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RAISING THE STAKES
David Forrest ● Ian McHale ● Heather Wardle
New Horizons in Responsible Gambling
Vancouver, February, 2016
casino gaming in Great Britain
• 150 casinos in the country of which 146 operate under pre-2005
licenses and 4 are authorised under the terms of the Gambling Act
(2005)
• all offer table games and machine gaming but casinos with pre-2005
licenses are permitted to have only twenty machines
• casinos represent the third largest sector in British gambling, with
gross gambling yield of £1.2b in 2014-5 (behind betting & the
lottery which each had GGY of £3.2b)
• however, the one-year adult participation-rate is only about 1%,
which implies that losses of individual players in casinos are, on
average, very high compared with in lotteries or betting
THE MACHINES
• British regulation specifies four broad categories of gaming machine, (A, B, C, D) defined by
the maximum stake and prize allowed
• category D machines are permitted in locations accessible to children and are indeed
permitted to be played by children….but maximum stake is very low (10 pence)
• the maximum stake on category C machines is higher (£1) and so these machines are
confined to age-restricted premises such as public houses and ‘adult gaming centres’
• category B machines offer still ‘harder’ gambling in terms of levels of permitted stakes and
prizes but are allowed only in adult-only gambling-specific premises: casinos (B1 machines),
betting shops (B2) and bingo halls (B3)
• category A machines have ‘unlimited’ stakes and jackpots but no premises are currently
licensed to host such machines (they were to have been in a new generation of mega- casinos
but Parliament subsequently rejected mega-casinos)
• implicit in the way that the regulation of machine
gaming is framed is the idea that limits on stake and
prize levels are a key protective device- limits are
allowed to be higher at venues where access is more
strongly controlled
• in Europe, stake and prize limits are very common
as a responsible gambling measure though there is
no published study on whether they are in fact
effective as a means of limiting gambling harm
UPLIFT
• the Triennial Review of Stake and Prize Limits (2013)
• most controversy focused on B2 machines in bookmaker offices,
where maximum stake is £100 and maximum prize £500, but here
no changes were proposed
• however, a rise in stakes and prizes was approved for B1 machines,
found in casinos, and took effect on January 1, 2014
• maximum stake: £2 → £5
• maximum prize: £4,000 → £10,000
• linked progressive jackpot: £4,000 → £20,000
WHAT EFFECT DOES A LIMIT ON
STAKES AND PRIZES HAVE?
• limits prevent some players from taking the level of risk which they would choose if unconstrained
• the role of money in gaming is to create suspense and for some players £2 (for example) is
insufficient money placed at risk to make the experience exciting enough….they would like to
include some bets above the limit in their gaming session
• these particular players will respond to a relaxation in the limit by spending more on machines (e.g.
increase average stake size, switch to machines from other gambling, etc)
• to that extent, the industry expected a ‘modest’ increase in revenue….modest because, for most B1
activity, the constraint had not been binding…..the average stake per spin before Uplift was below
80 pence
• if players are responsible gamblers who are fully informed
and in control of their play, the increase in revenue is ‘a
good thing’ because it represents some individuals
spending their money in a way more congruent with their
preferences
• on the other hand, the whole rationale for stake limits is to
protect the vulnerable from harming themselves- some of
the increase in spending might come from players whose
gambling is out of control
• our study was commissioned by the Responsible Gambling
Trust to find out what happened when limits on B1
machines were raised
THE DATA
we analysed two data sets from Rank Group, the largest
casino operator in Britain
• casino-level data: for each of 23 Grosvenor casinos, weekly
series on house win on B1 machines, table games & e-roulette;
total stakes on B1 machines; mean stake per spin
(February, 2013- November 2014)
• tracked data: details of about 7.5m gambling visits to casinos
by nearly 650,000 individuals over 2012-2014 (length of time
playing machines, amount lost or won, information also on
table games and e-roulette); for each individual, know age,
gender and (via postcode) some details of neighbourhood
where he or she lives
CASINO-LEVEL
ANALYSIS
• we built a statistical model to account for variation in indicators
(such as house win on B1 machines) at casino i in week t
• in the statistical model, the variables capture information such as
whether the casino is in a city centre and the density of population in
