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BIOPESTICIDES
Dr. N. BANU
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
VELS UNIVERSITY
BIOPESTICIDES
Biopesticides includes any biological material
and organisms, which can be formulated as
pesticides for the ...
Microbial pesticides/Microbial
Insecticides
Population of pathogenic or predatory
microorganisms that are antagonistic tow...
Characteristic of Microbial pesticides
• Virulent and causes diseases to the pest at a
recommended conc.
• It should not b...
Adv. And Disadv. Of microbial
pesticides
Adv:
Ecofriendly, ecosafety, biodegrable.
Compatible with biocontrol agents.
Host...
Microbial insecticides
Bacterial pesticides:
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
B. Subtilis (Bs)
Viral pesticides:
Nuclear polyhe...
BACTERIAL PESTICIDES
Endospore forming – Bacillus, Clostridium
Non-endospore forming – Pseudomonas
Enterobacter
Proteus
Se...
Bt
Tested against 140 insect sp. (Lepidotera,
Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera)
12 groups of Bt. – forms protein crysta...
PRODUCTION OF Bt
• Bt gene introduced into plant or plant associated
microorganisms via rDNA technology.
• Submerged ferme...
Bt in the field
• Only short term control
• Do not persist from year to year
• Before spry, the leaves are covered well.
•...
Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus
lentimorbus
• Against milky disease in Japan beetle.
• Ingestion of viable spores by larva...
Viruses as insect pests
Insect viruses present in protein coats which are insoluble
in water. This protein crystals protec...
Mechanism of action
• Ingestion of NPV/GV by larvae
• Multiplication of viruses in the larvae and
make them lethargic
• Af...
Production of insect virus
Live insects are needed.
Bollworm larvae are raised on a semi-synthetic
medium (casein, sucrose...
FUNGAL PESTICIDES
Beauvaria, Metarrhizium, Entomophtora, Hirsutella and
Trichoderma.
Trichoderma:
Rapid growth
High sporul...
Mechanism of action
Chitinases and β-1,3 glucanases.
Mode of application:
Mycelial form
Production:
Liquid media, semi-sol...
Entomopathogenic nematodes
• Steinernematidae
• Heterorhabditidae
• Long term survival
• Symbiotic association with bacter...
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Biopesticide

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EXPLAINS ABOUT WHAT IS BIOPESTICIE? AND ITS TYPES, APPLICATIONS.

