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Child-sensitive social protection: policy and practice in South Asia - Disa Sjöblom

  1. Child Sensitive Social Protection Approaches developedin South Asia Disa Sjoblom Senior Social Protection Adviser Save theChildren
  2. Contents •The CSSP South Asia initiative in brief •How we understand CSSP in this initiative •Different approaches to CSSP •Achievements •Challenges
  3. Our overall approach to CSSP Improve access to government social protection programmes 1. Social assistance (cash & kind transfers Enhance child sensitivity of parents/ caregivers, community selected service providers Advocate with governments for more child sensitive social protection policies and programme 1.Document expe Integrate with improved service delivery Improve access to government socialPilot new social protection programmes
  4. CSSP project locations under this initiative ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Projects: 2011-2016 - 2 in India - 1 in Nepal - 1 in Bangladesh - Added Philippines in 2015 Budget: Approximately 1.1 mill EUR per year
  5. CSSP definition and measures in the South Asia initiative Social protection programmes include: • social assistance • social insurance • targeted and time bound social services CSSP= Social protection programmes are designed in such a way that they result in positive development outcomes for poor and vulnerable children – this includes; Child focused SP as well as SP targeted at the household Save the Children globally - CSSP position paper, sets out our global understanding
  6. Why Child Sensitive Social Protection ? • Social protection is a basic human right for children. • Children are not best placed to claim their rights and entitlements and hence are dependent on adults. • Children are particularly vulnerable to multiple dimensions of poverty and deprivation that can have long-lasting effects and can put their lives and future well-being at risk. • Child-sensitive social protection has sustained impacts for girls and boys, households and society and has potential to reduce intergenerational transfer of poverty. • Lack of attention to the specific needs of boys and girls in social protection programmes can blunt the positive effects of such programmes or lead to adverse impacts.
  7. Intended outcomes of the initiative • Reduce child labour • Increase regularity in school attendance • Improve well-being (social, physical, emotional) of orphans and other vulnerable children • Reduce malnutrition/ improve growth monitoring • Sustained access to government social protection
  8. Getting started -understand child poverty & vulnerability Child Poverty & Vulnerability Mapping (CPVM) Understand magnitude of selected dimensions of child poverty and vulnerability that can be addressed through CSSP Eg child labour, irregularity in school, malnutrition, orphanhood Status of adults that make children vulnerable - single parents, chronically ill, disabled Identify reasons and trends for child poverty& vulnerability Secondary data Knowledge Attitude Practice analysis Analysis of availability and quality of services (school, health, child protection)
  9. Getting started -understand existing social protection Analysis of social protection programmes National/state social protection framework/strategy Monitoring & Evaluation impact on children Design and operational features of programmes Objective, eligibility criteria, targeting, coverage Conditions, if any, how these are reinforced Size, amount, and frequency of transfers Accompanying measures, if any Provisions for exit/graduation, if any Transparency and accountability mechanisms
  11. Improve access to government social protection - selected approaches • Disseminate information on existing schemes • Facilitate the application process – eg social protection camps • Facilitate access to required documents – registration of vital events, application for ID cards • Display list of beneficiaries • Community based targeting – include the poorest • Community-based monitoring - improve delivery
  12. Improve access to government social protection protection- enhance transparency & accountability • Nepal photo ???? Use of statutory/formal accountability measures: • Right to Information Act • Public Services Guarantee Act • Public Hearing Act/ public hearing • Social audit
  14. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) Problems identified Children dropping out of school to substitute parents at the work site and/ or to take care of younger siblings Young children left unattended at home Make a household SP child sensitive- Dungarpur, India
  15. Make the MGNREGA child sensitive Measures adopted by the CSSP project • Crèche facility at the government ECCD centre in collaboration with government • Community based norms against child labour and for school attendance Advocating at state level for • Scale up of crèche facilities and community norms • Maternity benefit • Outline soft conditions in guideline • Include monitoring of child labour/ school attendance in “list of workers”