the surrounding area
• the type of model we use (linear mixed model) also calibrates the
prediction to allow for systematic “unexplained” variation in the
average level of business a particular casino does
• we entered into the model variables which captured whether
the week in question was
• before the changes took place,
• during a two-week transition period in January, 2014 when the machines
across the estate were being converted, or
• under the new stakes & prizes regime
• essentially we are comparing business before and after the changes
• this sort of event study requires that the underlying time series are
reasonably stable and have only one structural break in the period,
coinciding with the intervention of interest
• we first checked that this condition was met, using structural break
analysis
for example……..for the statistic mean stake per spin, the
structural break identified was very sharp and coincided
exactly with the roll-out of the new machine features
• for other series, such as house win, there was a lot of
‘noise’ in the data and the change in behaviour
was not as obvious to the naked eye…but structural
break analysis confirmed that a single ‘event’ had
indeed taken place and before and after comparisons
were valid
• for house win from B1 machines, the analysis
suggested a 7.1% increase following the uplift of
maximum stakes and prizes
• in the Consultation around the Triennial Review, the
industry had predicted a 5% increase…..but annual
growth in the previous two years had been 3.5%.......so
industry predictions are borne out by our analysis
• amount staked went up proportionately more, by 10.2%,
implying an increase in payback rate
• this could have come about because the average win for a
customer will have increased with average stake…..and the
bigger the pay-out, the less likely is the player to recycle his or
her winnings
• an increase in amount staked (here 10.2%) could in principle
come from an increase in the number of spins or an increase in
the average stake per spin or a mixture of the two
• in fact, the number of spins per week at an average casino
increased only very marginally
• so the extra turnover came almost entirely from the increase
in average stake size…..which increased by 8.8%
• all these results were invariant to casino type (city
centre, deprived area, etc)
• but things were different when we applied the
statistical model to house win from table games
• we classified 12 of the 23 casinos as being located in
‘deprived areas’ based on the official Index of Multiple
Deprivation
• at these casinos only, Uplift was followed by a
significant drop in house win from table games such
that, to a substantial extent, the increase in profit
from machines represented cannibalisation of the
casinos’ table game business
• we conducted the analysis according to whether the casino was in a
deprived area but most of these casinos were in the North, so the
result could represent a regional difference rather than a pure
‘deprivation’ difference
• either way, it suggests that some players who preferred machines
had been at tables only because a £2 stake was insufficiently
exciting…but a limit of £5 for some players in less affluent
communities may offer as much excitement as they want
• more generally, the result casts doubt on the relevance of
maximum stakes if players have ready access (in this case in
the same premises) to gambling media with no such limits
ANALYSIS OF TRACKED DATA
• our unit of analysis was the player-visit
• we looked at about 7.5m visits by more than 640,000 card holders over 2012-
2014
• we produced descriptive data on how spending levels etc varied for all
players across the three years
• formal statistical modelling was focused on regular users who recorded
eleven or more visits in each year
• in the last BGPS, the prevalence-rate of pgsi problem gambling was sixteen
times as high among monthly-or-more slots players as among less-than-
monthly slots players, so harm is likely to be concentrated among regular
users
“ALL TRACKED PLAYERS”
2012, 2013, 2014
• about ¼ of visits included B1 play and about four-fifths of these were B1-
only visits
• female visits were more likely to include B1 play
• the typical (median) player loss on a B1 visit was about £20 in each of the
years
• but one-fifth of visits involved a loss of more than £100
• on B1-only visits, typical (median) length of time playing was about 50
minutes
• but in more than 5% of visits, longer than 4 hours was spent on the
machines
• we compared changes observed from 2012-2013 with changes
observed from 2013-2014
• for example we allocated each B1 player in each year to one of the
categories:
new user, infrequent user, frequent user, former user
• we looked at transition-rates between years: 2012→2013 gave us a
baseline figure for (eg) what proportion of infrequent users one year
