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Unit 3 The First Mass Media Revolution

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Unit 3 The First Mass Media Revolution

  1. 1. “Nothing is more difficult for the modern student to comprehend than an age of slow communication.… we are so bombarded with words that come at us… out of the air…so loaded down with books and newsprint and advertising” that the “slow and silent” past is on the far side of “a gulf across which we can no longer see…” (Burlingame, 1938)
  2. 2. Moore’s Law:Chip transistor capacity doubling everytwo years for past four decades
  3. 3. Luther called the printing press"Gods highest and extremest actof grace, whereby the business ofthe Gospel is driven forward." “The press created the modern world—a place where debates among scholars and leaders are referred to the court of public opinion.” (p. 380 in THE WEST)
  4. 4. 1. Writing—3000 BC--“more important than all the battles ever fought and all the constitutions ever devised.” (Breasted, 1926)2. Paper—c. 200 BC---“Paper is the instrument of liberty….There is no liberty without paper…” (H. Voorn, 1968)3. Printing Press—1450—”No technological development in any field is credited with a greater social and political impact than the invention of the printing press….” (Hanson 2008, p. 14)
  5. 5. • Individual Freedom of Conscience• First Mass Media Event (printing press) and propaganda
  6. 6. / Library of CongressThe splendor of Rome (left) contrasted with a bare ProtestantChapel in colonial Virginia, reflects vastly different interpretations ofthe Word of God.
  7. 7. Click on the links below to view two film versions:
  8. 8. “He shattered faith in authority, because he restored the authority of faith.“He transformed parsons into laymen, because he transformed laymen into parsons….” /cph/3a10000/3a18000/3a18700/ 3a18737u.tif (A CRITICISM OF THE HEGELIAN PHILOSOPHY OF RIGHT)
  9. 9. “…95 sledge-hammerblows directed againstthe most flagrantecclesiastical abuse ofthe age.” ”If I Had a Hammer” (T.M. Lindsay, Britannica, 1911) 1517 Wittenberg— m/2011/03/martin_luther_9.jpg
  10. 10. Major source of church income since 13thcentury, but “indulgence hyper-inflation” by1500Engravings like the “Mass of St. Gregory” weresacred objects themselves; the inscriptionpromised relief from 20,000 years inPurgatory—later increased without approval to45,000 years!In 1500 estimated 1,064,037 years ofindulgences were available (while earth itselfonly 6,000 years old)
  11. 11. The Pope—with a devil inhis stomach—countingmoney, while his beastlycardinals sell indulgencesamid dancing flames(British Museum)
  12. 12. “Christianographie;or, The description ofthe multitude andsundry sorts ofChristians in theworld, not subject to thePope…”
  13. 13. Luther man of the Book and the Pen Pamphlets, books, essays, prayers, hymns “A Mighty Fortress is Our God” click the link below to view the video h/search_the_collection_database/sear ch_object_image.aspx?objectId=144887 3&partId=1&searchText=luther&fromA DBC=ad&toADBC=ad&orig=%2fresearch %2fsearch_the_collection_database.asp x&numPages=10&currentPage=6&asset _id=84433
  14. 14.
  15. 15. To hear an editor from the ECONOMIST talk about how the parallels between the way Luther used the new printing press and othercommunications methods, to the leaders of the “Arab Spring” in 2011. Click the link below read the article.
  16. 16. •Interpreted Bible literally, notmetaphorically•Though his poetic translationrequired abandoning literal meaningsof Hebrew words.•Luther’s vernacular Bible mostimportant book in history of Germanlanguage http://ora-•Key to creating a common tongue ce=digimo.Digitalisat_anzeigen&a_id=4792&p_ ab=0
  17. 17. “even shoemakers and women and every kind of unlearned person…read it most eagerly as the font of all truth….In a few months… they did not blush to dispute about Johannes Cochlaeus, the faith and the Gospel…with Luther’s bitter adversary priests and monks…even with mons/e/e1/Johannes-Cochlaeus.jpg Masters and Doctors of Sacred Theology.” (Johannes Cochlaeus)
  18. 18. Devil defecates into themouth of Cochlaeus, he inturn defecates papist booksand pamphlets consumedby the kneelingpriests, delighting dancingdevils and horrifying thefaithful. (Yale University)
  19. 19. Luther as apocalyptic monster withseven heads.Left to right: Doctor, Satanic monk Turkish infidel Mob preacher Fanatic (hornets in hair) Pretend Pope Wild man with club Title-page to Cochlaeus, Septiceps Lutherus, Leipzig: Valentin Schumann, 1529. Woodcut and letterpress bject_details.aspx?queryAll=Terms%2F!!%2FOR%2F!!%2F16590%2F!%2F%2F!%2Fm onk%2Fnun%2F!%2F%2F!!%2F%2F!!!%2F&objectId=1434835&partId=1&searchText =europe&fromDate=1500&fromADBC=ad&toDate=1750&toADBC=ad&numpages=1 0&images=on&orig=%2Fresearch%2Fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx&current Page=1
  20. 20. The monster Pope and his othersix heads—monks, bishops andcardinals—ooze out of a lockedindulgence chest, underneathwhich is the Devil himself.Inscription on the indulgencecertificate hanging from thecross reads: “A sack full ofindulgences for cash.” te%20des%2016.%20Jahrhunderts:%20Siebenk%F6pfiges
  21. 21. “The dead pope and clericslying amongst the rubble ofa collapsing church” withdevils building, theemperor and merchantslooking on from the left.” (British Museum) bject_image.aspx?objectId=1435914&partId=1&searchText=Sebastian+Meyer&from ADBC=ad&toADBC=ad&orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database.aspx& numPages=10&currentPage=2&asset_id=83134
  22. 22. Cardinal, Devil, Pope andMonk at the foot of the tabletry in vain to blow out theflame of the Reformation.Luther writing at the head ofthe table, with otherProtestant leaders. bject_details.aspx?objectid=1673223&partid=1&output=People%2f!!%2fOR%2f!!%2 f116563%2f!%2f116563-1- 7%2f!%2fRepresentation+of+Martin+Luther%2f!%2f%2f!!%2f%2f!!!%2f&orig=%2fres earch%2fsearch_the_collection_database%2fadvanced_search.aspx&currentPage=7 &numpages=10
  23. 23. Implicit in Luther’s decree of “by faith alone” isthe right of every human being to control theirown spiritual and personal destinyWho had the right to call another a heretic, if theultimate test of salvation was in the heart?Every man a pope, every man a king!
  24. 24. “…individualism and civil rights were in the DNA of Protestantism, in which redemption depends on personal response to the mighty acts of God in Christ….” Martin Luther King, Jr., 1929-1968 (Fernandez-Armesto and Wilson, 1996, p. 288) luther-king-jr-day-in-usa.html