Presentation on soil and forest (vvdav 27.6.2014) copy
• It is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow.
• It is formed by the weathering of rocks and consists of a mixture of
organic remains, clay and mineral particles.
Hey Aditya, you
know what is soil??
No Riya.. But, today
we will learn about
it in our class.
Do you know that there
are different kinds of
Lets read about
Characteristics of different types of soils and applications
• Black cotton soil
• Dark grey to black in color
• High clay content and highly moist retentive
• Rich in iron, lime, calcium, magnesium, carbonates and alumina
• Cotton, Sugarcane, Rice, Groundnut, Wheat, Oilseeds, Millet
Sandy soil or Desert soil
Originated by mechanical disintegration and weathering of rocks
Contains soluble salts
Porous and coarse
Rich in nitrates and phosphates while poor in nitrogen and humus
Friable, sandy and low moist content
Drought resistant crops such as barley and millets
Consists of sand, silt and clay
The texture is gritty and retains water very easily, the drainage is well
It is considered to be the perfect soil.
Made of higher proportions of small particles like clay
These clay particles are tightly packed with very less space between particles
Water can be trapped in the tiny gaps between them
Heavy and hold more water
Suitable for potato, pea and green leafy vegetables
Sandy and less clay
Rich in iron and poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime
Porous and friable
Groundnut, millet, tobacco, potato, rice, wheat, sugarcane
Brown to yellowish
soil Latin word meaning brick
Form under high temperature and rainfall
Becomes hard when exposed to air
Used as building materials
Tea, coffee, rubber and coconut
Formed by deposition of organic matter from forest
Found in hill slopes
Rich in humus and poor in potash and lime
Tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits
• These types of forests are usually conservation areas for
wildlife, ecosystem services and wildlife
• Sometimes trees in natural forests are harvested but young
trees will grow from seeds left on the ground and take their
• Natural forests provide green areas for many people to enjoy
• Have you ever visited a natural forest?
• These are forest that are specifically planted to make products
• Examples of products include paper, wood, fuel, oranges etc.
• Plantations are usually planted in rows for easy access and are
• Plantations are usually less diverse than natural forests
• These forests are planted or left standing in developed
areas such as in neighborhoods or cities
• Human benefits are the primary purpose of urban forests
• Benefits include providing cool shade, beauty, and
taking up water after it rains
• Despite differences in the environmental conditions in a forest,
what lives in a forest, and how it is used, all forests provide
services that you and I benefit from everyday.
• Forests provide shade, clean air for us to breath, clean water for
us to drink, return nutrients to the soil, and provide habitat for
other plants and wildlife
• Can you think of any good things forests do?
Benefits Forests Provide
Notas del editor
Ask your students the question and have them respond out loud. Then go to the next slide for some probable responses.
For many people, trees in a natural area come to mind and images of wildlife such as bears, squirrels, and raccoons. Others may think about what they do in a forest, like hunt, hike, camp, and bike.
The FAO definition says that the forested land has to be at least 0.5 hectares and the trees should be able to grow to at least 5 meters tall. 0.5 hectares is = to about 1.2 acres or 1,140 square yards. So, just slightly smaller than the size of a football field. 5 meters is equal to 16.48 or 16.5 feet.
The FAO definition did not mention the presence of shrubs and understory plants, like grass, flowers, or berry bushes. It also did not mention rotten logs, decomposers (such as fungi), birds, reptiles, mammals or people, who are also part of most forests. Some forests also have roads and buildings and are used to obtain products from them, like wood or fruit.
There are three broad types of forests.
For a list of national forests by state go to http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation/map/state_list.shtml
For a list of Florida state forests go to http://www.fl-dof.com/state_forests/
This forest in particular is a pine flatwood characterized by saw palmetto and pine trees
If your students ask what is meant by “diverse” a simple explanation would be that that plantations usually have fewer species of plants and animals than natural forests do.
Here we have a typical Florida orange grove
Image courtesy of the UF IFAS Urban and Community Forestry Program http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/urbanforestry/
Ask the students if they can think of any good things forests do and have them give their answers out loud