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Listening strategies

Emajor 9
teaching reading

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Listening strategies

  1. 1. Different Strategies in Teaching Listening JFS
  2. 2. “Listening is the hardest thing in the world.” Anonymous
  3. 3. Percentage of Daily Communication (Burely-Allen, 1995) Reading 16% Listening 45% Speaking 30% Writing 9% 4th 3rd 1st 2nd
  4. 4. m Why is listening an important skill to develop in your language learners?
  5. 5. Because language learners need it: To obtain information To understand For enjoyment To learn To communicate
  6. 6. Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently but.. WHY IS LISTENING IN ENGLISH SO HARD?
  7. 7. 8 Factors in Listening Comprehension
  8. 8. There are a number of special characteristics of spoken language that need to be taken into consideration. Brown cites 8 factors that can make the listening process difficult. They are adapted from several sources (Dunkel, 1991; Flowerdew & Miller, 2005; Richards, 1983; Ur, 1984). INTRODUCTION
  9. 9. CLUSTERING In spoken language, due to memory limitations and our predisposition for “chunking,” or clustering, we break down speech into smaller groups of words. In teaching listening comprehension, therefore, you need to help students to pick out manageable clusters of words …
  10. 10. REDUNDANCY Spoken language has a good deal of redundancy (rephrasing, repetition, elaboration, and insertions of “I mean” and “you know.”). Learners can train themselves to profit from it by first becoming aware of it and by looking for the its signals.
  11. 11. REDUCED FORMS Spoken language has many reduced forms and sentence fragments. Reduction can be phonological (didju?), morphological (I’ll), syntactic, or pragmatic (Mom! Phone!).
  12. 12. PERFORMANCE VARIABLES In spoken language, hesitations, false starts, pauses, and corrections are common. There are also many ungrammatical forms and dialect differences.
  13. 13. COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE Idioms, slang, reduced forms, and shared cultural knowledge are all part of spoken language. Learners are usually exposed to “textbook English” and need help.
  14. 14. RATE OF DELIVERY The number and length of pauses are more crucial to comprehension than sheer speed (Richards 1983). Still, learners need to be able to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of speed and, at times, delivered with few pauses.
  15. 15. STRESS, RHYTHM, AND INTONATION English is a stress-timed language. Also, intonation patterns are significant for interpreting questions, statements, emphasis, sarcasm, endearment, insult, solicitation, praise, etc.
  16. 16. INTERACTION The spoken word is subject to rules of interaction: negotiation, clarification, attending signals, turn- taking, and topic nomination, maintenance, and termination. To learn to listen is also to learn to respond and to continue a chain of listening and responding.
  17. 17. It is essential for language teachers to help our students become effective active listeners. How can we do so?  By modeling listening strategies  By providing active listening practice
  18. 18. What are listening strategies?  are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input.  can be classified by how the listener processes the input.  These are: Top down, Bottom up and Metacognitive
  19. 19. Top - Down Listening Strategies Refers to the use of background knowledge in understanding the meaning of the message. Background knowledge Consists of context, the situation and topic, and co-text(what came before and after).
  20. 20. Top - Down Listening Strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next.
  21. 21. Top-down strategies include:  Listening for the main idea  Predicting  Drawing inferences  Summarizing Top - Down Listening Strategies Top down strategy focuses on content. Students can predict the content of listening activity beforehand and use various materials such as pictures and key words to understand the meaning.
  22. 22. This strategy is more broad approach than bottom- up and related with daily lives. When we watch drama or movie, we usually focus on whole meaning, not structure or forms. Likewise, we listen to news programs to grasp overall content and music by understanding the whole meaning. Some people do these activities by using bottom- up strategy, but this is rare case. The materials that can be used in top- down are prevalent. Teachers can use authentic information. When students listen to real-life story, it can increase their interest and make them think about main idea more seriously.
  23. 23. Top-Down Listening Activities Putting a series of pictures or sequence of events in order. Listening to a conversation and identify where they take place Reading information about a topic then listening to find whether or not the same points are mentioned. Inferring the relationship between the people involved.
  24. 24. Bottom – up Listening Strategies They are text based. The listener relies on the language in the message (sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning) Bottom-up strategies include:  Listening for specific details  Recognizing cognates  Recognizing word-order patterns
  25. 25. Bottom – up Listening Strategies Bottom up strategy is to know about details and segments. It concentrates on forms and structure. Thus, this activity is more related with academic study. English learning students use this activity to enhance their listening ability. Dictation and listening tests are included in this. In class, ‘fill in the blank/s’ activity can increase students’ awareness of forms.
  26. 26. However, bottom-up strategy doesn’t mean that it excludes all authentic things. When we need deep concentration on details, we use this activity. For example, weather forecast, phone number and advertisement having implied meaning need special focus on details to understand. Besides, tongue twists can be a good exercise for students to notice subtle difference in various English forms and pronunciation.
  27. 27. Metacognitive Listening Strategies In general, metacognition is thinking about thinking. More specifically, Taylor (1999) defines metacognition as “an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requires, combined with the agility to make correct inferences about how to apply one’s strategic knowledge
  28. 28. to a particular situation, and to do so efficiently and reliably. Meta cognitive Listening Strategies Used to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.  They plan deciding which listening strategies will serve best in particular situation  They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies  They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the
