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Communication for health_education_2010

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Communication for health_education_2010

  1. 1. Communication for health education Sherzad Ali Ismail MBChB, FIBMS/CM Community Medicine Department College of Medicine Halwer Medical University 1
  2. 2. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents  References.  Communication & communication skills  Communication process.  When we use communication skills.  Importance of Communication.  Needs of effective communication.  Barriers of communication.  Types of communication.  Categories of studying NVC.  How to be a good communicator.2
  3. 3. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM References 1. Park, K. Textbook of Preventive & Social Medicine. 16th edition. India: M/s Banarsidas Bhanot; 2000. 2. Lucas Adetokunbo O, Gilles Herbert M. Short Text Book of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics. 4th edition. London: Arnold; 2003. 3. Devito, A. Joseph. Essentials of human communication. 5th edition. US: Pearson Education, inc.; 2005 4. Arends, I. Richard. Learning to teach. 4th edition. US: McGraw-Hill; 1998. 5. Dent, A.John. & Harden, M. Ronald. A practical guide for medical teachers. 2nd edition. UK: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005. 6. Al-Youzbaki, B. Dhafer. Medical communication skills. 2nd edition. Mousul: No publication year. 7. Santrock, W. John. Educational Psychology. US: McGraw-Hill; 2001. 8. Bensley J Robert and Brookins-Fisher Jodi (Editors). Community Health Education Methods a Practical guide. 2nd edition. USA: Jones and Bartlet Publishers; 2003. 9. Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2005 (CD).3 3
  4. 4. 12:50:45 PM Objective of the lecture The FM graduates will acquire the knowledge and skills and able to apply these skills with:  Themselves  Patients  Medical staff (Doctors and paramedics)  Family & friends  Community4
  5. 5. 12:50:45 PM Introduction Subjects of communication skills are comparatively new. Good doctor-patient communication has been described as the cornerstone of good medical practice. Need include CS training in medical school curricula5
  6. 6. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMCommunication (Literary meanings) Exchange of information. Message. Act of communicating. Rapport (Closeness). Access.6
  7. 7. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM What is communication? Process of transferring information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood by both sender and receiver.7
  8. 8. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Communication Process8
  9. 9. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Communication skills (CS) is the set of skills that “enables a person to convey information so that it is received and understood”. CS are the proficiency in the interchange of information. Can be acquired and improved by learning and training.9
  10. 10. 12:50:45 PM Effective communication Transmitting the message to someone so that he is fully understood with the way you were wished-for.10
  11. 11. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM When we use C.S.? The communication skills used when one  informs,  explains,  persuades,  listens &  demonstrates.11
  12. 12. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Importance of CS Health education & Health Promotion:  Integrated with the core public health disciplines, especially health education and health promotion. Medical Education:  Maximize student‟s learning opportunities.  Develop better teacher-student relationship.  Enhance classroom management. Medical practice:  Doctor-patient relationship.  Doctor-doctor relationship.  Doctor- nurse relationship.  Doctor-staff relationship.12
  13. 13. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMEffective communication needs You need to listen effectively. You need to clarify and confirm effectively. You need to respond effectively.13
  14. 14. Types of Communications Verbal:  One-way (Didactic).  Two-way Socratic). Non-verbal. Telecommunication & internet14
  15. 15. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM One-way (Didactic). Example: Lecture in the classroom. Drawbacks:  Imposed knowledge.  Little audience participation.  No feedback.  Doesn‟t affect human behaviors.15
  16. 16. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Two-way (Socratic) Both the communicator and the audience take part. Process of learning is active and "democratic“. More likely to influence behavior.16
  17. 17. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Telecommunication & internet. Point – to – Point system.  telephone, telex (or teletype) and telegraph Mass communication media.  Examples: Radio, TV and internet etc.17
  18. 18. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Non-verbal communication18
  19. 19. Non-verbal communication Sometimes-called body language or Silent Signals. More than 50% of first impressions is based on the non- verbal element. About 26 muscles are responsible for facial expression. Those who used the least eye contact where judged as defensive, cold, and immature, while those who used the most eye contact were judged as friendly, mature, sincere, and self-confident.19 12:50:45 PM
  20. 20. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Categories of Non-verbal communication Bodily contact. Proximity. Body movement. Orientation. Level. Posture. (sitting, standing) Physical appearance. Facial appearance. Hand & head movements. Direction of gaze & eye contact. Use of time. (on time) Environmental cues (location)20
  21. 21. Mehrabian Myth21  Perceiving what peoples say?  55% body language.  38% the way it‟s said. Body 7% language  7% the actual words spoken. How its 55%  communicating 38% said  feelings and Actual  Attitude words Fore more information: watch?v=7dboA8cag1M