  16. Palanhar Yojana: A conditional cash transfer for orphans and other vulnerable children Problems identified Distribution of cash alone has limited/ no impact – many children in a dire situation (physically, emotionally and socially) Caregivers/ parents lack skills/ motivation/ sometimes interest required to take appropriate care of children Make a child focused SP programme child sensitive- Dungarpur, India
  17. Make the Palanhar scheme child sensitive The Palanhar Plus Approach • Develop caregiver skills – 3 modules - My Child & Me; My Healthy Child; My Happy Child • Develop life skills of children – 3 modules Me & My Family; A Healthy Me: A Happy Me • Panel study of 130 children and their caregivers to “measure’ impact • Develop regular monitoring by the school- progress of children Negotiate scale up by the government of Palanhar Plus
  18. Make household social protection child sensitive- Bangladesh • Employment Generation Programme- 40 days work • Vulnerable Group Development – wheat distribution Enhance child sensitivity • Chairman of Union Parishad - the need to invest in children at the time of payment • Community Watch Group – informal group of respected villagers, follow up with households and create pressure - child labour, child marriage • Parenting sessions with recipients of EGP and VGD • Child club – platform for all children to interact on issues of common concern; regular meeting with government; theatre in the community on social protection and child poverty
  19. The Philippines – making a CCT child sensitive The CSSP approach Can’t take away conditions, but can make the programme more child sensitive and inclusive • Improve pro-poor targeting (CPVM) • Improve grievance redressal mechanism • Make Family Development Sessions and Youth Development Sessions more effective • Promote the voice of children Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Programme – 4PS Conditional Cash Transfer for poor households with children 0-18 years Modelled on CCTs in South and Latin America Conditions of the 4PS: • Pre and post natal health care • Growth monitoring (0-5 years) • Vaccination (0-5 years) • School attendance (3-18 years) • Family Development Sessions (FDS)
  21. Filling a critical gap - the Child Endowment Fund in Nepal • CPVM – large number of orphans • A capital fund with local government (VDC) –use interest as grants to selected children; Rs 1200 for 4 months • 114 Endowment funds, almost 800 children benefitting • Village Child Protection Committee identifies eligible children & monitors well-being • Child sensitivity sessions for caregivers and children (under review) • Discussing scale up with national government
  22. Child Endowement Fund example– 12 year old girl • Lost her father • Mother engaged in daily wage labour, not keeping well • Dropped out of school and sent for labour at a small hotel • Mother attended CSSP sessions, convinced to bring her back • Selected for the Child Endowment Fund and mother accessing the government scheme for
  23. Community Health Protection Programme (CHPP) in India- prevent and respond to health shocks • Health shocks in the family – children become a coping strategy • Community based insurance run by federated Self Help Groups • Community health service, verified network hospitals • Rs 120 per household member per year • 16000 household members enrolled
  25. Promoting education in Nepal – CSSP plus Quality CSSP achievements • Access to education stipends and other social protection improved • Child sensitivity increased- parents promoting education, visiting schools • As a result- children’s attendance has increased Introducing Quality Learning Environment in school
  27. Key achivement – in numbers • Supported more than100 000 people to access regular social protection • More than 3000 children brought back to school from child labour • More than 1000 orphans and other vulnerable children are covered by our ‘cash plus’ interventions
  28. Key achievements – towards wider impact • Government of Nepal showing interest in replicating - the CSSP approach in all federal states of the country - the Child Endowment Fund (local government) • Government of Rajasthan, India, showing interest in scaling up - Palanhar Plus - creche facility for MGNREGA workers at the ECCD centre • Government of Bangladesh - changed the targeting of VGD based on Save the Children’s recommendations
  29. Challenges • Demonstrate impact – high quality M&E not a key skill of programme staff and generally expensive • Scale up by government – our child sensitivity approaches/ modules are often expensive as implemented by experienced staff • Takes time to evolve scalable approaches as CSSP is a relatively new area …develop, fine tune, provide evidence- requires long-term funding
  30. Thank you! Key Save the Children staff involved in developing this initiative since 2009/2010: -Neema Pant -Bishwa Ratna Pun -Harish Chanderiya -Mukesh Lath