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A mobile agent based approach for data management to support 3 d emergency preparedness scenario over ad hoc networks

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A mobile agent based approach for data management to support 3 d emergency preparedness scenario over ad hoc networks

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In present-day, technology is moving towards Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), which creates temporary network in environments that have no previous network infrastructure. 3D Mobile Collaborative Virtual Environments (3D MCVEs) to support emergency preparedness scenario such as security sensitive operations (firefighter, biological attacks ) and military training, have made a considerable impact on both commercial and academic fields over the last few years. In such systems, users will share a 3D virtual environment through their mobile devices in order to accomplish specific missions. Effective data management is vital due to the massive amount of data that need to be exchanged and displayed. When the mobile devices resource capabilities are smaller than the 3D virtual environment, we need an efficient approach to maintain and manage active data in the device memory. Traditional data management schemas become inadequate when applied in mobile environment, because it is important to guarantee the existence of the VE even when many users leave suddenly the virtual environment with critical data such as (3D geometric data, score credits etc...). To meet this challenge, we propose a novel approach using decision-based mobile agent that enables nodes to autonomously make intelligent decision about data computation and node state in the network. The resulting approach limits the damage of application interest and offers a realistic virtual environment. We also provide an example of how this approach can be implemented in a real-life emergency preparedness scenario.

In present-day, technology is moving towards Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), which creates temporary network in environments that have no previous network infrastructure. 3D Mobile Collaborative Virtual Environments (3D MCVEs) to support emergency preparedness scenario such as security sensitive operations (firefighter, biological attacks ) and military training, have made a considerable impact on both commercial and academic fields over the last few years. In such systems, users will share a 3D virtual environment through their mobile devices in order to accomplish specific missions. Effective data management is vital due to the massive amount of data that need to be exchanged and displayed. When the mobile devices resource capabilities are smaller than the 3D virtual environment, we need an efficient approach to maintain and manage active data in the device memory. Traditional data management schemas become inadequate when applied in mobile environment, because it is important to guarantee the existence of the VE even when many users leave suddenly the virtual environment with critical data such as (3D geometric data, score credits etc...). To meet this challenge, we propose a novel approach using decision-based mobile agent that enables nodes to autonomously make intelligent decision about data computation and node state in the network. The resulting approach limits the damage of application interest and offers a realistic virtual environment. We also provide an example of how this approach can be implemented in a real-life emergency preparedness scenario.

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A mobile agent based approach for data management to support 3 d emergency preparedness scenario over ad hoc networks

  1. 1. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Volume: 2, Issue: 4, Oct -2014 ISSN (Online):- 2349-3585 14 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness Scenario Over Ad-hoc Networks Yassine Daadaa1, Anis Zarrad 2 1 College of Computer science and information Systems 1 Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2 Computer Science and Information Systems Department 2 Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract— In present-day, technology is moving towards Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), which creates temporary network in environments that have no previous network infrastructure. 3D Mobile Collaborative Virtual Environments (3D MCVEs) to support emergency preparedness scenario such as security sensitive operations (firefighter, biological attacks ) and military training, have made a considerable impact on both commercial and academic fields over the last few years. In such systems, users will share a 3D virtual environment through their mobile devices in order to accomplish specific missions. Effective data management is vital due to the massive amount of data that need to be exchanged and displayed. When the mobile devices resource capabilities are smaller than the 3D virtual environment, we need an efficient approach to maintain and manage active data in the device memory. Traditional data management schemas become inadequate when applied in mobile environment, because it is important to guarantee the existence of the VE even when many users leave suddenly the virtual environment with critical data such as (3D geometric data, score credits etc...). To meet this challenge, we propose a novel approach using decision-based mobile agent that enables