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Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience

A keynote on aliens, nuclear waste, wicked problems, and the one big thing that unites everyone working in user experience: AMBIGUITY.

See a video and the full transcript of this keynote at http://www.jonathoncolman.org/2015/05/21/wicked-ambiguity/

How do you solve the world’s hardest problems? And how do you respond if they’re unsolvable? As user experience professionals, we're focused on people who live and work in the here and now. We dive into research, define the problem, break down silos, and build value by focusing on intent.

But how does our UX work change when a project lasts not for one year, or even 10 years, but for 10,000 years or more? Enter the “Wicked Problem,” or situations with so much ambiguity, complexity, and interdependencies that—by definition—they can’t be solved.

Using real-world examples from NASA’s Voyager program, the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, and other long-term UX efforts, we’ll talk about the challenges of creating solutions for people whom we’ll never know in our lifetimes. The ways we grapple with ambiguity give us a new perspective on our work and on what it means to build experiences that last.

Originally presented as the opening keynote for the 2014 Society for Technical Communication Summit in Phoenix, Arizona. Redeveloped as the opening keynote for the 2015 Confab Central conference and presented on May 21, 2015 in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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Wicked Ambiguity and User Experience

  1. Ambiguity wicked NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  2. Colman NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Jonathon @jcolman
  3. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Bit.ly/raycats video + slides + text
  4. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  5. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  6. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338  
  7. Big problem What’s the in user experience?
  8. They think we’re just creatives
  9. Oh, But I’m really a ._______!
  10. Oh, But I’m really a Designer ._______!
  11. Oh, But I’m really a Developer ._______!
  12. Oh, But I’m really a Researcher ._______!
  13. Oh, But I’m really a Information Architect ._______!
  14. Oh, But I’m really a ._______!Content Strategist
  15. Oh, But I’m really a ._______!Creative
  16. creative Designer Content Strategist Information Architect Researcher Developer
  17. Our differences Don’t matter
  18. We’re united against Ambiguity
  19. Problems Wicked
  20. Problems Wicked
  21. Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  22. John  Snow/C.F.  Cheffins  (Rewardiv  at  en.wikipedia)  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg  
  23. John  Snow/C.F.  Cheffins  (Rewardiv  at  en.wikipedia)  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg  
  24. John  Snow/C.F.  Cheffins  (Rewardiv  at  en.wikipedia)  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg  
  25. Naw, That’s a tame problem René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  26. US  Federal  Agency  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Preven<on  (CDC),  from  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/14723720857  (crea<ve  commons  license:  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/  )  
  27. US  Federal  Agency  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Preven<on  (CDC),  from  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/14723720857  (crea<ve  commons  license:  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/  )  
  28. OMG WHADDA wicked pissaH René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  29. Steffi  Reichert,  from  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/steffireichert/4107432940  (crea<ve  commons  license:  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/  )  
  30. By  Ventus  (Own  work)  [CC  BY-­‐SA  3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  31. By  West  Midlands  Police  from  West  Midlands,  United  Kingdom  [CC  BY-­‐SA  2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  32. US  Federal  Agency  Drug  Enforcement  Agency  (DEA)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drugpackscorpion.png  
  33. John  Warwick  Brooke  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bri<sh_ar<llery_in_ac<on,_World_War_I.JPEG  
  34. By  Elizabeth  ArroN  /  VOA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VOA-­‐Crimea-­‐Simferopol-­‐airport.jpg  
  35. Tim  J.  Keegan  (suburbanbloke)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787  
  36. Adam  Fowler  (adamfowler)  [CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945  
  37. UX wicked problems in
  38. Designing for Alien beings
  39. ScoNer20  via  NASA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Terrestrial_Planets_Size_Comp_True_Color.png  
  40. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg  
  41. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   HELLO
  42. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   2 + 2 = 4
  43. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   EAT AT JOE’S
  44. signalmirror  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/signalmirror/8329443696/  
  45. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg  
  46. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg   EAT AT JOE’S
  47. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation
  48. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation Lower bound: 8 x 10-20
  49. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   Lower bound: 8 x 10-20 Upper bound: 36.4 M 𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation
  50. Oona  Räisänen;  designed  by  Carl  Sagan  &  Frank  Drake;  artwork  by  Linda  Salzman  Sagan  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pioneer_plaque.svg  
  51. Alex  Alonso  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/aleiex/2123333438   Carl Sagan
