2. FERRARI - owned by Fiat
Fiat acquired a 50% stake in Ferrari in 1969, eventually increasing its shareholding to 90%.
In 2014 the company now known as Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
announced its intention to separate Ferrari from the main group.
When the deal was completed in early 2016,
the Agnelli family which founded Fiat became Ferrari’s largest shareholder.
3. ABARTH - owned by Fiat Chrysler
Founded in 1949, Abarth was originally a manufacturer of racing cars and performance parts.
In 1971 founder Carlo Abarth sold his company to Fiat.
4. JEEP - owned by Fiat Chrysler
Jeep was owned by several American companies before being taken over by Chrysler in 1987.
Although very much an American brand,
it has been connected with both Renault and Mercedes in the past,
and is now part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
5. ALFA ROMEO - owned by Fiat Chrysler
Alfa Romeo’s history dates back to the early years of the 20th century.
Despite a very strong record in motorsport
(Alfas won the first two F1 World Championships in 1950 and 1951)
the company was in severe financial trouble by the mid 1980s,
when it became part of the Fiat empire.
6. MASERATI - owned by Fiat Chrysler
Maserati has been a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fiat (now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles) since 1993.
Surprisingly enough, Citroen owned Maserati between 1968 and 1975.
7. SEAT - owned by Volkswagen
Spain’s only major car manufacturer has been part of the Volkswagen Group since 1986.
As well as its own products,
SEAT sometimes builds cars from other brands in the Group, such as the Audi Q3.
8. SKODA - owned by Volkswagen
Volkswagen began buying shares in Skoda in 1991.
Since 2000 Skoda has been a wholly owned subsidiary of the VW Group.
9. AUDI - owned by Volkswagen
Audi was one of four manufacturers merged to form the Auto Union in 1932.
Volkswagen bought half of the business in 1964 and is now part of the large Volkswagen Group.
10. BENTLEY - owned by Volkswagen
Bentley survived for just twelve years as an independent manufacturer.
In 1931, it was taken over by Rolls-Royce, which was itself bought by Vickers in 1980.
Vickers sold the combined company to Volkswagen.
Around the turn of the century Volkswagen sold Rolls-Royce to BMW
but retained Bentley as part of the VW Group.
11. LAMBORGHINI - owned by Volkswagen
Briefly owned by Chrysler in the late 1980s and early 1990s,
Lamborghini is now part of the Volkswagen Group,
being specifically under the control of Audi since 1998.
12. PORSCHE - owned by Volkswagen
As a car manufacturer, Porsche is a wholly owned subsidiary of Volkswagen.
However, a majority of Volkswagen Group shares
are held by a company owned by the Porsche family.
13. DACIA - owned by Renault
Dacia was created in Romania in the 1960s.
Renault bought the company in 1999 and now uses it at its budget brand,
producing Dacia models which feature a lot of Renault technology.
14. NISSAN - owned by Renault-Nissan
After several years of major financial difficulty,
Nissan entered into an alliance with Renault in 1999.
The two companies are technically separate but share technology and working practices.
15. RENAULT - owned by Renault-Nissan
Once owned by the French government, Renault was privatised in 1996,
though France still owns a stake.
Renault is now the major player in the Renault-Nissan Alliance,
which has recently been expanded to include Mitsubishi.
16. MITSUBISHI - owned by Renault-Nissan
Mitsubishi Motors is the car-building part of the Mitsubishi Group.
In October 2016, Nissan became the largest shareholder with a 34% stake,
thereby bringing Mitsubishi into the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
17. JAGUAR - owned by Tata
Past owners of Jaguar have included British Motor Holdings
(later incorporated into British Leyland) and more recently Ford.
Along with Land Rover, it was sold by Ford to the Indian company Tata Motors
of the colossal Tata Group, in 2008.
18. LAND ROVER - owned by Tata
After periods of ownership by British Leyland, BMW and Ford,
the Land Rover passed, along with Jaguar, into the hands of the Indian industrial giant Tata in 2008.
The two brands have been combined into one company, known as Jaguar Land Rover.
19. MINI - owned by BMW
In 2000, BMW sold off the MG, Rover and Land Rover brands
from what was then known as the Rover Group, but retained the rights to build the then new MINI,
which had been under development in the UK since the mid 90s.
MINI remains one of BMW’s three brands, along with BMW itself and Rolls-Royce.
20. ROLLS-ROYCE - owned by BMW
Rolls-Royce Motors, which at the time included Bentley,
was bought by Volkswagen in 1998 after it had outbid BMW.
In 2003, BMW took over the Rolls-Royce part of the operation, leaving Bentley with VW.
Rolls-Royce is now, along with MINI, one of BMW’s two subsidiary brands.
21. KIA - owned by Hyundai
After surviving as an independent company for over fifty years,
Kia went bankrupt in the Asian financial crisis of 1997.
It was saved by the Hyundai Motor Company, which bought a controlling interest the following year.
22. SSANGYONG - owned by Mahindra & Mahindra
Though still based in South Korea, as it always has been, SsangYong is now mostly Indian-owned,
after Mahindra & Mahindra bought a 70% stake in 2011.
23. LOTUS owned by Proton
In 1993, Malaysian car manufacturer Proton bought Lotus
from the Italian businessman Romano Artioli, who at the time also owned Bugatti.
Although Lotus continues to sell cars in the UK, Proton no longer does.
24. VOLVO - owned by Geely
After over seventy years as an entirely Swedish company,
Volvo became part of the Ford Premier Automotive Group in 2000.
In 2009, Ford sold Volvo to its current owners, the Chinese company Geely.
25. MG - owned by SAIC
MG has been in Chinese hands since the collapse of the MG Rover company in 2005.
Nanjing Automobile outbid Shanghai-based SAIC, but was bought by SAIC shortly afterwards.
26. VAUXHALL - owned by General Motors
Like Ford, Vauxhall is regarded as a British company,
but in fact it has been owned by America’s General Motors since 1925.
It is now affiliated with Opel of Germany.
The firms collaborate on designing and building cars,
which are sold as Vauxhalls in the UK and Opels everywhere else.
27. CITROEN - owned by Peugeot
After a period of ownership by the Michelin tyre company,
Citroen was bought over by Peugeot in 1976,
leading to the formation of the business now known as Group PSA.
28. SUBARU - owned by Fuji
Subaru is the car manufacturing arm of Fuji Heavy Industries,
which will shortly change its name to Subaru Corporation.
Toyota, and to a lesser extent, Suzuki, both own shares in Fuji Heavy Industries.
29. LEXUS - owned by Toyota
Lexus, the company’s luxury brand, is entirely owned by Toyota.
30. Smart - owned by Daimler
The idea of a radical city car, was first proposed by the owner of watch manufacturer Swatch.
Smart is now wholly owned by Daimler, whose motoring brands also include Mercedes-Benz.
31. MERCEDES - owned by Daimler
Mercedes-Benz, to give it its full name, is the largest and best-known automotive brand
in the Daimler corporation, based in Stuttgart.