nodes to autonomously make intelligent decision about data computation and node state in the network. The resulting approach limits the damage of application interest and offers a realistic virtual environment. We also provide an example of how this approach can be implemented in a real-life emergency preparedness scenario. Keywords— Mobile Collaborative Virtual Environment; Emergency preparedness scenario, Ad-hoc network; MANET; 3D world Data management. I.INTRODUCTION The frequent occurrence of disasters has raised people‟s consciousness and increased their efforts to prevent, manage, and resolve the resulting issues. Many disasters derived from one cause or another has been witnessed. Therefore, it is important to develop a 3D virtual environment for emergency scenarios in order to apply a pre-rescue plan in graphical environment before applied in real situation to avoid any threats to human lives and properties. In 3D emergency preparedness scenario applications over ad-hoc, users will share a 3D virtual environment through their mobile devices in an ad-hoc network (MANET) in order to accomplish specific missions in disaster situation. The design of such application to support emergency preparedness scenario like firefighter, biological attack, earthquake and military training with an independent network infrastructure, and which can run at anytime, anywhere are challenged by the dynamicity of the network configuration, and the amount of data that need to proceeded online compared to the available physical memory of a display client. Novel technologies are being applied to handle various kinds of applications. These include: Internet, wireless technology, and, 3D acceleration cards. These emerging tools and technologies can enhance communication capabilities, data management, and experience in virtual environment running on mobile devices such laptops and smart phones. For example with J2ME [30], we can use modern mobile phones locally to browse and play 3D games. However, 3D emergency preparedness applications requires effective image rendering, and richer contents, which is most likely, does not fit into available client memory resource. Therefore, how to manage in an efficient manner the amount of data for large virtual scene while maintaining interactive visualization with 3D world becomes an emerging issue that needs to be addressed. In MCVE each user is represented by a graphical embodiment called an avatar. The avatar [7] concept enables users to progress in the virtual environment (VE) and see other users‟ actions. We divide the VE into zones in order to ensure that the amount of data that the client handles is small enough to fit into the memory of the mobile device [7]. Activities in zones are grouped into sessions. A zone owner node is assigned dynamically to act as an authoritative server on a specific zone. Any user can participate in any number of sessions. Therefore, there is a need for a session manager mechanism to control session access and guarantee the existence of the VE even
  2. 2. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 15 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org when many users leave the environment. The system initially assigns a unique ID to each session and zone. The unpredictability of MANETs [6] can cause sudden node crashes, which has a devastated effect on the performance of MCVE system as a whole. Nodes have to re-establish connections with neighboring peers, and the virtual environment data must be relocated according to the new physical position of the user in the VE. Often, nodes are able to leave the network over time; however, it is difficult for the virtual environment to remain persistent if nodes disappear, taking with them data that is necessary for the proper functioning of the virtual environment. The importance of developing MCVE to support emergency preparedness scenario can be observed by the necessity to run some scenarios where communication cannot deployed quickly or simply too expensive. Also sometime there is a need to apply some emergency scenario in computer graphics environments before applying them in real life. Accidents involving real missiles and lethal weapons can very often be deadly, and thus have devastating impact, both economically, and humanity. A representative example to better understand the impetus of such system is Al-Hajj Scenario: Every year, Saudi Arabia receives about three million people perform Hajj- e-Baitullah. It is important to have a believable virtual environment to prepare a backup rescue scenario with an acceptable response time whenever there is a need. Usually in a crowded area where pedestrian and traffic are involved you can't safeguard everybody and everything, trampled accident may happen. Thus, having such system with a 3D representation of this situation as input is very helpful for police, military and medical personals in order to let them react properly with an appropriate effort management when they arrive to the accident site. In addition the system can prevent accidents by applying some worst scenarios of a specific situation in computer graphics and redraw an efficient rescue plan. Figure 1 shows an Al-hajj emergency preparedness scenario. Figure 1: AL-Hajj Scenario The security department in Saudi Arabia receives an event about an accident in Baitullah Mecca. A spontaneous 3D representation of the situation is loaded in all mobile devices of different organization (police, military, medical