### Chapter 3 gateway 123

1. CHAPTER 3 GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS AND INVESTIGATIONS 1
2. CHAPTER 3 GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS AND INVESTIGATIONS In this Chapter you will explore three key topics: • Topographical map reading skills • Geographical data and techniques • Geographical investigations 2
3. 3 Your tourist friend is lost. He is currently at City Hall MRT Station, and he needs to get to Esplanade Theatre. He gives you a call and ask for directions. Both you and your tourist friend have a copy of this map. How would you guide him to his destination? Reading topographical maps
4. • Developing topographical map reading skills allows you to: - navigate to places - be conscious of the environment - understand how the environment is being presented and (re)presented. 4 Reading topographical maps
5. Reading grid references 5 • They are used to identify locations. • Always read the eastings (x- axis, vertical lines) then the northings (y-axis, horizontal lines) • They can be: - 4 digit grid references (xxyy): identify an area OR - 6 digit grid references (xxx1yyy1): identify a point x1 andy1 are derived by sub- dividing the northings and eastings into 10 segments Area: 0736 Point: 088376
6. Reading directions: Compass directions 6 • They are used to describe the location of one geographic feature from another. • Note that 4, 8 and 16 cardinal points can be used to provide a more precise location. • When identifying direction, take note of the word ‘from’ which signifies the point you are taking direction from. N E S W NE SESW NW NNE ENE ESE SSESSW WSW WNW NNW
7. 7 • Compass bearings provide even more precise locations than compass directions. Follow these steps when measuring compass bearing: 1.Draw a straight line to join the two objects. 2.Draw the north arrow on the object you are measuring ‘from’. 3.Place the 0° of the protractor on the right side of the north arrow. Read clockwise to obtain the grid bearing. 4.If the grid bearing is more than 180°, place the 0° of the protractor on the left side of the north arrow. Add 180° to the bearing measured by the protractor. Reading directions: Compass bearings
8. 8 Interpreting scales Type of scale Desription Representative fraction • Written as a fraction (1/2,500) or Ratio (1:2,500) • No unit of measurement (can be used for any units of measurement) Linear scale • A visual representation using a straight line that is divided into equal parts. • Used to represent actual distance on the map (e.g 2 cm represents 1 km) Statement scale • A scale expressed in words (e.g 1 cm represents 1 km)
9. Measuring distances 9 Straight-line distance 1. Connect two points. 2. Use a strip of paper to mark out the distance between the points. 3. Place the strip of paper on the line scale. 4. Alternatively, use a calculator to convert the map distance into actual distance (i.e 1cm: 1km therefore 2.5cm=2.5 km)
10. 10 Curved distances 1. Divide the curved distance into various straight line segments. 2. Mark each location on the strip of paper until the whole length of the curved route is marked. 3. Place the strip of paper against the scale to convert into the actual distance. 4. Alternatively, use string to trace the curved distance, and then convert into actual distance using the scale. Measuring distances
11. b. Describing relief and identifying features in topographical maps • Describing the nature of relief • Identifying physical features and landforms • Calculating gradient • Interpreting map evidence • Interpreting map symbols • Interpreting human activities • Describing patterns and locations of vegetation, land use, and transport and communication • Explaining the relationship between relief and land use or transport and communication 11
12. Describing the nature of relief 12 Compare the two marked areas X and Y. What differences do you notice in these maps? X Y
13. Relief refers to the change in the height of a land surface, and is about height, shape, steepness, slope and form. Relief can be deduced from the arrangement of contour lines and their contour intervals. Contours are continuous lines joining points of the same height. As each contour is a line of equal height, contours never cross. 13 Describing the nature of relief
14. 14 Describing the nature of relief
15. Match the contour patterns on the left with the landforms on the right.
16. Identifying physical features and landforms 16 A B C D
17. 17 E F G H
18. 18 Description of landform Ans: Name of landform • A highland more than 600 metres above sea level. • Have steep slopes indicated by closely spaced contour lines. • A depression between two highlands. • Represented by v-shaped contour lines pointing towards higher ground. • May have a river running through it • Low-lying land found near a river. • Generally flat and can be identified by the lack of contour lines or widely spaced contours. • A highland with steep slopes and a flat summit. • Steep slopes are indicated by closely spaced contour lines • A flat summit is shown by the absence of contour lines at the summit. • Steep and near-vertical rock face. • It is indicated by closely spaced contour lines.
