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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Ghana (round 2)

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Prepared by Tabitha Chamboko, Finmark

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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Ghana (round 2)

  1. 1. Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Ghana (round 2 Funded by USAID Prepared by Tabitha Chamboko, Finmark
  2. 2. COVID-19 in Ghana ▪ First case: March 12, 2020 o September 2, 2020: 44,460 cases, 276 deaths o December 29, 2020: 54,771 cases, 335 deaths ▪ Swift government action: o Lockdown in major cities, Accra and Kumasi, declared on 30 March after reporting sixth confirmed case o Contact tracing & isolation, testing o Airport closed, social distancing, educational institution and religious places closed, large gatherings banned; airport re-opened Sep 1, 2020 o 20 April onwards- businesses permitted to operate following rules of social distancing, gatherings not permitted, schools remain closed o Senior high schools, universities and basic schools remain closed
  3. 3. Phone Survey ▪ First round of phone survey conducted from mid August to early-September with 543 households; second round implemented during October ▪ Focus on behavioral responses to COVID-19, income changes, food and nutrition security, water security, and mobility
  4. 4. Location of respondents Northern Ghana
  5. 5. COVID-19 and household welfare ▪ Approximately 66% of households are still experiencing a loss of income due to Covid-19 in Round 2, a drop from 72% in Round 1 ▪ While 10 percent fewer men noted experience income losses, only 2 percent fewer women reported the same ▪ There has been a large increase in households' reliance on savings and borrowing especially sale of assets for coping with income loss ▪ More women have reported having done work in the last 7 days of Round 2 as compared to Round 1 ▪ Both men and women are spending more time caring for others than before the Covid-19 epidemic, although men noted a larger increase
  6. 6. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Male respondents Female respondents ShareofHouseholds Round 1 Round 2 Income loss due to Covid-19 (%)
  7. 7. Coping mechanisms to deal with loss of income (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Use savings Sale of assets Borrow money Consumed less Reduced expenditure Found alternative work Transfers ShareofHouseholds Women Round 1 Round 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Use savings Sale of assets Borrow money Consumed less Reduced expenditure Found alternative work Transfers ShareofHouseholds Men Round 1 Round 2
  8. 8. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Male respondents Female respondents ShareofHouseholds Round 1 Round 2 Worked in the last 7 days (%)
  9. 9. Time spent caring for others (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 More than before Less than before About the same ShareofHouseholds Women Round 1 Round 2 0 20 40 60 More than before Less than before About the same ShareofHouseholds Men Round 1 Round 2
  10. 10. Food security and dietary diversity ▪ Households’ access to food continues to be affected by the Covid-19 pandemic with women noting more challenges ▪ A higher proportion of respondents are now getting food from different sources (33% Round 2 vs 14% Round 1) ▪ There is a decline in Round 2 of respondents who are eating different as well as less food ▪ There is an improvement in the percentage of women having adequate diet
  11. 11. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Male respondents Female respondents ShareofHouseholds Round 1 Round 2 Access to food changed (%)
  12. 12. Changes in access to food (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Unable to obtain enough food Getting food from different sources Eating different foods Eating less food ShareofHouseholds Women Round 1 Round 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Unable to obtain enough food Getting food from different sources Eating different foods Eating less food ShareofHouseholds Men Round 1 Round 2
  13. 13. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Women with adequate diet (5 out of 10 food groups consumed) ShareofHouseholds Round 1 Round 2 Minimum dietary diversity for women (%)
  14. 14. Frequency of not washing hands when necessary (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Never (0 times) Rarely (1 times) Sometimes (2-5 times) Often (6-10 times) Always (>10 times) ShareofHouseholds Men Round 1 Round 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Never (0 times) Rarely (1 times) Sometimes (2-5 times) Often (6-10 times) Always (>10 times) ShareofHouseholds Women Round 1 Round 2
  15. 15. Being afraid of spouse or partner (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Often Sometimes Rarely Never ShareofHouseholds Men Round 1 Round 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 Often Sometimes Rarely Never ShareofHouseholds Women Round 1 Round 2 Round 1 n=176 Round 2 n=153
  16. 16. Conclusion ▪ Covid-19 is still affecting household's well-being ▪ There is a decline in the number of households experiencing a loss of income due to Covid-19, but the decline is much larger for men than for women ▪ There is a large increase in the number of households relying on savings, selling of assets and borrowing to cope with the income losses that are still experienced ▪ Households’ access to food continues to be affected by the Covid-19 pandemic; the minimum dietary diversity of women improved slightly in round 2 ▪ The frequency of not washing hands declined slightly for both men and women in the sample during October compared to August, possibly because water storages were improved at the end of the rainy season ▪ While frequent conflict across spouses reduced, the share of spouses who are never afraid of their partner declined, with a larger decline among women

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