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  1. 1. TEST CONSTRUCTION AND PREPARATION: MADE EASY RYAN A. CORTEZ, MSc Master Teacher II, Bacnotan National High School
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF TOPICS/ SESSION OBJECTIVES: Revisit the Table of Specifications (TOS) 01 Discuss the Principles of Test Construction 02 Construct and develop test questions aligned to the Bloom’s Taxonomy 03 Workshop Proper (Writeshop) 04
  3. 3. Quarterly Assessment measures student learning at the end of the quarter. These may be in the form of objective tests, performance-based assessment, or a combination thereof. WHAT IS ASSESSMENT? • Classroom Assessment is an integral part of curriculum implementation. It allows the teachers to track and measure learners’ progress and to adjust instruction accordingly. Classroom assessment informs the learners, as well as their parents and guardians, of their progress. DO. No.08, s. 2015 Policy Guidelines on Classroom Assessment for Kto12 Basic Education Program
  4. 4. COMMON OBSERVATION OF STUDENTS ON TEST QUESTIONS PRESENTATION TITLE 5 • Hindi naman kasama sa lessons. • Hindi na-discuss sa klase. • Masyadong mahaba ang question at mga pagpipilian. • Hindi maayos ang lay-out ng test, putol-putol ang mga sentences. • Nakakalito ang mga tanong. • Wala sa choices yung tamang sagot. • Wrong ang grammar naman.
  5. 5. POSSIBLE REASONS FOR FAULTY TEST QUESTIONS • Questions are copied verbatim from the book or other resources. • Not consulting the course outline/CG. • Much consideration is given to reduce printing cost. • No TOS or TOS was made after making the test.
  6. 6. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PREPARING A TEST QUESTION 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 7 • Purpose of the test • Time available to prepare, administer, and score a test. • Number of students to be tested. • Skill of the teacher in writing the test. • Facilities available in reproducing the test.
  7. 7. “ To be able to prepare a GOOD TEST, one has to have a mastery of the subject matter, knowledge of the learners to be tested, skill in verbal expression and the use of the different test format”.
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEST • VALIDITY- the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure. • RELIABILITY- the consistency with which a test measures what is it supposed to measure. • USABILITY- the test can be administered with ease, clarity, and uniformity. • SCORABILITY- Easy to score • INTERPRETABILITY- test results can be properly interpreted and is a major basis in making sound educational decisions. • ECONOMICAL- the test can be reused without compromising its validity and reliability.
  9. 9. STEPS IN PLANNING FOR A TEST •Identifying test objectives. •Deciding on the type of objective test to be prepared. •Preparing a Table of Specifications (TOS) •Constructing the draft test items. •Trying-out and validating the test items.
  10. 10. TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS (TOS) • A two-way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content. • It is a test map that guides the teacher in constructing a test. • It ensures that there is a balance between items that test lower-level thinking skills and those which test higher-order thinking skills. • It ensures balance between easy and difficult items • It enables the teacher to prepare a test containing a representative sample of student knowledge in each of the areas tested.
  11. 11. TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS •A TOS consists of the following: • Level of objectives to be tested. • Statement of objective. • Item numbers where such an objective is being tested. • Number of items and percentage out of the total for that particular objective.
  12. 12. THINGS THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE CONSTRUCTING A TOS •The TOS requires a thorough knowledge of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy /BRT • Create a TOS following the standard format used by DepED. • The TOS requires some simple mathematical computation that will result to proportional allocation of test items per topic/LC.
  13. 13. SAMPLE TOS
  15. 15. CHANGES IN TERMS Noun to verb Thinking is an active process therefore verbs are more accurate Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering. Comprehension became understanding and Synthesis was renamed Creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.
  16. 16. SAMPLE TOS
  17. 17. •The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. - Recognizing - Listing - Describing - Identifying - Retrieving - Naming - Locating - Finding • Can you recall information?
  18. 18. Sample Questions for Remembering • What is _____________? • Where is __________? • How did it happen ____________? • Why did __________ ? • When did ___________? • How would you show _______? • Who were the main ________ ? • Which one ________ ? • How is __________?
  19. 19. PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 A characteristic of quantitative research in which it uses numbers and statistics in presenting the results. A.Clearly defined research questions B. Numerical Data C.Objective D. Structured Research Instruments
  20. 20. EARTH SCIENCE Which of the following is a natural and renewable energy that makes use of the heat inside the Earth? A. Geothermal Energy B. Hydrogen Energy C. Solar Energy D. Wind Energy
  21. 21. GENERAL MATHEMATICS What is a vertical line test? A. A graph represents a function if and only if vertical line intersects the graph at most once. B. A graph represents a function if and only if vertical line intersects the graph at twice. C.A graph represents a function if and only if vertical line intersects the graph five times. D.A graph represents a function if and only if the vertical line does not intersect the graph. •
  22. 22. CREATIVE WRITING It is a form of creative writing that is based on the interplay of words and rhythm. A. Essay B. Fiction C. Poetry D. Novel
  23. 23. KOMUNIKASYON Tumutukoy ito sa tao o pangkat ng mga taong pinagmumulan ng mensahe o ang nag- eencode ng mensahe. A.Daluyan B. Feedback C. Receiver D. Sender.