19. 19 Description of landform Ans: Name of landform • A highland more than 600 metres above sea level. • Have steep slopes indicated by closely spaced contour lines. A Mountain • Steep and near-vertical rock face. • It is indicated by closely spaced contour lines. D Cliff • A depression between two highlands. • represented by v-shaped contour lines pointing towards higher ground. • may have a river running through it B (River) Valley • A low-lying land found near a river. • Generally flat and can be identified by the lack of contour lines or widely spaced contours. H Floodplain • A highland with steep slopes and a flat summit. • Steep slopes are indicated by closely spaced contour lines • A flat summit is shown by the absence of contour lines at the summit. C Plateau
20. Calculating gradient 20 Gradient indicates the steepness of a slope. It is measured by dividing the height of the land with a given horizontal distance. Gradient is expressed as a fraction or ratio. It is calculated using the formula: Difference in height between two points Horizontal distance between two points Follow these steps: 1)Difference in height between two points: maximum height minus minimum height (using the contour values) 2)Horizontal distance: measure the distance between the two points and convert into actual distance 3)Divide results from (1) with (2). NOTE: both (1) and (2) must be in the same units i.e metres
21. Interpreting map symbols 21 Symbols represent the actual features on the map. They are found in the key. They can be used to represent physical features and human activities. Some of the examples are seen on the left.
22. Interpreting human activities 22 Map symbols help interpret the types of human activities present in an area. Human activities may be classified in broad categories: Industries Services and facilities Agriculture
23. Interpreting human activities 23 Transport and communication Settlement pattern
24. Describing patterns and location of vegetation, land use, and transport and communication 24
25. 25 Explaining the relationship between relief and land use or transport and communication
26. Maps and symbols • Base maps • Atlas • Topographical maps • Road maps • Sketch maps • Choropleth maps • Isoline maps • Dot maps • Maps with proportionate symbols 26
27. A map is a representation of the earth’s surface or a part of the earth’s surface. Different maps serve different purposes. 27 Maps and symbols
28. 28 No. Types of Map Uses 1 Base maps Focus on basic information or highlight important information by providing an outline of the area. 2 Atlas Provide details of natural and human features/occurrences of places. 3 Topographical maps Show physical and human features through the use of lines, symbols, colours and abbreviations. 4 Road maps Road maps show the location of roads, buildings, railway tracks and airports, and used as navigation tool. 5 Sketch maps Sketch maps are simplified illustrations of an area, drawn to show the basic positions of an area’s main features. 6 Choropleth maps Show the geographical distribution and trends using colours or shadings to group different data values 7 Isoline maps Isoline maps are maps with isolines, or continuous lines joining points of equal value 8 Dot maps Dot maps show the distribution of data using dots. The dots have a fixed size or value and are drawn on a base map. 9 Maps with proportionate symbols Symbols drawn are proportional to the values of the data being mapped. For example, bigger symbols are accorded to larger values.
29. 29 No. Scenario • Kim and family needs directions to drive from Singapore to Melaka, Malaysia over the weekend. • A soldier is lost in the jungle, and he needs to find the nearest water source as soon as possible. • A tourist who wants an overview of the key geographical features in Spain. • A geographer wants to know where all the less developed countries and developed countries are located in the world. • A researcher needs a basic map showing just the continents in the world so that he can plot important information onto the map. • A doctor needs to know which countries in the world have high infant death rate. • A pilot is flying across the Atlantic ocean, and needs to know the areas with the same level of pressure so that he can navigate around safely. • A student is conducting a field study trip, he needs to make observations and record down the coastal environment he is studying. • A geologist who wants to show the distribution of volcanoes in the world.