  22. 22. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Barriers of communication1. Physiological e.g. visual or hearing difficulties.2. Psychological e.g. emotional disturbances, levels of intelligence…etc.3. Environmental (Noise)4. Cultural (Illiteracy, level of knowledge & education, language, customs & believes). 22
  23. 23. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Categories of studying NVC1. Kinesics. (It is the study of how we use facial expressions, gestures, postures, and eye behavior in communication.)2. Eye contact.3. Paralanguage. (paralanguage =your voice - your words.)4. Haptics. (The study of tactile communication- the language of touch)5. Proxemics. Personal space, and the study of how we structure and claim this space is called proxemics.)6. Chronemics. (The study of how we use time to communicate is called chronemics). 23
  24. 24. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Approaches of communication skills Core communication skills approach. Advance communication skills approach.24
  25. 25. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Core communication skills• Essential skills that help the doctor to reach the diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. – Divided into the following types: 1) Doctor-patient interpersonal skills. 2) Information gathering skills. 3) Information giving skills. 25
  26. 26. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM 1) Doctor-patient interpersonal skills Doctor-patient interpersonal skills refer to the basic skills which help to create effective helping relationships.26
  27. 27. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Importance of effective doctor- patient interpersonal skills1. It is an essential part of diagnosis.2. Contributes to patient satisfaction.3. Increases patient compliance to treatment plan.4. Contributes to cost effectiveness.5. Contributes to doctor clinical competence. 27
  28. 28. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Elements of doctor-patient interpersonal skills1. Appropriate physical environment.2. Greeting patients.3. Active listening.4. Empathy, respect, interest, warmth & support.5. Language.6. Non-verbal communication.7. Collaborative (shared) relationship.8. Closing the interview. 28
  29. 29. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM 2) Information gathering skills: Are skills which help to facilitate the patients‟ involvement in the medical interview in a way that enables the doctor to reach the diagnosis.29
  30. 30. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Elements of Information gathering skills1. Using appropriate balance of open to closed questions2. Silence.3. Clarifying the information given by the patient.4. Sequencing of events.5. Directing the flow of information.6. Summarizing. 30
  31. 31. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM 3) Information giving skills: Are the skills that used by the doctor to provide information to the patient about their illness and proposed treatment plan.31
  32. 32. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Elements of Information giving skills1. Provide clear & simple information.2. Putting important things first.3. Using repetitions.4. Summarizing.5. Categorizing information to reduce complexity & aid recall.6. Using tools. 32
  33. 33. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Advancedcommunication skills 33
  34. 34. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Breaking Bad News Regarding breaking bad news, the following steps are proposed:  Preparation and Delivery of News.  Patient’s Response to Difficult/Bad News.  Plan for the Next Steps.34
  35. 35. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMPreparation and Delivery of News  Ask permission to talk  Ask about patient‟s understanding of the problem  Determine how much patient knows  Determine how much patient wants to know  Preparation: “I am afraid I have some bad/difficult news”  Deliver the news, no medical jargon.35
  36. 36. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMPatient‟s Response to Difficult/Bad News  Allow time for patient to hear the news and react  Check to be sure patient understood  Respond to patient‟s emotions.36
  37. 37. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Plan for the Next Steps  Offer support to the patient  Ask whether patient wants more information about diagnosis and prognosis  Make a plan for follow-up and referral  Tell patient you will stick with him.37
  38. 38. Communication models in medical practice The biomedical model  Doctor is in charge of the consultation.  Focus is on disease management. Patient-centered communication  Power and decision-making is shared.  Address and treat the whole patient. 38
  39. 39. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMHow to be a good communicator?I. Developing good speaking & listening skills.II. Avoid barriers to effective verbal communication.III. “You” & “I” messages.IV. Communicates nonverbally.V. Being assertive (confident). 43
  40. 40. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM I. Developing good speaking & listening skills.1. Becoming an effective speaker.  Connect with the audience. (Talk directly)  State your purpose.  Effectively deliver your speech.  Organize your speech.  Include evidence that supports the speech.  Use media effectively. 44
  41. 41. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM I. Developing good speaking & listening skills.2. Becoming an effective listener: 45
  42. 42. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM II. Avoid barriers to effective verbal communication Criticizing. Labeling. Ordering. Threatening.46
  43. 43. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM III. “You” & “I” messages “You” messages: are undesirable style in which speakers appear to judge & to place peoples in a defensive position. “I” messages: a desirable style, less provocative, reflect the speakers true feelings‟.47