  52. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  53. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  54. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  55. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  56. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  57. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  58. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  59. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001976.jpg  
  60. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_Record_Cover_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001978.jpg  
  61. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  62. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  63. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  64. UX wicked problems in
  65. Designing a warning for Nuclear Waste
  66. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  67. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  68. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  69. User:Fasqission  [Public  domain]  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yucca_Mountain_crest_south.jpg  
  70. Half-life: 24,100 years 239   PU Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239  .  Photo  by  Los  Alamos  Na<onal  Laboratory  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plutonium_ring.jpg  
  71. Half-life: 24,100 years Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235    and  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239   239   PU 235   U
  72. Half-life: 24,100 years Half-life: 703,800,000 years Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235    and  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239   239   PU 235   U
  73. By  Ed  Siasoco  (Flickr:  Trinity  007)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trinity_007.jpg  
  74. Goal Stop people from accessing nuclear waste
  75. Strategy Create a message that lasts for 10,000+ years
  76. Objective 1 Must communicate “this is a message”
  77. Objective 2 Must communicate “this area is dangerous”
  78. Objective 3 Must communicate WHY
  79. Publishers  of  the  1890  Holman  Bible  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holman_Priest_High_Priest_Levite.jpg  
  80. NASA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-­‐iif.jpg  
  81. By  Jon  Sullivan  (PdPhoto)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leaf_1_web.jpg  
  82. Russell  Bernice  (russellbernice)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/russellbernice/2558386173/  
  83. Alle  (pinkiwinki<nki)  [CC-­‐BY—SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/55638925@N00/377299306/  
  84. Ⓒ  Jonathon  Colman    
  85. Nicolas  Raymond  (82955120@N05)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/82955120@N05/13094530583  
  86. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  87. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  88. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  89. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  90. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  91. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  92. ambiguity the Nature of
  93. ambiguity the Nature of
  94. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png  
  95. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png   YOU ARE HERE  
  96. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png   EAT AT JOE’S
  97. Our problems aren’t meaningful because they last forever
  98. Our problems are meaningful because They don’t
  99. They don’t
  100. Wey don’t
  101. creative Designer Content Strategist Information Architect Researcher Developer
  102. AMBIGUITY
  103. Wikipedia:  “Uncertainty  Principle”  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle   ∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2 
  104. Wikipedia:  “Uncertainty  Principle”  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle   ∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2  we live in an uncertain universe
  105. Adam  Fowler  (adamfowler)  [CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945  
  106. Wicked problems are
  107. catalysts Wicked problems are
  108. Creativity Wicked problems ignite our
  109. Forward Wicked problems pull us
  110. Innovate Wicked problems help us
  111. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338  
  112. Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  113. Wicked Problems We can’t solve But we can Acknowledge them
  114. Tim  J.  Keegan  (suburbanbloke)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787   Acknowledge them
  115. But we can Take risks Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  116. Mike  Bash  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/jbash/4223183281   Take risks
  117. But we can Stop being perfect Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  118. ©  Jonathon  Colman   Stop being perfect
  119. But we can Reward learning Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  120. Laura  Ferreira  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/prayerfriends/4343362783   Reward learning
  121. But we can Try Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  122. But we can Dare
  123. Coda
  124. Coda
  125. Our differences Don’t Matter
  126. Our problems Do
  127. We stand United
  128. And  so  when  we’re  faced  with  ambiguity,   we’re  not  afraid.  We  don’t  run  away  from  it.     Run away We Don’t From ambiguity
  129. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338   We Run toward it
  130. Ambiguity NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   wicked
  131. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Bit.ly/raycats video + slides + text
  132. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  133. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  134. NASA,  ESA,  Hubble  Space  Telescope  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  Astronomy  Picture  of  the  Day,  hNp://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap101009.html   EAT AT JOE’S

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