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Presentation on soil and forest (vvdav 27.6.2014) copy

  1. • It is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow. • It is formed by the weathering of rocks and consists of a mixture of organic remains, clay and mineral particles. Soil Hey Aditya, you know what is soil?? No Riya.. But, today we will learn about it in our class.
  2. Do you know that there are different kinds of soil? Yes.. Come.. Lets read about it. Oh really??
  3. Characteristics of different types of soils and applications Black soil • Black cotton soil • Dark grey to black in color • High clay content and highly moist retentive • Rich in iron, lime, calcium, magnesium, carbonates and alumina • Cotton, Sugarcane, Rice, Groundnut, Wheat, Oilseeds, Millet
  4. Sandy soil or Desert soil Originated by mechanical disintegration and weathering of rocks  Contains soluble salts  Porous and coarse  Rich in nitrates and phosphates while poor in nitrogen and humus  Friable, sandy and low moist content  Drought resistant crops such as barley and millets
  5. Loamy soil  Consists of sand, silt and clay  The texture is gritty and retains water very easily, the drainage is well  It is considered to be the perfect soil.
  6. Clay soil Made of higher proportions of small particles like clay  These clay particles are tightly packed with very less space between particles  Water can be trapped in the tiny gaps between them  Heavy and hold more water  Suitable for potato, pea and green leafy vegetables
  7. Red Soil Sandy and less clay  Rich in iron and poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime  Porous and friable  Groundnut, millet, tobacco, potato, rice, wheat, sugarcane
  8. Laterite soil  Brown to yellowish  soil Latin word meaning brick  Form under high temperature and rainfall  Becomes hard when exposed to air  Used as building materials  Tea, coffee, rubber and coconut
  9. Mountain soil  Formed by deposition of organic matter from forest  Found in hill slopes  Rich in humus and poor in potash and lime  Tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits
  10. What do you think of when you hear, “forest”?
  11. What do you think of when you hear, “forest”? A place with trees A place where we go to see nature
  12. Defining a Forest •A forest is land -that is a little bigger than 1 acre in size -where the trees cover at least 10% of it -and the trees can grow to be at least 16 feet tall
  13. What else is in a forest other than trees? Shrubs Wildlife Decomposers People Soil
  14. Now that we know what makes up a forest and what they do for us, let’s explore the different forest types …
  15. 1. Natural Forests 2. Plantations 3. Urban Forests Types of Forests
  16. • These types of forests are usually conservation areas for wildlife, ecosystem services and wildlife • Sometimes trees in natural forests are harvested but young trees will grow from seeds left on the ground and take their place • Natural forests provide green areas for many people to enjoy • Have you ever visited a natural forest? Natural Forests
  17. An Example of a Natural Forest
  18. • These are forest that are specifically planted to make products people use • Examples of products include paper, wood, fuel, oranges etc. • Plantations are usually planted in rows for easy access and are privately owned • Plantations are usually less diverse than natural forests Plantations
  19. An Example of a Plantation
  20. • These forests are planted or left standing in developed areas such as in neighborhoods or cities • Human benefits are the primary purpose of urban forests • Benefits include providing cool shade, beauty, and taking up water after it rains Urban Forests
  21. An Example of an Urban Forest
  22. • Despite differences in the environmental conditions in a forest, what lives in a forest, and how it is used, all forests provide services that you and I benefit from everyday. • Forests provide shade, clean air for us to breath, clean water for us to drink, return nutrients to the soil, and provide habitat for other plants and wildlife • Can you think of any good things forests do? Benefits Forests Provide

Notas del editor

  1. Ask your students the question and have them respond out loud. Then go to the next slide for some probable responses.
  2. For many people, trees in a natural area come to mind and images of wildlife such as bears, squirrels, and raccoons. Others may think about what they do in a forest, like hunt, hike, camp, and bike.
  3. The FAO definition says that the forested land has to be at least 0.5 hectares and the trees should be able to grow to at least 5 meters tall. 0.5 hectares is = to about 1.2 acres or 1,140 square yards. So, just slightly smaller than the size of a football field. 5 meters is equal to 16.48 or 16.5 feet.
  4. The FAO definition did not mention the presence of shrubs and understory plants, like grass, flowers, or berry bushes. It also did not mention rotten logs, decomposers (such as fungi), birds, reptiles, mammals or people, who are also part of most forests. Some forests also have roads and buildings and are used to obtain products from them, like wood or fruit.
  5. There are three broad types of forests.
  6. For a list of national forests by state go to For a list of Florida state forests go to
  7. This forest in particular is a pine flatwood characterized by saw palmetto and pine trees
  8. If your students ask what is meant by “diverse” a simple explanation would be that that plantations usually have fewer species of plants and animals than natural forests do.
  9. Here we have a typical Florida orange grove
  10. Image courtesy of the UF IFAS Urban and Community Forestry Program
  11. Ask the students if they can think of any good things forests do and have them give their answers out loud