  44. 44. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM IV. Communicate nonverbally Facial expressions & eye contact. Touch. Space. Silence etc..48
  45. 45. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM V. Being assertive Act confidently, ask for what you want, & say no to things you don‟t want.49
  46. 46. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Conclusion Understanding the silent signals of body language is essential to becoming a better and more efficient communicator. CS can be learned & taught. To be an effective communicator; you have to:  Practice.  Practice.  Practice.50
  47. 47. “If you have not good communication skills, no matter what you say”1/25/2013 12:50:45 51 PM
  48. 48. Communication & Education1/25/2013 12:50:45 52 PM
  49. 49. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health communication "health communication" is often used synonymously with health education. It is a downward & outward communication of knowledge Communication strategies can enhance learning The ultimate goal of all communication is to bring about a change in the desired direction of the person who receives the communication53
  50. 50. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Functions of health communication Information Education Motivation Persuasion Counseling Raising morals (Confidence & optimism) Health development54
  51. 51. Health Education Health: Is a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Education: informing and acquiring of knowledge through teaching and learning, especially at a school or similar institution1/25/2013 12:50:45 55 PM
  52. 52. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health Education "a process aimed at encouraging people:  to want to be healthy,  to know how to stay healthy,  to do what they can individually and collectively  to maintain health,  and to seek help when needed“ WHO, Declaration of Alma - Ata (1978). The process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of health . (John Last)56
  53. 53. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Features of Health Education1. Health promotion and education directed at populations rather than individuals2. Health education is much more than factual information3. It includes all those experiences and skills that affect the way people think and feel about their health, and it motivates them to put information into practice. 57
  54. 54. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Goal of Health EducationTo make realistic improvements in the basic quality of life58
  55. 55. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Objectives of Health Education Health consciousness Motivation Knowledge Attitude change Behavior Decision making59
  56. 56. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMImportance of Health education A large number of diseases could be prevented with little or no medical intervention if:  people were adequately informed about them and if  they were encouraged to take necessary precautions in time. H/E is the most important PHC activity.60
  57. 57. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMImportance of Health education Giving patients handouts about tetanus increased the rate of immunization against tetanus among adults threefold. (Cates CJ, BMJ, 1990; 300 (6727):789-90) An educational booklet on back pain for patients reduced the number of consultations made by patients over the following year & 84% said that they found it useful. (Ronald M, Dixon M, JR Coll GP, 1989; 39(323):244-6).61
  58. 58. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Targets of Health Education Individual Family Small groups Community or general public62
  59. 59. History of DiseasePeriod of Pre-Pathogenesis Period of PathogenesisBefore man is involved Course of disease in man Health Education Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention Health Specific Early diagnosis & Disability promotion protection Treatment limitation Rehabilitation1/25/2013 12:50:45 63 PM
  60. 60. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health Promotion Promotion is encouragement for activity Is the use of a combination of health education and specific interventions, at the primary level of prevention designed to facilitate behavioral and environmental changes helpful to health enhancement64
  61. 61. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health Promotion Program (intervention) Any program aimed at improving health through behavior and lifestyle changes  alcohol awareness month,  cancer prevention week,  obesity reduction seminar,  or dental health week,65
  62. 62. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health protection The implementation of strategies that focus on environmental rather than behavioral determinants of health.  environmental hazards such as:  toxic waste sites, industrial chemicals, and exposure to lead, food and drug safety  occupational health and safety:  wearing protective clothing, goggles, and gloves when working with dangerous chemicals66
  63. 63. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education versus propagandaHealth Education PropagandaKnowledge & skills actively acquired Knowledge instilled in the mind of the peopleMake people think for themselves Prevents thinking by readymade slogan sDiscipline primitive desire Stimulate primitive desireCalls to reason Calls to emotionKnowledge acquired (active) Knowledge is spoon-fed (passive)The process is behavior center The process is information centerDevelop reflective behavior Develops reflexive behavior 67
  64. 64. Contents of Health Education1/25/2013 12:50:45 68 PM
  65. 65. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents of Health Education1. Human biology  the structure and functions of the body;  how to keep physically fit - the need for exercise, rest and sleep;  the effects of alcohol, smoking and drugs on the body. 69
