Technical knowledge. – Research background. – Personal experience. – Data (particularly for qualitative). 2/18/2014 28
  29. 29. How might a conceptual framework be developed? 1. Explore/ explain relationship between concepts 4. Operationalise concepts 2. Identify the concept 3. Define concepts 2/18/2014 29
  30. 30. Identify concepts • Identify the concept and categorize them • It can be abstract or concrete. • For an abstract concept it is broad and may not be readily observable and the meaning of which are more far from time, space and referent group and is not easily measurable • Specific or concrete concepts are amenable to measurements 2/18/2014 30
  31. 31. Define concepts • This is the main function of a conceptual framework in descriptive study/ research • Example • Quality of life • Accessibility of care • Regular users • Visitor demand 2/18/2014 31
  32. 32. Operationalise concepts • In other words, how can abstract intangible concepts be made tangible • How can concepts like • Regeneration • Community • Deprivation • Local etc be recognized , assessed, measured or counted 2/18/2014 32
  33. 33. • Empirical referents or indicators must be find • out to depict the existence of concepts after operationalising the concept. • Example • Numerical pain scale to measure the pain intensity • Depression scale to measure depression etc • Empirical referents is a means of measurement of concepts 2/18/2014 33
  34. 34. Develop relational statements/ propositions • State the relation between concepts • This provides idea for testing and hypothesis development • Hypothesis are developed from these propositional statements of a conceptual framework 2/18/2014 34
  35. 35. In nut shell Develop the structure by: • Identifying the key words used in the subject area of the study. • Draw out the key things within something that have already written about the subject area – literature review. • Take one key concept, idea or term at a time and brainstorm all the other things that might be related and then go back and select those that seem most relevant. • It will take time and a number of iterations and the focus should be both on the content and the inter-relationships. 2/18/2014 35
  36. 36. General forms of CF • Process frameworks – Set out the stages through which an action moves from initiation to conclusion. These relate to the ‘how?’ question. • Content frameworks • Set out the variables, and possibly the relationship (with relative strengths) between them, that together answer the ‘why?’ question. 2/18/2014 36
  37. 37. What specific forms might a conceptual framework take? • The possibilities include: – Flow charts. – Tree diagrams. – Shape based diagrams – triangles, concentric circles, overlapping circles. – Mind maps. – Soft systems. 2/18/2014 37
  38. 38. The pros and cons of conceptual frameworks • Why are conceptual frameworks useful? • Conceptual frameworks provide researchers with: – The ability to move beyond descriptions of „what‟ to explanations of „why‟ and „how‟. – A means of setting out an explanation set that might be used to define and make sense of the data that flow from the research question. – A filtering tool for selecting appropriate research questions and related data collection methods. – A reference point/structure for the discussion of the literature, methodology and results. – The boundaries of the work. 2/18/2014 38
  39. 39. The pros and cons of conceptual frameworks • Allow researchers to build upon one another‟s work; thereby building a body of knowledge • Programmatic, conceptually based research that accumulate deeper understanding over time and this moves a discipline (such as nursing) forward. 2/18/2014 39
  40. 40. What are the cons/ limitations • Conceptual framework: – Is influenced by the experience and knowledge of the individual – initial bias. – Once developed will influence the researcher‟s thinking and may result in some things being given prominence and others being ignored – ongoing bias. • The solution is to revisit the conceptual framework, particularly at the end when evaluating your work. 2/18/2014 40
  41. 41. Criteria to evaluate conceptual framework • Comprehensiveness of content • logical congruence • conceptual clarity • level of abstraction • clinical utility (Fawcett's (1995)) 2/18/2014 41
  42. 42. CF for infant/child pain parent coping INFANT AND CHILD Bradykinin Serotonin K+ Histamines Physiologic Behavioural Miscellaneous Characteristics Infant and child Characteristics SURGERY PAIN APAT Biological PARENT Personality Characteristics 2/18/2014 Social Psychological Coping Strategies COPING 42
  43. 43. Conclusion • The conceptual framework encapsulates the research as it: – Sets out the focus and content. – Acts as the link between the literature, the methodology and the results • Thus it can be/will be the focus/starting point of the evaluation of originality of a research to find – Whether what has been focussed on entirely new? – Is the way the subject been investigated different to the „normal‟ approaches? – Has new light been shed on previously explored issues? 2/18/2014 43
  44. 44. References • • • • • • • Hart C. (1998): Doing a Literature Review.” London, Sage. Jennings G. (2001): Tourism Research. Australia, John Wiley and Sons. Maslow A (1954): “Motivation and Personality.” New York: Harper. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. A. (1994): “Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook” (2nd edition). Beverley Hills, Sage. Rogers, E.M. (2003): “Diffusion of Innovations.” 5 th Edition. London, Simon and Schuster. Smyth R. (2004): “Exploring the Usefulness of a Conceptual Framework as a Research Tool: A Researcher's Reflections.” Issues In Educational Research, Volume 14. Yin R. K. (1994): “Case Study Research: Design and Methods.” (2 nd edition) California, Sage. 2/18/2014 44
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