become frequent users the following year; we then tested for whether
there was a change in that proportion 2013→2014 (where new limits
were in place in 2014)
• frequent users were defined as having at least 11 visits in the year
(roughly monthly-or-more players)
• in fact, there was no difference in the proportion of
infrequent users progressing to frequent user status
• nor was there any sign of change in the rate at which new
players were recruited
• but there was a significant increase in the proportion of
frequent players one year who stayed as frequent
players the following year (60%→66%)
• this is consistent with the increase in stake and prize limits
having helped retain regular players- one possible scenario
is that about one-third of regular players give up regular
play each year and many may do so because they get
bored- raising the stakes may have kept some of them
interested
• median player loss on a B1 visit increased only marginally from 2012→2013
but sharply (£19.88 to £22.26) from 2013→2014
• the proportion of visits where more than £200 was lost increased from 6%
to 6.2% 2012→2013 but then from 6.2% to 7.5% 2013→2014
• the median time playing per visit was stable across the three years but the
proportion of B1-only visits of >4 hours increased 5.1% to 5.7% between
2013→2014
• among frequent users, spending in the bottom quartile of players ranked by
loss actually fell in 2014 but in the top-quartile it increased by 14%
• all these findings and others in the Report underline that the increase in
industry revenue was disproportionately from heavy players
(unsurprising because heavy players are probably more likely to have
had their behaviour constrained by the old stake limit of £2)
THE REGULARS: STATISTICAL MODELLING
We again employed a linear mixed model, this time to predict how much player i lost on visit
t (also modelled time spent playing & frequency of visit)
the indicator of interest (eg £ loss) was specified to depend on:
• whether the new stakes-and-prizes regime was in place
• player gender
• player age
• whether the player’s address was in a very deprived area
• whether the player also engaged in table games/ e-roulette
• whether the player ever engaged in late night visits
• whether the particular visit was a late night one
• the distance from home to casino
• spend on a visit increased significantly post-implementation with
some tendency for this effect to be less pronounced among older
customers
• the increase was particularly sharp on late night visits
• before implementation there was no significant difference in
expected loss between those living in the most deprived areas and
the rest- but the increase in expected loss after implementation was
greater for those who lived in a very deprived area
example: 25 year old male predicted to lose £5.53 more post-
implementation but £8.00 more if he lived in a very deprived area (and
£11.79 more if he was also playing late at night)
• predicted time spent playing increased by about 4.5%
after the changes took place but by only about 2% for
a player living in a very deprived area
• frequency of visit was generally unaffected by the
changes though older players tended to increase
frequency and those living in very deprived areas
tended to reduce frequency
• when higher stakes were in place, players tended to
spend more money on each visit and this was
especially so for residents of very deprived areas- but,
to an extent, their extra spending per visit was
mitigated by making fewer visits
• we had no access to the customers and therefore no evidence on which
customers were experiencing harm from gambling- this is a limitation of
our study- evidence on the issue of harm from our analysis is necessarily
indirect
• to facilitate the production of more direct evidence on gambling harm, we
recommend future research projects include access by researchers to a
sample of customers in order to obtain information about harm
• we find that there was a modest increase in turnover from B1 machines
• this was disproportionately from heavy players, from younger players,
from late night play and from those living in the poorest areas (caveat: we
do not know whether the individuals were themselves poor)
• all the factors mentioned have been associated with an elevated tendency
for play to be problematic
• this indicates that it might be prudent to
match any liberalisation of rules on stakes
and prizes with active harm minimisation
measures in casinos
• many players will take advantage of their
ability to create a more ‘suspenseful’
experience and spend more simply because it
is more entertaining
• but allowing more fun needs to be tempered
by positive action to guard against extra
harm accompanying the extra fun
thank-you for your attention.......
david.forrest@liverpool.ac.uk

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Raising the stakes

  • 1.