30. 30 No. Scenario 4 • Kim and family needs directions to drive from Singapore to Melaka, Malaysia over the weekend. 3 • A soldier is lost in the jungle, and he needs to find the nearest water source as soon as possible. 2 • A tourist who wants an overview of the key geographical features in Spain. 6 • A geographer wants to know where all the less developed countries and developed countries are located in the world. 1 • A researcher needs a basic map showing just the continents in the world so that he can plot important information onto the map. 9 • A doctor needs to know which countries in the world have high infant death rate. 7 • A pilot is flying across the Atlantic ocean, and needs to know the areas with the same level of pressure so that he can navigate around safely. 5 • A student is conducting a field study trip, he needs to make observations and record down the coastal environment he is studying. 8 • A geologist who wants to show the distribution of volcanoes in the world.
31. Photographs and satellite images are primary data which provide vital information about the physical features and human activities at a particular place and time. 31 Photographs and satellite images
32. Different types of photographs and satellite images 32 Landscape photographs Aerial photographs • Taken from a ground level perspective and give a horizontal view of an area • Show the landscape in great detail, allowing features and patterns to be observed • More details in the background can be seen due to the height in which photograph is taken. • Size will not be distorted, and useful for map making. • Taken from space, allows large area to be captured. • Can show the development of place over time. Satellite images
33. Interpreting photographs 33 1. What HUMAN features (Transport and communication networks, e.g. roads, railways, satellite stations) are shown in the photograph? 2. What PHYSICAL features (relief, coast, vegetation) are shown in the photograph? 3. Why are these features present? 4. What effects do these features have on the physical and human environments?
34. A graph is a diagram used to represent data which shows the relationship between two or more variables. A variable is something that is measured and which helps us understand data more easily. 34 Graphs
35. • Line graphs • Bar graphs • Histograms • Pie charts • Scattergraphs • Climographs • Triangular graphs (For GCE O-Level only) 35 Graphs
36. Simple line graphs 36 1. Decide on your independent (x-axis) and dependant variable (y- axis) 2. Plot the value of both variables on the graph paper. 3. Deduce the relationship between the two variables i.e as air temperature increases, the air can hold higher amounts of water vapour. Air temperature: independent variable Water vapour: dependent variable
37. Comparative line graphs 37 Allows comparison of two or more sets of data Compound line graphs Allows one set of data to be sub-divided into two or more sets of data
38. Bar graphs 38 1. Decide on your independent (x- axis) and dependant variable (y- axis). 2. Plot the value of both variables on the graph paper. 3. Compare the values among the different independent variables. i.e Indonesia has highest fatalities related to tectonic activities among the other 3 countries.
39. Comparative bar graphs 39 Allows comparison of two or more sets of data Compound bar graphs Allows one set of data to be sub-divided into two or more sets of data
40. Histogram 40 1. Histograms show distribution or frequency of data. The x-axis shows the range of values. 2. The values do not overlap. The y-axis shows the frequency. 3. Different from bar graphs because x-axis states size/classes and not categories.
41. Pie charts 41 1. Pie charts are circular graphs divided into segments. 2. Each segment of a pie chart represents the portion a variable takes up. 3. Each data set has to be converted into a percentage of the data set.
42. Scattergraphs 42 1. Plot data using ‘X’s. 2. Draw a straight line of best fit. This will broadly represent the general pattern formed by the two points. 3. Take note of any anomalies.
43. Climographs 43 1. A climograph shows how mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation vary throughout the year for a particular place. 2. The temperature is shown using a line graph while the precipitation is shown using a bar graph.
44. Describing climographs 44 When describing climograph, always state the: 1.The months where the minimum and maximum temperatures are experienced. 2.The average temperature range (using key terms in (a) and (b)) 3.The months where it minimum and maximum rainfall are experienced. 4.The total amount of rainfall experienced in the place (using key terms found in (c))
45. Triangular graphs 45 Triangular graphs are equilateral triangles showing the relationship between three data sets where the variables add up to 100. When reading triangular graphs: 1.Determine the point you are reading the value of. 2.Look at the base of the triangle and determine the direction of 0 to 100. (is it left to right? or right to left? In this case, it is left to right) 3.Draw a line from the designated point in the direction determined in 2. (in this case, towards the left) and take the first reading. 4.Insert the two other lines as shown in the figure. 5.Check and ensure all three readings add up to 100.
