# BA.pptx

8 de Apr de 2023
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### BA.pptx

• 1. . Arsi University School of Humanities and Law Department of Geography and Environmental Studies. Course Title: Sustainable Livelihoods and Food Security Presentation title:Vulnerability to Liveli hoods/Food insecurity. Course Code : GeDM 502 Year: I, Semester:I Submitted by: Abera Bulto IDNo Gs/EX0311/15
• 2. 4. Vulnerability to Livelihoods/Food Insecurity 4.1The Concept of Vulnerability and Resilience 4.1.1Vulnerability  Vulnerability, based on unsafe location refers to the “degree to which an area, people, physical structures or economic assets are exposed to loss, injury or damage caused by the impact of a hazard.” This definition asserts Vulnerability as equivalent to location and can be represented in the following mathematical formula
• 3. Con… Vulnerability = the location of element at risk vis a vis the hazard (considering other factors like slopes).  Degree of Vulnerability= Location of element at risks Distance and Time The location of the element at risk (the rich and poor houses) determines the degree of exposures to hazard or the degree of vulnerability.
• 4. Con…. This shows that whether rich or poor, all persons living in the same location have equal degrees of vulnerability to the impact of the hazard.  Under this assumption, the socio economic status has no bearing on the degree of vulnerability.  Thus, vulnerability refers mainly to the location of element at risk and this becomes the main determinant in the degree of exposure to the hazard’s impact.
• 5. Con… In measuring disaster risk based on the above assumption, the mathematical representation is: Disaster Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability C a p a c i t y Here, capacity is recognized as a separate variable and subsumed(include) neither by hazard nor vulnerability
• 6. Con… Capacities can be categorized under the following: prevention, mitigation, preparedness and survivability. The major strength of this view is that it allows Vulnerability to be determined by the most constant element in assessing disaster risk – the location of the element at risk in relation to the hazard.
• 7. 4.1.2 Resilience Resilience on the other hand refers to the capacity of land to absorb change.  All these suggest a different way of looking at sustainability of agiven household in terms of food and livelihood security
• 8. Con…. Resilience can be explained as follows.  The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt by resisting or changing order to reach and maintain all acceptable level of functioning and structure.  This is determined the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures.
• 9. Con…. The ability of a person or a group to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a hazard/disaster.  Resilience refers to a person’s or a community’s ability to bounce back or recover after adversity or hard times, and to be capable of building positively on these adversities.
• 10. Con….. Resiliency often is related to 3 different characteristics:  The magnitude of the shock that HH or community can absorb and remain viable  The degree to which the HH or community is capable of self-organization after the exposure to the hazard to maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure.  The degree to which a HH or community can learn from these difficult circumstances and adapt.
• 11. Con…..  In a resilient HH or community, change has the potential to create new opportunities  Vulnerable HH and communities have a propensity to suffer from exposure to external shocks and stresses because they are sensitive to such exposures
• 12. Con….  Adaptive capacity is an aspect of resilience-it reflects learning, flexibility and the development of generalizable responses to a broad range of challenges.  Community resilience refers to “individual and collective capacity to respond to adversity and change”  When a community is resilient, it can “respond to crises in ways that strengthen community bonds, resources, and the community’s capacity to cope.
• 13. Con…. 4.2 Factors Exerting Influence on Livelihoods Major factors exerting influence include: disaster hazards, poverty and famine, environmental degradation, rapid &unplanned urbanization, climate change, legal/political issues,lack of copping capacity, and many others.
• 14. 4.2.1 Hazards Based on vulnerability assessment, hazards exert influence on livelihoods. See table below. Level of vulnerability Reasons for level of vulnerability Hazard /Trend profile Elements at risk High medium Low • a Human elements  Gender  Age Poverty, unsafe conditions, earthquake,unregulated land use planning,poor design and construction of building etc b. Non-human elements o Productive assets(sectors)
• 15. Critical facilities • Hospitals • fire stations • police stations • communication • Transportation,shelters, • Schools etc.
• 16. Hazards Disasters hit poor people the hardest. 53% of affected people by disasters live in developing Countries. Over 95% of the people killed by disasters lived in middle and low-income countries. Extensive research shows the poor are more likely to occupy dangerous and less desirable locations. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide live in slums and shanty towns.
• 17. Thank You!!