staff etc...) while preparing to leave. An ad-hoc network is created to allow efficient communication between them and try some scenarios in computer graphics before heading to the event destination. Such scenarios are very helpful for the different team organization, since it provides a real overview of the situation awaiting them. Data management in 3D emergency preparedness scenario is referred as providing a continue service and the world remain persistent if user disappear, while in possession of critical data that is necessary for the proper functioning of the 3D virtual environment, and thus can cause system perturbation. The data provider, needs to guarantee persistent world, be able to execute dense data between avatars [7] participating in the environment, and the results must be free-perturbation system in order to give the application more usability and availability regardless of whether an individual player is logged off. The deployment of data management mechanism is not evident in a mobile virtual environment because link failures are less likely in a wired network than in an ad-hoc environment, and resource constraints. With incompetent mechanism, the user starts losing the feeling of immersion, decreasing his/her rate of interaction, and eventually causing him/her to lose interest to the application. In this paper, we describe scalable reasoning mechanism for data management in 3D mobile emergency scenario based on mobile agent. Instead of periodic data update message exchange between users, which is computationally expensive and harm the network throughput, we use multiple mobile agents to reason about user interest in the VE and predict user‟s behavior intention. The main contribution of this research is the creation of mobile multi-agents system to gather critical data acquired by avatars during the play and supply neighbor nodes with appropriate data for future use, when former node leave the network suddenly. In general agents can be defined as computer systems situated in some environment, which are capable of autonomous action in this environment in order to meet their design objectives. Three main characteristics are crucial for agents. On the one hand they are reactive, which means the agents should respond in a timely fashion to changes they perceive in their environment. Also, agents are proactive in the sense that they take the initiative to meet their design objectives, and they exhibit goal-directed behavior. Finally, they have social abilities to interact with other agents (and humans) to satisfy their design objectives [32].
  3. 3. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 16 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org The proposed solution adapts an agent to represent a node and have the ability of to go through the network while they take decision on behalf of the node to push data to a stable neighbor node. The selection of the stable node is based on the following criteria:  The node degree d of a node v is given by the number of its neighbors N (v)  Stability Period: is the time interval from the start of network operation until the death of the first network node. We also refer to this period as “stable region.” In this approach agents must determine the appropriate time to save permanent data that is essential for the functioning of the 3D world in another location and make it available for all participants in the VE. We define persistent data, which is relevant to all users, and should remain in the system even when the user leaves the network or logs off from the session. Nodes holding such data are called coordinator nodes. Example of permanent data includes player modification reported to shared objects, or player objects created during run time, such as a home, car parked in the street etc… Current research has been focused on data management for virtual environment in wired network. In mobile networks, data management is computationally very expensive because of strict and delicate application domain, frequent node sudden disconnection node, the particularity of wireless links, and the limited resource constraints of mobile devices pose great challenges for any data management solutions developed in mobile environments foe emergency preparedness scenario. As the user interest may vary over the time depending on its avatars' position in the virtual environment. Thus, it is not merely a simple matter of moving permanent data and their agents. Removal of inappropriate data from source location without compromise with other nodes can degrade or even cause system stop. For this, we introduce an assurance node list for every coordinator node to handle the amount of work when the former node leaves suddenly the network. The assurance node list is created in terms of integrity with the coordinator node in a given location in the VE and the state optimization of the node with their network‟s neighbor. State optimization involves the total number of neighbor in the neighboring resource table and the network delay that represents the time difference between the packets was send by the coordinator and the time it was received. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. First, we summarize related work on persistency date in CVEs. Section 3 provides a description of our mobile agent based approach. Section 4 describes the simulation environment and results. Finally, Section 5 presents conclusions and identifies areas of future work, and is followed by References. II. RELATED WORK Mobile agents are active computational entities that move on a network. In the literature, they have been studied under a variety of assumptions regarding their environment and capabilities. The agents have computing capabilities and private storage, although the computational power depends on the amount of storage they may have. Over the past few years, many efforts in agents‟ research have been done for network exploration, Black Hole search, Rendezvous, and Network Decontamination [31]. Typically agents have memory, distinct identifiers, can communicate with other agents when they meet or can exchange information writing on whiteboards (storage area located at the nodes). In exploration and rendezvous the network is assumed to be safe; that is, the agents are assumed to be able to freely and safely move in the network to perform their tasks. In the Black hole search and decontamination problem either the nodes (hosts) or the agents can pose some danger to the network. In the first case the dangerous node is a black hole, a node where incoming agents are trapped, and the problem is for the agents to locate it; in the second, the dangerous agent is a virus, an agents moving from node to node infecting them, and the problem is for the ``good” agents to capture it, that is, to decontaminate the network. Collaboration agent model are proposed in [5, 8]. Each agent is considered as an independent entity to reason about a common problem and gives the agent the ability to communicate with one other and cooperate with each other. In [9] authors propose a probabilistic model for Multi Agent System (MAS) to resolve link failure in MANET and respond correctly to the new changes in the network. A Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) [1] was designed to support mobile devices and to simplify the MAS implementation. A JADE light version called JADE-LEAD [4] was developed specifically to run on mobile devices with limited capabilities such as computation power, and storage resource. The main drawback is JADE [2] cannot be used where TCP/IP is not supports and thus it cannot support MANET [6]. Another notable approach is proposed by A. Genco et al. [3] that use a Bluetooth protocol to develop agent service on mobile devices called Agent Network for Bluetooth Devices (ANBD). ANBD is running on heterogeneous network that contains mobile and fixed devices with Bluetooth technology enabled. Contrary to JADE, ANBD can be offer services where TCP/IP protocol is not supported. Information security and authentication in MANETs is also a major goal in agents‟ research. There is a limited amount of literature in this area. In [11] authors describe a routing protocol using agent in the face of security compromise. Another approach is proposed by L. Zhou et al.
  4. 4. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 17 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org [4] to manage effectively the digital certificates using Public Key Infrastructure PKI. To the best of our knowledge, there are no research efforts that have considered for data persistency in MCVE application using mobile agents. The world state will be retained from one play session to another even when a player is offline. DIVE [14], Everquest [19], UltimaOnline [24], and SecondLife [20] are typical applications for persistent worlds. Applications such as Quake [13] and StarCraft [12] have no persistent ongoing nature: the world state exists only when a user is actively participating in the VE. In DIVE [14], the sense of persistency is handled by running an impassive process called PERSISTENT that periodically saves the world state to a file in order to achieve failure-proof restarts. An AUTOPERSISTENT process controls the PERSISTENTs‟ running process. Like DIVE [14], NPSNET [16] uses active replication to confront the persistency issue. All object modifications are done locally and are then distributed to all peers. However, there is no detailed description of how to maintain persistency among different users and determine how they act while they are logged off from the session. Users can modify the file world state and stress the system. Neither DIVE nor NPSNET provide any state data classification; thus, all state data is recorded. This may lead to the consumption of the peer storage capacity, especially for systems that are always running and integrate mobile users in the application. Moreover, we believe that there is a need to create a back-up approach for certain key nodes in the network which are necessary for the system to work properly. Key nodes include, for example, the session manager and zone owner nodes. Authors in [17] study the persistency issue in structured peer- to-peer networks [18] in order to support Massive Multiplayer Games (MMGs). The persistency mechanism takes advantage of the structured network characteristics in order to control and manage the replica node. Such a mechanism causes many difficulties when a higher portion of replications are requested. Since in DHT a hash function decides in which node the replica data must reside, this can result in some nodes being overloaded or unable to handle the enormous amount of data that must be stored when these nodes function as object or region coordinators. Existing structured overlay networks were designed primarily with stationary hosts and high capacity backbones. The best known examples of CVE applications are multiplayer online games like EverQuest [19], SecondLife [20], and Ultima online [24]. These types of games are built on client-server architecture. The application of a “persistent world” in a centralized manner provides an easy way to handle the persistency requirement. However, the requesting server database maintenance requires more effort and may present a single point of failure. The salient point of most games, notably SecondLife, is that they are established with massive VE and player interaction drives the success of the game. Therefore, the persistency requirement becomes an important issue for any CVE application. On the other hand, commercial games concentrate on the graphics data aspect; some personal computers have difficulty with the graphics and rendering process. Thus, they are unable to cope with mobile applications. In [23], the authors study the replication data issue in order to support Massive Multiplayer Games (MMGs). Each participating node and application object is mapped to a unique ID. Objects are mapped to nodes where their IDs are numerically close to the object ID. Regions, also known as zones, are mapped in the same manner and are assigned to a node participant. Each node can easily elect a replica node to take over the work when the node is down. Our approach focus specifically on conserving data persistency and what to do after a user leave the network with some critical data that essential for the functioning on the 3D virtual environment. We use mobile agents which is defined a self- controlled program to navigate between nodes participating in the virtual environment and transmitting critical data when necessary to another node intelligently selected based on the following criteria: network stability, signal strength and VE Interest. Data can be quickly transmitted, so the 3D tactical scenario can be competed effectively. III.PROPOSED SYSTEM In order for nodes to maintain data persistency in mobile collaborative virtual over MANETs, they need to retrieve critical data from departed nodes. However, with the fact that Ad-hoc networks are error-prone and nodes may disconnect suddenly, it can be clearly seen the great feasibility to incorporate agent services for them that enables nodes to autonomously make intelligent decision about the node state in the network and user interest in the virtual environment. Nodes with worst states are expected to transmit their critical to a neighbor node, and then former node must inform all neighbors about the node states. In this paper we propose the detail of the system with the following:  Provide agent data persistency service among mobile user participating in the virtual environment without a fixed network infrastructure.  Choose an assurance node list for every coordinator node in the network to take over the role when necessary. Mobile agents are special software resides in a node and have the ability of moving through the network while they take decision about transferring critical data. It can halt themselves, migrate to another node, and execute services without being affected by the status of origin node. One agent should have three dimensions from representation and mobility to intelligence:  Representation: one agent represents one node to other node or agents  Mobility: one agent can move through the network and deliver its node critical information while they travel from one node to another
  5. 5. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 18 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org  Intelligence: Ability to apply knowledge in order to solve problems and to take decisions based on collected data. We claim that agents on MANETs can decide about the status of the coordinator node by sensing network briefcase and virtual environment briefcase. • Network briefcase contains: o The signal strength measured as energy pickup from the transmission antenna. o Network latency represents the time difference between the time the packet was send and the time it was received. • Virtual environment briefcase contains o The user interest in the virtual environment such as: Session ID, total number of processed objects per second, and score earned. The status of briefcases‟ variables needs to be updated when necessary for example: user changes his session ID or the network signal worsens. Saving critical data in other node works to our benefit, since it reduces the opportunity for cheating. Data saved on the user machine may be overwritten and updated; this occurs in particular when a score increases – when this happens, there is no need to store previous values. In order to fulfill the limited mobile device storage requirement, other data that is not likely to be altered for the purposes of cheating and functioning of the VE, i.e. private user data, should be saved in the log file located in the user machine. The log file also records the last previous user actions; this may be useful when a connection interruption occurs for a small delay, i.e. a node in the tunnel. In this case, the system can resume the last previous intermittent actions when the connection is established once again. Many advantages can be retrieved by the integration of the log file. First, it allows a certain level of security. Second, it minimizes failure-less restarts. Finally, it reduces network traffic. In order to remain flexible and to handle the high volume of communication between nodes, many existing techniques such as caching [21], super-node selection [10, and 22], and download priority scheme may be