46. 46 Triangular graphs Cont. 0 100 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 100 0 A A B C B C
47. 47 Other ways of presenting data
48. Statistical calculation 48 Statistical calculations aid analysis by providing more precise calculations. Common statistical calculations are percentages, ratios, mean, median and mode.
49. The phases in fieldwork 49
50. • Gateway 3: Geographical investigations a. Pre-fieldwork b. During fieldwork c. Post-fieldwork 50 CHAPTER 3 GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS AND INVESTIGATION
51. Suggesting a hypothesis or guiding question 51 Hypothesis Guiding Question Expressed as a statement Expressed as a question Consist of a prediction May consist of a problem Explanation for something that needs to be tested or proven Highlights what needs to be known about a topic Can have more than two variables “How long does a Secondary 4 student spend in the washroom?” Does not need to have an independent or dependent variable “The older the student, the longer the time they spend in the washroom.”
52. Collecting data • Recording observations • Taking measurements 52
53. Recording observations 1. Annotated photographs 2. Recording sheets 3. Maps 4. Cloud cover 53
54. Annotated photographs and recording sheets 54 • Photographs can be used to record the features on the fieldwork site for future reference. • Annotations can be added to photographs to help highlight essential information. • Data collection is more organised when tables are included in recording sheets
55. Maps and cloud cover 55 • Maps show the location of physical features and human activities. • Maps can also be annotated with the locations of recorded data. Further data analysis and presentation can then be carried out after fieldwork has been done. • Cloud cover symbols indicate the amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth’s surface.
56. Taking measurements • Wind speed and direction • Air pressure • Temperature • Relative humidity • Precipitation 56
57. Wind speed and direction 57 Anemometer •Hold up the anemometer in an open area where wind flows freely. •Read the wind speed indicated. Anemometer Wind vane Wind rose Wind vane •Place the wind vane at where the wind is blowing. •The direction the wind vane points to is the direction where the wind is blowing from. Wind rose •The rectangles point in the direction where wind is blowing from. •The numbers indicate the days of the month where the wind is blowing.
58. Air pressure 58 • Air pressure is measured in millibars (mb) using a barometer. • A barometer has two needles. Check that the moveable pointer is arranged over the measuring hand to mark the current pressure. • The pressure is falling if the measuring hand moves to the left, and rising if the measuring hand moves to the right.
59. Temperature 59 • Temperature is measured using an analogue or digital thermometer. • Temperature is read on a maximum and minimum thermometer by observing the lowest point of each metal index (blue line). For example, in the figure, the minimum temperature is 20°C and the maximum temperature is 25°C. • The diurnal temperature range is therefore 5°C. A digital thermometer A maximum and minimum thermometer
60. Relative humidity 60 Relative humidity is measured using a sling psychrometer, which consists of a wet bulb thermometer and a dry bulb thermometer. To calculate: 1.Dip the wick of the wet bulb in water and swing the psychrometer for 1 min. 2.Record the reading. Repeat step 1 until both readings are consistent. 3.Read the temperature off the dry bulb. 4.To obtain the depression of the wet bulb, calculate the difference between the wet bulb temperature and the dry bulb temperatures. 5.Using the conversion table, obtain the relative humidity by finding the value where the wet bulb depression intersects with the dry bulb temperature.
61. Precipitation 61 The amount of precipitation is measured in millimetres using a rain gauge. A simple rain gauge can be made using a funnel and a jar or tin. To determine the amount of precipitation: 1.Find an appropriate spot to place your rain gauge and position the rain gauge in an open area. 2.Place the rain gauge into the ground with about 30 cm protruding above ground. 3.Record the time at which the rainfall events start and end. 4.Pour the collected water in the rain gauge into a measuring cylinder. Read and record the water level.