  66. 66. Contents of Health Education2. Nutrition  Nutrition education is a major intervention for the prevention of malnutrition & promotion of health, aims to:  Guide people to choose balanced diets.  Promote good dietary habits 70 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM
  67. 67. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents of Health Education3. Hygiene  Personal:  aims to promote standards of personal cleanliness.  Include: bathing, clothing, washing hands and toilet; care of nails, feet and teeth; spitting, coughing, sneezing, …etc.  Environmental:  Domestic  Community 71
  68. 68. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents of Health Education4. Family health  Health largely depends on the familys social and physical environment.  Role of the family in health promotion and in prevention of disease, early diagnosis and care of the sick. 72
  69. 69. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents of Health Education5. Disease prevention and control  Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases is the first of eight essential activities (elements) in primary health care. 73
  70. 70. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Contents of Health Education6. Mental health7. Prevention of accidents.8. Use of health services.9. More.. 74
  71. 71. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education1. Credibility2. Interest3. Participation4. Motivation5. Comprehension6. Reinforcement7. From known to unknown8. Learning by doing9. Good human relationship10. Leaders. 75
  72. 72. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Credibility (Believability)  Ability to inspire belief or trust. In health education, it is the degree to which the message to be communicated is perceived as trustworthy by the receiver.76
  73. 73. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Interest  people are unlikely to listen to those things which are not to their interest  If a health program is based on "felt needs“ people will gladly participate in the program; and only then it will be a peoples program.77
  74. 74. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Participation  Participation is a key word in health education. it is based on the psychological principle of active learning.  "The people have a right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care . (Alma Ata declaration)78
  75. 75. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Motivation  Is stimulating behavior or awakening desire to learn  Primary(Sex, hunger, survival)  Secondary (praise, love, reward)79
  76. 76. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Comprehension  In health education we must know the level of understanding, education and literacy of people to whom the teaching is directed.  within the mental capacity of the audience80
  77. 77. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Reinforcement  Few people can learn all that is new in a single period  Repetition at intervals is necessary.81
  78. 78. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education From known to unknown  In health education work, we must proceed "from the concrete to the abstract"; "from the particular to the general"; "from the simple to the more complicated;" "from the easy to more difficult”.82
  79. 79. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Learning by doing  Learning is an action - process ; not a "memorizing" one in the narrow sense  Chinese proverb : "lf I hear, I forget; if I see, I remember; if I do, I know"83
  80. 80. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Good human relationship  Sharing of information, ideas and feelings happen most easily between people who have a good relationship84
  81. 81. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Principles of Health Education Leaders  Psychologists have shown that we learn best from people whom we respect and regard.  In the work of health education, we try to penetrate the community through the local leaders  Leaders are agents of change and they can make use of health education work.85
  82. 82. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Characteristics of Health Educator1. Have technical qualifications in health education2. Be familiar with the traditions & popular customs of the recipient society3. Be a good example for the message of H/E he is presenting4. Believe in & be actively committed to the message of health education 86
  83. 83. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Characteristics of Health Educator5. Have initiative & motivation as well as the capacity to communicate & convince others with his message6. Speak the recipient’s language 87
  84. 84. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Criteria of good message1. In line with the objective (s).2. Based on felt needs.3. Meaningful.4. Clear and understandable.5. Specific and accurate.6. Timely and adequate.7. Fitting the audience (listener).8. Interesting.9. Culturally and socially appropriate. 88 88
  85. 85. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Changing concepts in health education Prevention of disease to promotion of healthy lifestyle. Modification of individual behavior to modification of “social environment” in which the individual lives. Community participation to community involvement. Promotion of individual & community “self- reliance”.89
  86. 86. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories1. The Health Belief Model2. Theory of Planned Behavior3. Transtheoretical Stages of Change Model4. Social Cognitive Theory5. Diffusion of Innovation Theory. 90
  87. 87. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories The Health Belief Model (HBM)  Emphasizes the “role of perceptions of susceptibility to an illness & the potential effectiveness in treatment”.91
