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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Niger - Second round data

Prepared by Wim Marivoet and Abdallah Cisse

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Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Niger - Second round data

  1. 1. Impact of COVID-19 on the welfare of rural households in Niger – Second round data Wim Marivoet (IFPRI-AFR) Abdallah Cisse (IFPRI-AFR)
  2. 2. COVID-19 in Niger ▪ First case: March 19, 2020 ▪ Round 1 (start October 12) : 1202 cases (9 active), 69 deaths ▪ Round 2 (start December 17) : 2506 cases (1049 active), 84 deaths ▪ Government action (with limited means): oIsolation and testing oAirport closed, social distancing, schools and mosques closed, large gatherings banned oRestrictions on public transportation and other vehicle movement between regions oState of Emergency declared on 27 March 2020, extended on 6 January 2021 for another period of three months
  3. 3. Phone Survey ▪ Building on two existing surveys conducted in the rural regions of Maradi and Tillaberi (2019) and Diffa (2020) ▪ Adding survey data from EHCVM (2018-2019), the second wave extended the spatial coverage from three to eight rural regions while increasing the number of female respondents ▪ Phone credit of 1,000 FCFA offered for each completed survey ▪ First wave of phone survey conducted in October with 358 household heads o Female respondents represent 14% of the sample (51/358) ▪ Second wave of phone survey conducted in December with 403 households o Female respondents represent 28% of the sample (113/403)
  4. 4. Response rate 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% First attempt Second attempt Third attempt Positives responses Share of respondants Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  5. 5. 50.27% 23.37% 26.37% Round 1 (October) Diffa Maradi Tillaberi Location of respondents 24% 22% 23% 12% 1% 9% 8% 1% Round 2 (December) Diffa Maradi Tillaberi Dosso Agadez Tahoua Zinder Niamey
  6. 6. Household descriptives ▪ The average household size is 9 ▪ Almost half of all male respondents went to a Koranic school; more than half of all female respondents have not been to school at all. ▪ 32 percent of spouses are involved in agriculture versus 56 percent for men ▪ 26 percent of spouses do not work ▪ 83 percent of spouses decide how to spend their personal income, compared to 99 percent for their husbands ▪ Nearly all spouses earn less than their husband
  7. 7. Agriculture ▪ Average landholdings: 4.5 hectares ▪ Most households are involved in the cultivation of cereals (rice, millet, sorghum) ▪ Cultivation practices are traditional and non-mechanized; few use of external inputs ▪ Most households hold some livestock, mainly small ruminants and poultry
  8. 8. Fear of not having enough to eat 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Male Female All Share of respondents Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  9. 9. Change in access to food compared to pre-COVID 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Yes No
  10. 10. How has access to food changed? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Food shortage Different source Consumed different food Consumed less food Share of respondents Round 2 (December) Round 1 (October)
  11. 11. Coping mechanisms to deal with food insecurity 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Less nutritious food Skipped a meal Ate less Went hungry Share of respondents Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  12. 12. Care time 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Number of hours in the last 24 hours Male Female
  13. 13. Care time of spouses – compared to before COVID-19 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents More than Same Less than
  14. 14. Workload of spouses – compared to before COVID-19 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents More than Same Less than
  15. 15. Mobility: leave the house to… in the last 7 days (yes) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Buy food Sell food Work Medical care Meeting Socialize Collect water/firewood Share of respondents Round 2 (December) Round 1 (October)
  16. 16. Morbidity rate 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Yes No
  17. 17. Food consumption in the last 24 hours 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Grains, roots and tubers Legumes Nuts and seed Dairy Meat, poultry and fish Eggs Dark leafy greens and vegetables Other vitamins A-rich fruits and… Other vegetables Other fruits Round 2 (December) Round 1 (October)
  18. 18. Dietary diversity score 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Male Female All Diversity score Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  19. 19. Adequate diversity score (>=5/10) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Male Female All Share of repondents with adequate diversity score Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  20. 20. How did the household deal with income loss? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Using savings Selling assets Borrowing money Transfer from government Transfer from NGO Share of respondents Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  21. 21. How did the household deal with income loss? (2) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Foodstuffs Money Others donations Number of respondents Nature of the transfers Government NGO
  22. 22. How did COVID-19 change access to water in December ? (1/2) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Before covid-19 After covid-19 Share of respondents Source of drinking water In its own yard / plot Elsewhere
  23. 23. How did COVID-19 change access to water in December ? (2/2) 20.8% 22.7% 79.2% 77.3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Before covid-19 After covid-19 More than 30 min from source (round trip) Yes No
  24. 24. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 1/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Frequency of worrying about water Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  25. 25. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 2/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Frequency of changing plans due to water unavailability Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  26. 26. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 3/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Unavailability of drinking water Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  27. 27. Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale - 4/4 (HWISE) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Frequency of not washing hands when necessary Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  28. 28. Education – Reasons for not returning to school after re-opening 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Not sure with covid-19 Help for family business Need help at home Wanted to drop out of studies Was looking for work / start working Others Girls Boys
  29. 29. Migration 58.3% 14.3% 55.6% 33.3% 22.2% 66.7% diffa dosso maradi tahoua tillaberi zinder 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Share of respondents Coming back because of Covid-19
  30. 30. Migration 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Less than before Same as before More than before Share of respondents How did the amount of remittances change ? Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December)
  31. 31. Conflict issues (1/4) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Occurrence of disputes Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  32. 32. Conflict issues (2/4) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Solving of disputes Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  33. 33. Conflict issues (3/4) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Fear of partner Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  34. 34. Conflict issues (4/4) 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% Round 1 (October) Round 2 (December) Share of respondents Fear of other family members Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
  35. 35. COVID-19 and household welfare for the second round ▪ Fear of not having enough to eat is experienced by 53 percent for male versus 75 percent for female respondents, which is a slight increase compared to the previous round (especially for women) ▪ About 40 percent of respondents felt their access to food had changed due to COVID-19 ▪ The main change experienced was a food shortage ▪ To cope with food insecurity, households reduced their consumption of nutritious foods or of food in general ▪ Spouses spent almost 9 hours caring in the past 24 hours compared to a bit more than 3 hours by their husbands; caring time of spouses more-or- less returned to the pre-COVID situation ▪ Workload of spouses has slightly decreased compared to the pre-COVID period
  36. 36. COVID-19 and household welfare for the second round (2) ▪ Overall mobility has increased (especially for meetings) while mobility related to medical care and (to a lesser extent) work has decreased ▪ Morbidity rate has decreased from 80 percent to 63 percent between October and December ▪ On average, diet diversity has improved between October and December, which had a significant impact on the share of female respondents with an adequate diversity score (from 22 percent to 43 percent) ▪ To deal with income shocks, respondents mainly sold assets, followed by using savings and borrowing money ▪ Water insecurity has significantly decreased between October and December; yet still 20% of all respondents are at least sometimes worried or need to change plans due to water unavailability
  37. 37. COVID-19 and household welfare for the second round (3) ▪ Household disputes are not frequent, but if they occur, they are never or rarely resolved in more than 1/3rd of all cases ▪ Reasons for children not returning to school mainly relate to their involvement in family businesses or domestic work ▪ A large share of migrants returned home due to COVID-19 (especially in Zinder, Maradi, Diffa); those who stayed reduced their remittances

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