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Writing from Sources Part 1

Learn about the processes behind writing from sources and synthesizing with this short presentation.

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Writing from Sources Part 1

  1. 1. Writing from Sources: Part 1 Emily Kissner June 2014
  2. 2. Agenda 1. Why write from sources? 2. Steps for synthesis 3. Unpacking the process (see Part 2) 4. Classroom activities (see Part 2)
  3. 3. Common Core Shift Video As you view the video, consider: • What do these speakers consider “writing from sources” to be? • Do you agree with their claims that this hasn’t been emphasized in classrooms? • How do you feel about this video?
  4. 4. Your Turn! Remember a time that you had to write from sources. -Create three verbs that show what actions you took to create your piece of writing. -Write an adjective that shows how you felt: -at the beginning of the project -during the project -when you finished the project We’ll create a Wordle to capture our feelings about writing from sources.
  5. 5. Why write from sources? Research the standards: Which standards from your state and grade level explicitly refer to writing from sources? Which standards may imply a need to write from sources?
  6. 6. Observing student synthesis There is a strong line of research investigating what students actually do when posed with a synthesis task. As we go forward, we need to consider the thinking processes necessary for successful synthesis—and the thinking processes that students actually use.
  7. 7. Observing student synthesis The idea is that we can teach many of the underlying skills for synthesis before students have to write the formal research paper.
  8. 8. Selecting: Students must select information relevant to the writing task
  9. 9. Connecting: Students must make connections among ideas.
  10. 10. Organizing: Students must organize ideas into a new piece of writing.
  11. 11. Think about it Consider the three main processes for synthesis: selection, connection, organization. What have you done in your classroom that supports these processes? What do you wish you had done?
  12. 12. A linear process? Selecting: Students must select information relevant to the writing task Connecting: Students must make connections among ideas. Organizing: Students must organize ideas into a new piece of writing.
  13. 13. A linear process? Selecting: Students must select information relevant to the writing task Connecting: Students must make connections among ideas. Organizing: Students must organize ideas into a new piece of writing. In fact, a linear process seems to be associated with less successful synthesis results.
  14. 14. A recursive process Selecting: Students must select information relevant to the writing task Connecting: Students must make connections among ideas. Organizing: Students must organize ideas into a new piece of writing.
  15. 15. Less successful strategies In the least successful synthesis products, students merely summarized or copied sentences from various texts.
  16. 16. Less successful strategies The resulting synthesis papers do not show integration of ideas. Have you seen this in your students’ writings?
  17. 17. “Just get it done!” A focus on task completion may be damaging to strong synthesis. Why might being focused on a product interfere with a strong recursive process?
  18. 18. Thinking about the classroom The idea of a recursive process and a less intense focus on task completion is at odds with the work of most classrooms. What do you think?
  19. 19. The good news The process of integrating ideas and figuring out how to say them helps students to become stronger readers and writers.
  20. 20. In the next part… Low stakes classroom activities to help students build the skills of connecting, organizing, and selecting information
  21. 21. References Gil, Laura, Ivar Braten, Eduardo Vidal-Abarca, and Helge StromsoI. 2010. “Summary versus Argument Tasks when Working with Multiple Documents: Which Is Better for Whom?” Contemporary Educational Psychology, v35 n3 p157-173. Mateos, Mar and Isabel Sole. 2009. “Synthesising Information from Various Texts: A Study of Procedures and Products at Different Educational Levels.” European Journal of Psychology of Education, v24 n4 p435-451. Mateos, Mar, Elena Martin, Ruth Villalon, and Maria Luna. 2008. “Reading and Writing to Learn in Secondary Education: Online Processing Activity and Written Products in Summarizing and Synthesizing Tasks.” Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v21 n7 p675-697. Sole, Isabel, Mariana Miras, Nuria Castells, Sandra Espino, and Marta Minguela. 2013. “Integrating Information: An Analysis of the Processes Involved and the Products Generated in a Written Synthesis Task.” Written Communication, v30 n1 p63-90. Spivey, N.N. 1997. “Transforming texts: Constructive processes in reading and writing.” Written Communication, 7, 256–287. Zhang, Cui. 2013. “Effect of Instruction on ESL Students' Synthesis Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing, v22 n1 p51-67.

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