  • 2. RAISING THE STAKES David Forrest ● Ian McHale ● Heather Wardle New Horizons in Responsible Gambling Vancouver, February, 2016
  • 3. casino gaming in Great Britain • 150 casinos in the country of which 146 operate under pre-2005 licenses and 4 are authorised under the terms of the Gambling Act (2005) • all offer table games and machine gaming but casinos with pre-2005 licenses are permitted to have only twenty machines • casinos represent the third largest sector in British gambling, with gross gambling yield of £1.2b in 2014-5 (behind betting & the lottery which each had GGY of £3.2b) • however, the one-year adult participation-rate is only about 1%, which implies that losses of individual players in casinos are, on average, very high compared with in lotteries or betting
  • 4. THE MACHINES • British regulation specifies four broad categories of gaming machine, (A, B, C, D) defined by the maximum stake and prize allowed • category D machines are permitted in locations accessible to children and are indeed permitted to be played by children….but maximum stake is very low (10 pence) • the maximum stake on category C machines is higher (£1) and so these machines are confined to age-restricted premises such as public houses and ‘adult gaming centres’ • category B machines offer still ‘harder’ gambling in terms of levels of permitted stakes and prizes but are allowed only in adult-only gambling-specific premises: casinos (B1 machines), betting shops (B2) and bingo halls (B3) • category A machines have ‘unlimited’ stakes and jackpots but no premises are currently licensed to host such machines (they were to have been in a new generation of mega- casinos but Parliament subsequently rejected mega-casinos)
  • 5. • implicit in the way that the regulation of machine gaming is framed is the idea that limits on stake and prize levels are a key protective device- limits are allowed to be higher at venues where access is more strongly controlled • in Europe, stake and prize limits are very common as a responsible gambling measure though there is no published study on whether they are in fact effective as a means of limiting gambling harm
  • 6. UPLIFT • the Triennial Review of Stake and Prize Limits (2013) • most controversy focused on B2 machines in bookmaker offices, where maximum stake is £100 and maximum prize £500, but here no changes were proposed • however, a rise in stakes and prizes was approved for B1 machines, found in casinos, and took effect on January 1, 2014 • maximum stake: £2 → £5 • maximum prize: £4,000 → £10,000 • linked progressive jackpot: £4,000 → £20,000
  • 7. WHAT EFFECT DOES A LIMIT ON STAKES AND PRIZES HAVE? • limits prevent some players from taking the level of risk which they would choose if unconstrained • the role of money in gaming is to create suspense and for some players £2 (for example) is insufficient money placed at risk to make the experience exciting enough….they would like to include some bets above the limit in their gaming session • these particular players will respond to a relaxation in the limit by spending more on machines (e.g. increase average stake size, switch to machines from other gambling, etc) • to that extent, the industry expected a ‘modest’ increase in revenue….modest because, for most B1 activity, the constraint had not been binding…..the average stake per spin before Uplift was below 80 pence
  • 8. • if players are responsible gamblers who are fully informed and in control of their play, the increase in revenue is ‘a good thing’ because it represents some individuals spending their money in a way more congruent with their preferences • on the other hand, the whole rationale for stake limits is to protect the vulnerable from harming themselves- some of the increase in spending might come from players whose gambling is out of control • our study was commissioned by the Responsible Gambling Trust to find out what happened when limits on B1 machines were raised
  • 9. THE DATA we analysed two data sets from Rank Group, the largest casino operator in Britain • casino-level data: for each of 23 Grosvenor casinos, weekly series on house win on B1 machines, table games & e-roulette; total stakes on B1 machines; mean stake per spin (February, 2013- November 2014) • tracked data: details of about 7.5m gambling visits to casinos by nearly 650,000 individuals over 2012-2014 (length of time playing machines, amount lost or won, information also on table games and e-roulette); for each individual, know age, gender and (via postcode) some details of neighbourhood where he or she lives
  • 10. CASINO-LEVEL ANALYSIS • we built a statistical model to account for variation in indicators (such as house win on B1 machines) at casino i in week t • in the statistical model, the variables capture information such as whether the casino is in a city centre and the density of population in the surrounding area • the type of model we use (linear mixed model) also calibrates the prediction to allow for systematic “unexplained” variation in the average level of business a particular casino does