  29. 29. Meta cognitive Listening Strategies Actions that the learner deliberately takes to enhance comprehension and oversee and regulate the listening process. They include actions such as: planning, monitoring, evaluation and problem solving.
  30. 30. PLANNING Advanced Organization: Anticipating to the listening task , predicting , clarifying objects for listening Directed Attention : Deciding to maintain attention to the listening task, avoiding distractors. Selective Attention: Planning to pay attention or language situational aspects that may facilitate comprehension
  31. 31. Monitoring  Comprehension Monitoring Checking ,verifying or correcting one’s understanding  Double Check Monitoring Check one’s understanding during second listening or across the task.
  32. 32. Evaluation  Performance Education: Judging one’s performance in the execution of the listening task .  Strategy Evaluation : Evaluating the strategies used and their effectiveness
  33. 33. Problem Solving Identifying what needs a resolution in a listening task, or an aspect that interferes with its accomplishment. Then, using cognitive strategy to solve the problem
  34. 34. Tips for Helping our Students Become Active Listeners  Activate your students’ prior knowledge before any listening activity in order to predict or anticipate content.  Assess your students' background knowledge on the topic and linguistic content of the text.  If students are to complete a written task during or immediately after listening, allow them to read through it before listening.
  35. 35. Tips for Helping our Students Become Active Listeners  Activate your students’ prior knowledge before any listening activity in order to predict or anticipate content.  Assess your students' background knowledge on the topic and linguistic content of the text.  If students are to complete a written task during or immediately after listening, allow them to read through it before listening.
  36. 36. Listening for Meaning Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies.
  37. 37. Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in
  38. 38. Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
  39. 39. Developing Listening Activities Construct the listening activity around a contextualized task. Contextualized listening activities approximate real- life tasks and give the listener an idea of the type of information to expect and what to do with it in advance of the actual listening. A beginning level task would be locating places on a map or exchanging name and address information. At an intermediate level students could follow directions for assembling something or work in pairs to create a story to tell to the rest of the class.
  40. 40. Define the activity's instructional goal and type of response. Each activity should have as its goal the improvement of one or more specific listening skills. A listening activity may have more than one goal or outcome, but be careful not to overburden the attention of beginning or intermediate listeners.
  41. 41. • Identification: Recognizing or discriminating specific aspects of the message, such as sounds, categories of words, morphological distinctions • Orientation: Determining the major facts about a message, such as topic, text type, setting • Main idea comprehension: Identifying the higher-order ideas • Detail comprehension: Identifying supporting details • Replication: Reproducing the message orally
  42. 42. Check the level of difficulty of the listening text. Use pre-listening activities to prepare students for what they are going to hear or view.
  43. 43. Sample pre-listening activities:  looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs  reviewing vocabulary or grammaticalstructures  reading something relevant  constructing semantic webs (a graphic arrangement of concepts or words showing how theyare related)  predicting the content of the listening text  going over the directions or instructions for the activity  doing guided practice
  44. 44. Match while-listening activities to the instructional goal, the listening purpose, and students' proficiency level.
  45. 45. Sample while-listening activities: listeningwith visuals filling in graphsandcharts following a route on a map checking off items in a list listeningfor the gist searchingfor specific clues tomeaning completing cloze (fill-in) exercises distinguishingbetween formal andinformal registers
  46. 46. Model How to Use the Strategies
  47. 47. Before-Listening Strategies 1. Connect Help yourself better understand a listening assignment by thinking of things you already know about a topic. This helps your mind build connections between what you know and new information you will hear.
  48. 48. 2. Predict Make guesses about what you may learn as you listen. Guessing helps your brain focus on the assignment. It doesn’t matter if your guesses are right or wrong.
  49. 49. 3. Talk about New Words If there is a list of preselected vocabulary words from the assignment, go through the list and think about what you know about them. If you don’t know the words, talk about them with a friend or use a free audio dictionary. If there isn’t a preselected list of words, make sure you understand words in the title and in any introductory material. Have a brief conversation in your head to clarify key words.
  50. 50. During-Listening Strategies 1. Listen for Answers As you listen, be listening for answers to questions you have. To identify questions to ask, preview activities you need to complete after you listen or turn the title of an assignment into a question. Looking for answers to questions gives you a reason to listen and keeps your mind active and alert.
  51. 51. 2.TakeNotes Write notes thathelp you remember ideas. Outliningand layering informationis alwaysa good idea, buttryother imaginativewaysof takingnotes: Use connected circles and shapes,create a chart,or draw a map.Useabbreviations and symbolsthat help you keep up withthespeaker’srate of speech. Speakers alsoconvey ideas in nonverbalways.Pay attention tointonation,facial expressions,totakenotes on a speaker’sopinionsand outlooks.
  52. 52. After-Listening Strategies 1. Respond What do you agree and disagree with? What parts do you like best? What parts are confusing? Use symbols, such an exclamation mark (!) before an idea you like or an “X” next to something you disagree with, that help you quickly write your reactions so you won’t forget them.
  53. 53. 2. Summarize Read your lecture notes several times before and after class all week. In your head, summarize what the assignment was about and test yourself on your notes. Occasionally, you will be asked to write a formal summary. You will read your summary aloud or make a recording of it.
  54. 54. 3. Extend Read and listen to other sources for more information about the topic. Learning more information makes a topic more meaningful and interesting, especially if you share these ideas with others.

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