integrated into the system in order to limit the amount of network traffic. A. Agent Navigation Algorithm The primary goal of agent is to deliver persistent information from one node to others in the network. In order to achieve this goal when coordinator node leaves the network for any reason, the agent needs to exchange message with an agent hosted in the top position of assurance node list. The top element in the assurance node list represents the first node candidate to handle critical data for a coordinator node when the current one leaves the network. Each coordinator node is responsible to maintain and manage their assurance node independently. Initially we assign an agent to each coordinator node in the VE, agent perform the following operations: 1. Regularly copy critical information from the node memory 2. Update assurance node list 3. Update Briefcases variables 4. Agent Evaluation 4.1. IF Node status worsens “node may leave the network” i. Transmit critical data to the first node in the assurance node list and makes the data of the crashed node at the service of the community member. ii. If the first assurance node is unable to receive the date, the system will select the next one in the list. iii. Inform all neighbors about the changes 4.2. ELSE i. Go back to step 1 5. stop B. Agent Evaluation’ The agent‟s signal strength evaluation in our approach uses the method deployed in Multi Agent based Adaptive DSR (MADSR) [28]. MADSR is an extended version of the dynamic source routing protocol DSR [27]. It uses signal strength as routing metric to predict link break before they actually occurs. It measures the strength at which it received the packet and energy level of the node. If the received signal strength is greater than a certain threshold, the link is considered to be stable. Thus, agent decision - no need for data transfer. The value of the network latency evaluation should be less than 400ms as described in [26] to provide a sense of immersion for participating users. Such requirement was initially stated for CVE in wired network. We believe this requirement can be relaxed to cover CVE in mobile environment. The user interest evaluation in the VE is defined as the combination of number of users participating in the same session, and the total number of processed objects per second. A connection between agents in the same session requires a network path between hosts on which agents reside. IV.SIMULATION RESULTS We evaluate our system over ad-hoc networks. We create randomly various scenario files that describe the mobility pattern for each node using the setdest command provided by (NS2 v.2.35) [29]. We run the scenarios for about 7200
  6. 6. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 19 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org seconds. The routing protocol based on [28] acquires some properties such as signal strength, shortest-path metrics, congestion measurement and energy level in each node; these are used in route selection decision and by agent to determine the user feeling in the virtual environment. Figure 2, shows the average number of virtual environment system failure. Network size is shown along the x-axis while the average number of system‟s failure is shown on the y-axis. In Both approaches, once the network size increases, the average number counter decreases due to the increased size of the assurance list. The average number of failure is very low when employ our mobile agent scheme. This is could be explained by the impact of agent decision on the node statue. Figure 2: Average number of system’s failure using both approaches. Clearly, the average number of system failures is significantly affected, when we disable the mobile agent scheme, because coordinator nodes will send at regular time interval to its selected neighbor their critical data. The total number of failures is increased because nodes may leave the network before the commencement of the time interval and thus all data are lost. The overall variation of the failures‟ counter in both approaches is most likely stable when the network size increases. With mobile agent the average number of failure is reduced by almost 60% compared to the regular approach (Mobile agent disabled). V.CONCLUSIONS This paper provides a mobile agent based approach to design a persistent world for emergency preparedness scenario over ad- hoc network. Persistency is guaranteed through the agent evolution of the node state in the network and the user behavior during the run scenario. The approach was designed s to ensure reduced traffic between the coordinator node and its network‟s neighbors. Unlike other approaches, the algorithm is not directly affected when many nodes leave suddenly the network. The overall system will provide more reliability and efficiency because node selection is based on an intelligent decision computation done by agent resides in a node. The qualities of our proposed approach: they produce a minimum data error recovery when a node disconnects, no extra control messages are required. Data transfer is guaranteed. As shown in the simulation results the mobile agent decision strategy has a great impact on the number of system failure. More simulations need to be done. Several evaluation parameters can be integrated in the decision strategy to improve the system performance and functionalities. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Authors would like to express their thanks to Prince Sultan University, and Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud University for supporting this work. References [1] JADE. Java Agent DEvelopment Framework. http://jade.tilab.com/ [2] Java Agent DEvelopment Framework (JADE). JADE- LEAP User Guide. http://jade.tilab.com/doc/LEAPUserGuide.pdf [3] A. Genco, S. Sorce, G. Reina, and G. Santoro, "An Agent-Based Service Network for Personal Mobile Devices," IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 05, no. 2, 2006, pages:54-61. [4] Jamie Lawrence, “LEAP into Ad-Hoc Networks,” Workshop on. Ubiquitous Agents on embedded, wearable, and mobile devices, Bologna, July, 2002. [5] F. Brazier, P. van Eck, and J. Treur. "Modelling competitive co-operation of agents in a compositional multi- agent framework". International journal Coop. Info. Systems, 1997, pages: 67–96. [6] IETF Working Group MANET, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) Charter. In http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.htm. [7] A. Boukerche, A. Zarrad, and R. Araujo. "A Smart Gnutella Overlay Formation for Collaborative Virtual Environments over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks". Proceedings of the tenth IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications, Spain, 2006, pages: 163-171. [8] J. E. Doran, S. Franklin, N. R. Jennings, and T. J. Norman. " On cooperation in multi-agent systems". Knowledge Engeneering. Rev, 12(3), 1997, pages: 309-314. [9] S. Kraus, V. S. Subrahmanian, and N. C. Tas. Probabilistically survivable mass. In Eighteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2003, pages: 789– 795. [10] V. Lo, D, Zahou, Y, Liu, G, Dickey and J. Li. "Scalable Supernode Selection in Peer-to-Peer Overlay Networks". Proceedings of the Second International Workshop 0 1 2 3 4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 AverageNumberofFailure Network Size Average Number of Virtual Environment System Failure Mobile Agent… Our Proposed
  7. 7. International Journal For Research & Development in Technology Paper Title:- A Mobile Agent based Approach for Data Management to Support 3D Emergency Preparedness scenario Over Ad-hoc Network (Vol.2, Issue-4) ISSN(O):- 2349-3585 20 Copyright 2014- IJRDT www.ijrdt.org on Hot Topics in Peer-to-Peer Systems. USA, 2005, pages:18- 27. [11] V. Swarup. "Trust appraisal and secure routing of mobile agents". In DARPA Workshop Found. Secure Mobile Code, 1997. [12] StraCraft Homepage: http://www.starcraft2.com/ [13] Quak Homepage: http://www.quake4game.com/ [14] O. Hagsand. Interactive MUVEs in the DIVE System. IEEE Computer, Jan 1996 , pages: 30-39 [15] H. Zhang, A. Goel, and R. Govindan. "Incrementally Improving Lookup Latency in Distributed Hash Table Systems". Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems, USA, Nov 2003, pages:114-125. [16] R. Michael R, M. Macedonia, J. Zyda, R. David and R. Pratt. "NPSNET: A NETWORK SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE FOR LARGE SCALE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS“, USA, 1994, pages: 256-287. [17] B. Loo, J. Hellerstein, R. Huebsch, S. Shenker and I. Stoic. "enhancing p2p file sharing with an internet scale query processor". Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, USA , 2004, pages: 432-443. [18] B. Knutsson, , L, Honghui Lu; and b. Hopkins "Peer- to-peer support for massively multiplayer games" INFOCOM Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, USA, Mar 2004, pages:107-115. [19] EverQuest Homepage: http://www.everquest2.station.sony.com/ [20] SecondLife Homepage: http://secondlife.com/ [21] A. Boukerche, A. Zarrad, and R. Araujo. "Optimized PONG Caching Technique for Mobile Gnutella Network to Support Large-Scale Collaborative Virtual Environment". Proceeding CLOBECOM, USA, 2007, pages: 65-73. [22] Gnutella V6 Specification http://rfc- gnutella.sourceforge.net/src/rfc-0_6-draft.html [23] B. Loo, J. Hellerstein, R. Huebsch, S. Shenker and I. Stoic. "Enhancing p2p file sharing with an internet scale query processor". Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Canada 2004, pages: 432-443. [24] UltimaOnline Homepage: http://www.uo.com [25] S. Hu and G. Liao, "Scalable Peer-to-Peer Networked Virtual Environment". Proceeding ACM SIGCOMM. USA, 2004, pages: 129–339 [26] M. Wloka. "Lag in Multiprocessor VR". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT Press), Vol 4, Issue 1, 1995, pages: 50-63. [27] D. Johnson, D. Maltz, Y. Hu, and J. Jetcheva. "The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks". Internet Draft, Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001. http://www.ietf.org/internetdrafts/draft-ietf. [28] M. Rajabzadeha, F. Adibniyab, and M. ghasemzadehc "Condition aware robust routing algorithm with cross layer technique for ad hoc situations". Proceeding Computer Science 3, 2011, pages: 698-705. [29] NS2 home page: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns- build.html. [30] Valdin, I." Graphics optimization for J2ME compatible mobile phones". IEEE Tenth International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp:1-4, 2006. [31] Anis Zarrad, and Yassine Daadaa, „A Review of Computation Solutions by Mobile Agents in an Unsafe Environment‟. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 05/2013; 4. [32] M. Wooldridge and N. Jennings. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice. The Knowledge Engineering Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 115–152, 1995.

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