  • 11. • we entered into the model variables which captured whether the week in question was • before the changes took place, • during a two-week transition period in January, 2014 when the machines across the estate were being converted, or • under the new stakes & prizes regime • essentially we are comparing business before and after the changes • this sort of event study requires that the underlying time series are reasonably stable and have only one structural break in the period, coinciding with the intervention of interest • we first checked that this condition was met, using structural break analysis
  • 12. for example……..for the statistic mean stake per spin, the structural break identified was very sharp and coincided exactly with the roll-out of the new machine features
  • 13. • for other series, such as house win, there was a lot of ‘noise’ in the data and the change in behaviour was not as obvious to the naked eye…but structural break analysis confirmed that a single ‘event’ had indeed taken place and before and after comparisons were valid • for house win from B1 machines, the analysis suggested a 7.1% increase following the uplift of maximum stakes and prizes • in the Consultation around the Triennial Review, the industry had predicted a 5% increase…..but annual growth in the previous two years had been 3.5%.......so industry predictions are borne out by our analysis
  • 14. • amount staked went up proportionately more, by 10.2%, implying an increase in payback rate • this could have come about because the average win for a customer will have increased with average stake…..and the bigger the pay-out, the less likely is the player to recycle his or her winnings • an increase in amount staked (here 10.2%) could in principle come from an increase in the number of spins or an increase in the average stake per spin or a mixture of the two • in fact, the number of spins per week at an average casino increased only very marginally • so the extra turnover came almost entirely from the increase in average stake size…..which increased by 8.8%
  • 15. • all these results were invariant to casino type (city centre, deprived area, etc) • but things were different when we applied the statistical model to house win from table games • we classified 12 of the 23 casinos as being located in ‘deprived areas’ based on the official Index of Multiple Deprivation • at these casinos only, Uplift was followed by a significant drop in house win from table games such that, to a substantial extent, the increase in profit from machines represented cannibalisation of the casinos’ table game business
  • 16. • we conducted the analysis according to whether the casino was in a deprived area but most of these casinos were in the North, so the result could represent a regional difference rather than a pure ‘deprivation’ difference • either way, it suggests that some players who preferred machines had been at tables only because a £2 stake was insufficiently exciting…but a limit of £5 for some players in less affluent communities may offer as much excitement as they want • more generally, the result casts doubt on the relevance of maximum stakes if players have ready access (in this case in the same premises) to gambling media with no such limits
  • 17. ANALYSIS OF TRACKED DATA • our unit of analysis was the player-visit • we looked at about 7.5m visits by more than 640,000 card holders over 2012- 2014 • we produced descriptive data on how spending levels etc varied for all players across the three years • formal statistical modelling was focused on regular users who recorded eleven or more visits in each year • in the last BGPS, the prevalence-rate of pgsi problem gambling was sixteen times as high among monthly-or-more slots players as among less-than- monthly slots players, so harm is likely to be concentrated among regular users
  • 18. “ALL TRACKED PLAYERS” 2012, 2013, 2014 • about ¼ of visits included B1 play and about four-fifths of these were B1- only visits • female visits were more likely to include B1 play • the typical (median) player loss on a B1 visit was about £20 in each of the years • but one-fifth of visits involved a loss of more than £100 • on B1-only visits, typical (median) length of time playing was about 50 minutes • but in more than 5% of visits, longer than 4 hours was spent on the machines
  • 19. • we compared changes observed from 2012-2013 with changes observed from 2013-2014 • for example we allocated each B1 player in each year to one of the categories: new user, infrequent user, frequent user, former user • we looked at transition-rates between years: 2012→2013 gave us a baseline figure for (eg) what proportion of infrequent users one year become frequent users the following year; we then tested for whether there was a change in that proportion 2013→2014 (where new limits were in place in 2014) • frequent users were defined as having at least 11 visits in the year (roughly monthly-or-more players)
