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Site Analysis Solar Radiation Wind Velocity Rainfall Ambient Temperature Humidity Atmospheric Turbidity Seismic Zone Topography analysis Soil testing Ground water analysisAF-Mercados EMI 4 FirstGreen
Basic Engineering Plot plan, Single Line Diagram (SLD) Design data sheets for procurement Vendor list for the specified technology Project cost quotations Prepare a list of codes and standards to be followed in the projectAF-Mercados EMI 5 FirstGreen
Technology Selection Identification and selection of the technology in view the cost, availability, accessibility, evacuation of power, and other forward and backward links Assessment of various PV technologies (Crystalline, Thin Film, Concentrated PV, Tracking, etc.) on the following parameters: Current & future expected capital costs , Efficiencies (including sensitivity to ambient temperature) Performance of Solar Plants using the proposed technology, Operation & Maintenance Practices Auxiliary power consumption , Expected degradation of efficiency with time AF-Mercados EMI 6 FirstGreen
Feasibility Report Introduction Project Equipment Executive Summary Specifications Project Justification Quality Control and Inspection Salient Features of the Site Plant Operation and Power Sale Arrangement Maintenance Technology Selection Project Cost and Generation Cost Description of Balance of System Financial Analysis Instrumentation & Control Systems Risk Factors and Project Codes and Standards Management Perception Project Materials SpecificationsAF-Mercados EMI 7 FirstGreen
Financial Planning Collecting budgetary quotes from short-listed technology providers Detailed budget with costs for the Project Identify and define key parameters and assumptions for the cash flow Prepare detailed financial models for the Project to forecast the: Internal Rate of Return Net Present Value Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) Sensitivity analysis on various costs, interest rate, and other parameters as required. AF-Mercados EMI 8 FirstGreen
Plant Design Inverter design Transformer design Plant Illumination design Array Junction Box, String Monitoring Metering Cubicle Design Box, Distribution box, surge and lightning arrestors, Switchyard design Designing of plant auxiliary power consumption SCADA design (remote monitoring philosophy) Interconnection to grid specification while taking into Auxiliary transformer and distribution account the state utility board design regulations and CERC guidelines Vigilance System Design – The entire PV plant will have PTZ (Pan, tilt and Detailing of power evacuation zoom) type camera with night vision. scheme and estimation of They should be integrated with control expenses for the same room. Major equipment specification AF-Mercados EMI 9 FirstGreen
Civil and Structural Design Module mounting structure design based on Internal roads & pathways design site specific wind load Water treatment plant sizing Design of Foundation for module mounting Fire system Design structure Earthing Pit design Control Room /Office Building Design Cable trenches, routing design Landscaping design Drainage facility design Security room design Compound Fencing Design Site office design Array cleaning system design AF-Mercados EMI 10 FirstGreen
Construction delays Design flaws. Poor design of components, such as the support structures, lead to costly and time-consuming remedial measures. Poorly planned construction schedule. The illogical sequencing of construction tasks caused a number of delays: Monsoon rains restricted access to the site as the access road had not been sealed. The access route should have been sealed well before the arrival of the monsoon. Modules were damaged (and were at risk of theft) as they were stored unprotected on site for long periods of time. Modules and other valuable components should not be delivered to site until shortly before they are required. If they must be delivered earlier then they should be stored in a controlled and secure environment.AF-Mercados EMI 11 FirstGreen
Quality issues in construction Foundations in incorrect locations. Poor alignment of foundations. Cracked and damaged foundations. Elements of the supporting structure left unattached. Poorly aligned solar modules. Damaged solar modules. Poor attention to detail in finishing of substation buildings.AF-Mercados EMI 12 FirstGreen
Commissioning of the project Commissioning should follow the procedure described in IEC 62445 and prove three main criteria: The power plant is structurally and electrically safe. The power plant is sufficiently robust (structurally and electrically) to operate for the specified lifetime of a project. The power plant operates as designed and its performance is as expected.AF-Mercados EMI 13 FirstGreen
Commissioning Open Circuit Voltage Test This test checks whether all strings are properly connected (module and string polarity) and whether all modules are producing the voltage level as per the module data sheet. The test should be conducted for all strings. The open circuit voltage, Voc, should be recorded and compared with temperature adjusted theoretical values. Short Circuit Current test This test verifies whether all strings are properly connected and the modules are producing the expected current. The test should be conducted for all strings. The short circuit current, Isc, should be recorded and compared with the temperature adjusted theoretical values. AF-Mercados EMI 14 FirstGreen
Grid Connection Grid connection should only be performed once all DC string testing has been completed. It is likely that the distribution or transmission system operator will wish to witness the connection of the grid and/or the protection relay. Such a preference should be agreed in advance as part of the connection agreement. The grid connection agreement often stipulates the level of parameters—such as electrical protection, disconnection and fault—to which the PV power plant is required to adhere. Usually, these conditions need to be met before commissioning the grid connection. AF-Mercados EMI 15 FirstGreen
Post Connection Acceptance TestingOnce the power plant is connected to the grid, the inverters will be powered up according to the manufacturer’s start-up sequence. Inverter internal meters and displays should be verified prior to use.Post grid connection should include: • DC current test. • Performance ratio test.AF-Mercados EMI 16 FirstGreen
Operation and MaintenanceMaintenance can be broken down as follows: Scheduled or preventative maintenance – Planned in advance and aimed at preventing faults from occurring, as well as keeping the plant operating at its optimum level. Unscheduled maintenance – Carried out in response to failures.AF-Mercados EMI 18 FirstGreen