  88. 88. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories Theory of Planned Behavior  Based on the assumption that “intention to behave in a certain way, is determined by the person‟s attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms & apparent behavioral control”.92
  89. 89. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories Transtheoretical Stages of Change Model  Behavior change is a process & individuals are at varying levels of motivation or readiness to change.  People may relapse or return to a previous stage.93
  90. 90. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories Social Cognitive Theory  Peoples not only learn through their own experiences, but also by observing the actions of others & the results of those actions94
  91. 91. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Health education theories Diffusion of Innovation Theory  Diffusion: distribute, or spread widely.  Innovation: something that is new or different.  Community –level theory.  It means integrating innovative ideas, products, or programs that have proved to be successful into health education initiatives.95
  92. 92. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Stages of changing behavior Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption96
  93. 93. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Practice of Health education1. Audiovisual aids2. Approaches in health education 97
  94. 94. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Audiovisual aids  Auditory aids:  Radio, tape- recorder, microphones, amplifier, ear-phones.  Visual aids:  Not requiring projection : Chalk- board, leaflets, posters, charts, models, specimens , etc.  Requiring projection : Slides, film strips & Data show  Combined.  Television, sound films (Cinema).98
  95. 95. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMApproaches in health education Individual approach Group approach Mass approach99
  96. 96. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Individual approach Example: Counseling Capitalizes on warmth & understanding Opportunity for involvement, asking questions, expressing fears & learning more More effective for changing personal habit (behavior).100
  97. 97. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Counseling is giving advice: opinion or instruction given in directing the judgment or conduct of another. In the clinical context „It is the therapeutic process of helping a patient to explore the nature of his or her problem in such a way that he or she determines his or her decisions about what to do, without direct advice or reassurance from the counselor.101
  98. 98. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Specific areas of counseling Any crisis situation. Terminal illness Marital problems, family problems, sexual problems, sexual abuse, infertility,…etc. Chronic pain, severe illness Anxiety & stress, depression, intellectual handicap.102
  99. 99. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Patient-centered counseling Non-directive counseling technique Patients can realize their own solutions for their problems. The counselor is more like a facilitator Patient-centered Doctor-centered Counseling103
  100. 100. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Group approach Group teaching is an effective way of educating the community Should be based on groups‟ interest & concern Appropriate methods should be used.104
  101. 101. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Methods of health education in group approach1. Lecture (Chalk & talk):  Defined as carefully prepared oral presentation of facts, organized thoughts and ideas by a qualified person  Its effectiveness depends to a large extent on the speakers ability to write readably and to draw with chalk on a black board  The group should not be more than 30 and the talk should not exceed 15 to 20 minutes. 105
  102. 102. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Methods of health education in group approach2. Demonstrations:  a carefully prepared presentation to show how to perform a skill or procedure  Ex: lumber puncture, disinfection of a well, ORS,..etc  clinical teaching in hospitals is based on demonstrations.106
  103. 103. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Advantages of demonstrations dramatizes by arousing interest persuades the audiences to adopt recommended practices upholds the principles of "seeing is believing" and "learning by doing", and can bring desirable changes in the behavior with high motivations relating to the use of new practice.107
  104. 104. Methods of health education in group approach3. Group discussion:  A "group" is an "aggregation of people interacting in a face - to - face situation"  This contrasts sharply to the group of students in a class room situation  the group should be >6 <12 members.  Example: Smoking cessation, weight reduction, ..etc 108 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM
  105. 105. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Advantages of Group discussion permits the individuals to learn by freely exchanging their knowledge, ideas and opinions provides a wider interaction among members A well-conducted group discussion is effective for changing attitudes and the health behavior of people109
  106. 106. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMMethods of health education in group approach Panel discussion:  4 to 8 persons who are qualified to talk about the topic sit and discuss a given problem, or the topic, in front of a large group or audience  Chairman or moderator110
  107. 107. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMMethods of health education in group approach Symposium:  a series of speeches on a selected subject  Each person or expert presents an aspect of the subject briefly.  There is no discussion among the symposium members.  In the end, the audience may raise questions.  The chairman makes a comprehensive summary at the end of entire session111