  • 20. • in fact, there was no difference in the proportion of infrequent users progressing to frequent user status • nor was there any sign of change in the rate at which new players were recruited • but there was a significant increase in the proportion of frequent players one year who stayed as frequent players the following year (60%→66%) • this is consistent with the increase in stake and prize limits having helped retain regular players- one possible scenario is that about one-third of regular players give up regular play each year and many may do so because they get bored- raising the stakes may have kept some of them interested
  • 21. • median player loss on a B1 visit increased only marginally from 2012→2013 but sharply (£19.88 to £22.26) from 2013→2014 • the proportion of visits where more than £200 was lost increased from 6% to 6.2% 2012→2013 but then from 6.2% to 7.5% 2013→2014 • the median time playing per visit was stable across the three years but the proportion of B1-only visits of >4 hours increased 5.1% to 5.7% between 2013→2014 • among frequent users, spending in the bottom quartile of players ranked by loss actually fell in 2014 but in the top-quartile it increased by 14% • all these findings and others in the Report underline that the increase in industry revenue was disproportionately from heavy players (unsurprising because heavy players are probably more likely to have had their behaviour constrained by the old stake limit of £2)
  • 22. THE REGULARS: STATISTICAL MODELLING We again employed a linear mixed model, this time to predict how much player i lost on visit t (also modelled time spent playing & frequency of visit) the indicator of interest (eg £ loss) was specified to depend on: • whether the new stakes-and-prizes regime was in place • player gender • player age • whether the player’s address was in a very deprived area • whether the player also engaged in table games/ e-roulette • whether the player ever engaged in late night visits • whether the particular visit was a late night one • the distance from home to casino
  • 23. • spend on a visit increased significantly post-implementation with some tendency for this effect to be less pronounced among older customers • the increase was particularly sharp on late night visits • before implementation there was no significant difference in expected loss between those living in the most deprived areas and the rest- but the increase in expected loss after implementation was greater for those who lived in a very deprived area example: 25 year old male predicted to lose £5.53 more post- implementation but £8.00 more if he lived in a very deprived area (and £11.79 more if he was also playing late at night)
  • 24. • predicted time spent playing increased by about 4.5% after the changes took place but by only about 2% for a player living in a very deprived area • frequency of visit was generally unaffected by the changes though older players tended to increase frequency and those living in very deprived areas tended to reduce frequency • when higher stakes were in place, players tended to spend more money on each visit and this was especially so for residents of very deprived areas- but, to an extent, their extra spending per visit was mitigated by making fewer visits
  • 25. • we had no access to the customers and therefore no evidence on which customers were experiencing harm from gambling- this is a limitation of our study- evidence on the issue of harm from our analysis is necessarily indirect • to facilitate the production of more direct evidence on gambling harm, we recommend future research projects include access by researchers to a sample of customers in order to obtain information about harm • we find that there was a modest increase in turnover from B1 machines • this was disproportionately from heavy players, from younger players, from late night play and from those living in the poorest areas (caveat: we do not know whether the individuals were themselves poor) • all the factors mentioned have been associated with an elevated tendency for play to be problematic
  • 26. • this indicates that it might be prudent to match any liberalisation of rules on stakes and prizes with active harm minimisation measures in casinos • many players will take advantage of their ability to create a more ‘suspenseful’ experience and spend more simply because it is more entertaining • but allowing more fun needs to be tempered by positive action to guard against extra harm accompanying the extra fun
  • 27. thank-you for your attention....... david.forrest@liverpool.ac.uk