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Biopesticide

  1. 1. BIOPESTICIDES Dr. N. BANU ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR VELS UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. BIOPESTICIDES Biopesticides includes any biological material and organisms, which can be formulated as pesticides for the management of pests. Botanical pesticides (active compounds extracts from neem, pongamia, etc). Microbial pesticieds (whole organisms, secretory or excretary products).
  3. 3. Microbial pesticides/Microbial Insecticides Population of pathogenic or predatory microorganisms that are antagonistic towards particular pest population provide a natural means of controlling pest population. IPM: Integrated Pest Mangement Rather than eradication we are keeping the pest at a non-injurious level.
  4. 4. Characteristic of Microbial pesticides • Virulent and causes diseases to the pest at a recommended conc. • It should not be susceptible to the environment. • Pest specific • Harmless to humans, plants and animals.
  5. 5. Adv. And Disadv. Of microbial pesticides Adv: Ecofriendly, ecosafety, biodegrable. Compatible with biocontrol agents. Host specific. No. devt. Of resistant. Cost effective No waiting time for harvest. Well suited to rural areas. Disadv: Slow action. Brief self life Time consumption for high production.
  6. 6. Microbial insecticides Bacterial pesticides: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) B. Subtilis (Bs) Viral pesticides: Nuclear polyhedral virus (NPV) Granulosis viruses (GV) Fungal pesticides: Entamogenous fungi: Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae Verticillium lecanii Nomuraea rileyi Antagonistic fungi: Trichoderma sp. Gliocladium sp. Anatagonistic bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacillus subtilis Mycoherbicides Insect repellants Pheromones.
  7. 7. BACTERIAL PESTICIDES Endospore forming – Bacillus, Clostridium Non-endospore forming – Pseudomonas Enterobacter Proteus Serratia Xenorhabdus.
  8. 8. Bt Tested against 140 insect sp. (Lepidotera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera) 12 groups of Bt. – forms protein crystal inclusion bodies. Formation of endotoxin. Soluble in alkaline condition, not soluble in water, neutral or acidic pH. Caterpillar larvae (pest) Midgut of this larvae is alkaline. Crystal is dissolved in the midgut and digested. This digested protein attacks the gut wall and looses the epithelial wall and leading to gut paralysis. LD50 value = <0.9 µg/g of larvae.
  9. 9. PRODUCTION OF Bt • Bt gene introduced into plant or plant associated microorganisms via rDNA technology. • Submerged fermentation. Beet molasses, csl, calcium carbonate. Semisolid fermentation. Wheat bran: aerobic, 36-48 hrs, drying and grinding the bran cake. Commercial name: DIPEL, DOOM.
  10. 10. Bt in the field • Only short term control • Do not persist from year to year • Before spry, the leaves are covered well. • Bt inactivated by sunlight & uv to avoid this emulsifying agents, stickers or binders and uv protectants can be used.
  11. 11. Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus lentimorbus • Against milky disease in Japan beetle. • Ingestion of viable spores by larvae. • Germination in the gut • Vet. Cells penetrate the gut. • Enter the body cavity. • Removes all nutrients from blood. • Death.
  12. 12. Viruses as insect pests Insect viruses present in protein coats which are insoluble in water. This protein crystals protect the viruses for many years. Polyhedrosis virus: many virus particle embedded in protein crystal. Present in the cell nucleus – Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). Present in the host cytoplasm – cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV). Granulosis virus: only one virus per protein crystals. NGV and CGV.
  13. 13. Mechanism of action • Ingestion of NPV/GV by larvae • Multiplication of viruses in the larvae and make them lethargic • Affected larvae become sluggish and stop feeding • Die. TAIVIRODAE – NPV contros bollworm, budworm, Helicoverpa armigera.
  14. 14. Production of insect virus Live insects are needed. Bollworm larvae are raised on a semi-synthetic medium (casein, sucrose, wheat germ, growth factors, agar) Chemicals – formalin, sorbic acid, aureomycin – used to inhibit the bacteria, yeast and fungi. Diet – inoculated by caterpillars. Viruses sprayed on the diet which replicates on the caterpillars to 5000 – 10,000 times in 5-7 days. Infected caterpillars – suctioned and treated with water , filtered, centrifuged, precipitated and spry dried. Packaged and sold.
  15. 15. FUNGAL PESTICIDES Beauvaria, Metarrhizium, Entomophtora, Hirsutella and Trichoderma. Trichoderma: Rapid growth High sporulation Production of antibiotics (gliotoxin, viridin) Antagonist. Commercial name: BINABTSEEPIC , against soil borne diseases. Trichoderma harzianum against Rhizoctonia solanii, Fusarium sp. Air borne against Botrytis cinerea, Puccinia. Seed borne against Damping off of pea. Fruit borne against Botrytis rot of strawberry, Colletotrichum.
  16. 16. Mechanism of action Chitinases and β-1,3 glucanases. Mode of application: Mycelial form Production: Liquid media, semi-solid medium Commercial products: ANTAGON, BIOCURE-F, BIODERMA, TRICHOCAN. Mixed with organic manures, composts, dry cow dungs, fym, neem cake.
  17. 17. Entomopathogenic nematodes • Steinernematidae • Heterorhabditidae • Long term survival • Symbiotic association with bacteria: • Steinernema with Xenorhabdus • Heterorhabda with Photorhabdus

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