62. Post-fieldwork 62

### Notas del editor

1. Suggested activity: Ask students to role play the scenario above by giving instructions to the tourist friend to guide him to his destination. Ask students to list down the terms they used when giving instructions. For example, names of landmarks, words indicating direction, distance. Ask students some of the difficulties in giving instructions For example, difficult to give specific location without reference point, not sure which way the person holding the map is facing. Help students conclude that map reading skills are important because it helps one to find places, navigate around and give directions clearly. For NA students: - Use the non-terrain map (e.g. Street Directory) instead as it is less complicated and has fewer details. - Omit the question on the difficulties of giving instructions without the use of key terms. Suggested activity: To lead in to the idea of grid reference, ask students to fold the map horizontally and vertically into 10 parts, and label each horizontal line with alphabets and vertical lines with numbers. Ask students if it is easier now to give directions with the help of these grid references. Image: © 2011 Google, © 2011 Tele Atlas
2. Suggested activity: - Illustrate to students how the 10 segments can be drawn. Help students understand grid references by showing them these videos: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRb2gRiTQxY&amp;feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJVxgWttUdY
3. Note: Students often have difficulty in visualizing the 16 cardinal points. Use the animation in the slide to help them.
4. Suggested activity: - As most students will have problems identifying the object they should be measuring the bearing from, the same approach shown in slide 9 can be used to help students determine the angle they have to measure. In this case, accuracy is not essential, the exercise is meant to provide students sufficient practice in determining the angle they have to measure.
5. Suggested activity: - Show students a topographical map and ask them to identify the R.F, linear scale and write a statement scale.
6. Suggested activity: - Ask students to list the differences based solely on superficial observations (no need for any prior knowledge) of the two areas. Possible answers include X is near to large water body. X has ‘darker lines’ or ‘lines’ that are close together. For NA students: - Guide their observations with the following questions:  What do you notice about the number of lines on both the maps?  What is the distance between the lines? Image: © U.S Geological Survey
7. Suggested activity - Show students how cross-sections are drawn with this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6uavZnHTuY - Ask students to determine which landform has the lowest height. The height of the first landform from the left is the lowest. The other two is the same height of 250m. This exercise allows students to understand that the contour lines indicate the height of the landform. - Ask students what the difference in value between the contour lines is. 50 m. Tell students that the difference between the lines is called a contour interval. Maps generally have a constant contour interval although some maps may use different contour intervals. In this case, the contour interval is 50m. - Emphasise that contour lines that are close together show steep relief while those that are far apart show gentle relief.
8. Suggested activity: - Ask students to match the contour patterns on the right to its corresponding landform on the right.
9. Suggested activity: - Ask students to match the landforms found in this slide and the next to the descriptions found in slides 22-23. - Ask students to make inferences based on their prior knowledge.
10. Suggested activity: - Ask students to match the landforms found in this slide and the next to the descriptions found in slides 22-23. - Ask students to make inferences based on their prior knowledge.
11. Suggested activity: - Ask students to match the landforms found in this slide and the next to the descriptions found in slides 22-23. - Ask students to make inferences based on their prior knowledge.
12. Suggested activity: - Ask students to match the landforms found in this slide and the next to the descriptions found in slides 22-23. - Ask students to make inferences based on their prior knowledge.
13. Suggested activity: - Ask students to follow these steps and calculate the gradient of between R and S in the figure before referring to the answer in the Textbook.
14. Suggested activity - Ask students to refer to the topographical map in the Textbook and describe the patterns and location of vegetation. - Use example of vegetation to guide students learning, students will thereafter practice using the structure provided for land use and transport. - Provide guiding questions to help students in their description:  Where is vegetation/land use/transport and communication generally located? Are they concentrated in any places?  What is the nature/type of physical/human features found at the place?  Identify specific examples: use four-figure or six-figure grid references, compass directions, contour patterns/values and landmarks with the help of map symbols to make reference to the features you are describing.  Based on the features described, what can you infer about the environment?
15. Note: Use the topographical map in the Textbook to guide students in making inferences.
16. Ask students to refer to the Textbook for details on the various types of map.
17. Suggested activity: - Ask students to suggest the type of map to use in the various scenarios. Note: Some scenarios may allow a few types of maps to be used. If the students’ answers are different, ask students the reason for the choice. Emphasise that some maps may have multiple uses or one type of map may be used for multiple situations. The whole idea is to get students to understand the features and functions of the various maps so that they can choose the most suitable one to aid them in their geographical investigations.