  108. 108. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMMethods of health education in group approach Workshop:  consists of a series of meetings, usually four or more, with emphasis on individual work, within the group, with the help of consultants and resource personnel  The total workshop may be divided into small groups and each group will choose a chairman and a recorder.112
  109. 109. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMMethods of health education in group approach Role playing:  socio-drama is based on 2 assumptions:  many values in a situation cannot be expressed in words,  communication can be more effective if the situation is dramatized by the group  size of the group is thought to be best at about 25  It is a particularly useful educational device for school children. (human relationship)  It is followed by a discussion of the problem.113
  110. 110. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PMMethods of health education in group approach Conferences and seminars:  They are usually held on a regional, state or national level  They range from once half-day to one week in length  and may cover a single topic in depth or be broadly comprehensive  usually use a variety of formats to aid the learning process from self instruction to multi - media.114
  111. 111. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach (education of general public) Up till the early 1920s, mass communication depended largely on what was printed - posters, pamphlets, books Radio then TV Mass media are a "one-way“ communication. transmitting messages to people in the remotest places.115
  112. 112. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach (education of general public) Mass media alone are generally inadequate in changing human behavior Advantages of mass media include:  creating a political will,  raising the health consciousness,  setting norms,  delivering technical messages,  popularizing health knowledge &  encouraging community involvement .116
  113. 113. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Television:  the most popular of all media  effective creating awareness & health comm.  also to an extent influencing the public opinion and introducing new ways of life  helping people familiarize with things they have not seen before  a one - way channel  Cannot cover all areas of learning117
  114. 114. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Radio:  Both radio and TV can reach illiterate population not accessible through printed word.  It is a purely didactic medium!118
  115. 115. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Internet: holds very large potential to become a major health education tool  Web sites:  Governmental  Non-governmental  Personal  Others (NGO, UN,…etc)119
  116. 116. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Newspapers:  They are the most widely disseminated of all forms of literature  They should, provide more factual, detailed and even statistical material  Unfortunately, health problems have little of value to newspapers.  They have limitation of having low readership in rural areas. (reach only a limited group)120
  117. 117. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Printed material:  Examples: Magazines, pamphlets, booklets and hand-outs  convey detailed information.  can be produced in bulk for very little cost  can be shared by others in the family and community.121
  118. 118. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Direct mailing:  The intention is to reach the remote areas of the country with printed word (e.g., folders and newsletters and booklets on family planning, immunization and nutrition etc)  It is possibly the most personal of mass communication.122
  119. 119. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Posters, billboards and signs:  These are intended to catch the eye and create awareness  the message to be communicated must be simple, and artistic  Motives such as humor and fear are introduced into posters in order to hold the attention of the public123
  120. 120. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Posters, billboards and signs:  The right amount of matter should be put up in the right place and at the right time.  The life of a poster is usually short;  As a media of health education, posters have much less effect in changing behavior124
  121. 121. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Health museums and exhibitions:  It can attract large numbers of people.  Increase knowledge and awareness  Photographic panels attract more than graphics  Personal & impersonal communications125
  122. 122. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Mass approach Folk media:  folk songs, dances and dramas126
  123. 123. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Conclusions There is no single way to do public education. Health education is still art rather than a science. Each community and country should develop techniques that meet its own needs.127
  124. 124. Planning of health education Any plans should be suitable with socio - cultural, psycho-social, political, economic and situational characteristics The planners should be fully conversant with the health education needs of the particular program128
  125. 125. Steps of planning of HE1. Collecting information on target population2. Identify the problem (s)3. Decide on priorities4. Develop appropriate goals & objectives5. Assess resources6. Create an intervention that is likely to achieve the desired results7. Implement the intervention8. Monitor & evaluate the results 129
  126. 126. 1/25/2013 12:50:45 PM Objectives features SMART!  Specific  Measurable  Attainable  Relevant  Time period130