18. Suggested activity: - Ask students to suggest the type of map to use in the various scenarios. Note: Some scenarios may allow a few types of maps to be used. If the students’ answers are different, ask students the reason for the choice. Emphasise that some maps may have multiple uses or one type of map may be used for multiple situations. The whole idea is to get students to understand the features and functions of the various maps so that they can choose the most suitable one to aid them in their geographical investigations.
19. Suggested activity: Ask students to brainstorm possible advantages and disadvantages of using the various photographs and satellite images. This will allow them to build their own knowledge on top of what is given in the textbook. Advantages of using landscape photographs: Emphasise details at the ground level Capture the environment from a eye level perspective Show scalar differences between person and the environment Disadvantages of using landscape photographs: Misrepresentation of the actual environment as perspective is limited Size of features are distorted and may require special lens in order to capture the landscape accurately (especially for vast landscapes or features found far away) Advantages of using aerial photographs: Provide overall view of the area which makes it easy for planners to observe spatial patterns, see obstructions clearly Can be used as a base map for layering other geo spatial information Disadvantages of using aerial photographs: - Taken at too high a height, objects may appear distant and unclear. Therefore, it is difficult to verify and identify small objects unless there is powerful digital zoom. Advantages of using satellite images : Allows other geospatial information to be layered on top Images taken are usually high in digital resolution which allows for zoom in Allows terrain and water bodies to be seen Disadvantages of using satellite images: Require specialised equipment to take images from outer space Images taken do not capture minute details Need to be constantly updated otherwise they become outdated
20. Suggested activity: Ask students to scan the photograph from top to bottom, left to right and circle any objects/features they see to help them answer the questions. Ask students to start with overall description of the photograph before zooming into the details. Overall, this photograph depicts a place where a natural disaster has occurred as the place is in a bad condition. Human features: In the middle ground, a boat is seen stranded on dry land, and on the extreme left and right of the photographs, dilapidated houses can be observed. Physical features: In the foreground, the land seems to be dry and there appears to be a lot of debris strewn all over the ground. In the background, the vegetation seems to be sparse, and some of the trees appear to be bald. Why are the features present and what effects do they have on the environment? This could be possibly be due to a prolonged drought that has caused the land to be dry and cracked, thus inhibiting the growth of vegetation. This could possibly be a coastal settlement, due to the presence of the boat. It also could suggest that prolonged drought caused the seawater to retreat thus leaving the boat stranded on dry land.
21. Note: this is only for students taking GCE O-Levels
22. Ask students to see the difference in reading between the two triangular graphs. Ask students to come up to the board to draw in the arrows according to the direction the values should be read. This will give them a clearer idea of how the readings are determined.
23. Suggested activity: - Ask students to refer to the respective figures in their Textbooks.
24. Tell students that geographical Investigation allows them to explore and understand certain issues about our environment. In order to fully understand the issue, they need to gather, analyse and present data in a systematic manner.
25. Suggested activity: Ask students to brainstorm some hypotheses and guiding questions related to their everyday lives. Once the students are used to coming up with hypotheses/guiding questions, they can then craft hypotheses/guiding questions more related to geographical issues. Ask students to write down the aims for the hypotheses/guiding questions they come up with.
26. Suggested activity: Ask students to take a picture using their mobile devices. Upload the photographs onto a tablet and show students how the photograph can be annotated.
27. Suggested activity: Ask students to watch the following videos and to make their own anemometer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4lX5GZPwC4 OR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zed0stlxC9o&amp;feature=related Ask students to watch the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Umo-SYv-1sg on how a wind vane works.
28. Suggested activity: Ask students to visit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JSL4bdd_84 to learn to read a minimum and maximum thermometer.
29. Suggested activity: Ask students to watch the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sxm6yq268Bc OR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29UvAFVTGC0&amp;feature=related to learn how to use a sling psychrometer.
30. Suggested activity: Ask students to watch a video about the rain gauge at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pF5de4eKzO0 OR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BdeKdT0nwow&amp;feature=related to learn how to make a rain gauge.
31. Suggested activity: Ask students to discuss and present a mini geographical investigation by suggesting how they would conduct it. For example, using the hypothesis about ‘Older students take a longer time in the washroom.’ or some other issues that are related and relevant to their everyday lives, students will propose what kind of data they need, how they would take measurements, how they would analyse their data and how they would present the data collected.