  24. 24. • The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. - Interpreting - Exemplifying - Summarizing - Inferring - Paraphrasing - Classifying - Comparing - Explaining • Can you explain ideas or concepts?
  25. 25. Questions with what, where, why and how questions answers could be taken between the lines of the text through organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, extrapolating, classifying, summarizing and stating main ideas fall under understanding.
  26. 26. •Condense this paragraph •What would happen if … ? •What part doesn’t fit? •How would compare? Contrast? •What is the main idea of … ? •How would summarized … ?
  27. 27. Sample Questions for Understanding • State in your own words… • Which are facts? Opinions? • What does this means…? • Is this the same as …? • Giving an example • Select the best definition. • Which does not belong? • Which is INCORRECT? Which is NOT TRUE?
  28. 28. PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 A research that aims to find out the percentage of Manila private universities considering the use of grammar textbooks as the most effective way to help college students attain communicative competence. What is the most evident characteristic of quantitative research used by the researcher? A. Objective B. Numerical Data C. Replication D. Structured Research Instrument
  29. 29. EARTH SCIENCE The following are situations that show the interaction of the four subsystems of the earth. Which one shows the interaction of atmosphere and lithosphere? A. Earthquake and air pollution B. Floods and air pollution C. Fires and noise pollution D. landslide and earthquake
  30. 30. KOMUNIKASYON “Hindi man tayo magsalita, sa ating mga kilos, galaw, kumpas at anyo, hindi man sinasadya ay nakapagdadala tayo ng mensahe”. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng pahayag na ito? A. Nangangahulugang ang komunikasyon ay isang proseso. B. Nangangahulugang ang komunikasyon ay komplikado. C. Nangangahulugang ang komunikasyon ay dinamiko. D. Hindi tayo maaaring umiwas sa komunikasyon.
  31. 31. MATHEMATICS What is the first step in finding the inverse of one-to-one function? A. Interchange the x and y variable B. Multiply x and y C. Solve for y in terms of x D. Write function in the form y=f(x)
  32. 32. • The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. - Implementing - Carrying out - Using - Executing • Can you use the information in another familiar situation?
  33. 33. Sample Questions for Applying •How would you organize _______ to show ________? •How would you show your understanding of _______ ? •What facts would you select to show what ________? •What elements would you change __________ ?
  34. 34. •What other way would you plan to __________? •What questions would you ask in an interview with_______? •How would you apply what you learned to develop_________ ? •How would you solve ___________ using what you have learned?
  35. 35. MATHEMATICS Which of the following relationships indicates a function? A. A jeepney and its plate number B. A teacher and his cellular phone C. A pen and the color of its ink D. Birth month and names of students
  36. 36. CREATIVE WRITING You are to make an allusion, what will you do? A. Use words that appeal to the different senses B. Compare two unrelated objects using like or as C. Attribute human qualities to inanimate objects or ideas D. Come up with a brief indirect reference to a prominent person, place event or idea when writing/speaking
  37. 37. SCIENCE As a student, what do you think is the best way for you to conserve water in school? A. Do not drink so much water. B. Do not water the plants every day. C. Limit the water intake in a day. D. Reuse the water if it is needed.
  38. 38. • The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. - Comparing - Organizing - Deconstructing - Attributing Outlining - Finding - Structuring - Integrating • Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
  39. 39. Sample Questions for Analyzing •Which statement is relevant? •What is the conclusion? •What does the author believe in? Assume? •Make a distinction between _________ •What ideas justify the conclusion? •Which is the least essential statement? •What literacy form is used?
  40. 40. CREATIVE WRITING What is the main purpose of the poet in the context of the whole poem? A. Express the emotional impact of the experience he has had. B. Convey the objective significance of the experience he had. C. Explore a fascination with the effects of bonds between people and animals. D. Narrate an interesting and creative story about people and animals.
  41. 41. PRACTICAL RESEARCH What is the study all about? A. Potential oil degrading ability of bacteria bacillus subtilis. B. Discovery of the Bacilus subtilis as diesel oil degrading bacteria. C. Presence of different bacteria found in soil as a diesel oil degrading bacterium. D. Use of bacteria as a potential degrading petroleum pollution in the environment. The study was conducted to determine the oil-degrading ability bacteria under the genus bacillus. Soil samples were collected from the different locations in Los Baños, Laguna from which bacteria was isolated using the enrichment technique. Of the 23 bacteria isolated, eight (8) were able to degrade diesel oil with or without complete fertilizer supplement and with or without aeration/agitation. All diesel oil degrading isolates were identified as Bacilus subtilis. The laboratory assay results indicate that B. subtilis has the potency for use in degrading petroleum pollution in the environment.
  42. 42. SCIENCE What is the correct order of Earth’s atmospheric layers from bottom to top? A. Exosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere B. Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Troposphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere C. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere D. Thermosphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Exosphere, Troposphere
  43. 43. SCIENCE How does Earth’s atmosphere protect us from the sun's radiation? A. The atmosphere reflects all the sun's radiation. B. Some of the sun's radiation is reflected away and absorbed by the atmosphere, clouds, and the Earth's surface. C. The presence of the ozone layer absorbs the ultraviolet wavelengths. This absorption of this radiation heats up the air. D. The gases in the atmosphere act as a protective layer that makes the sun's radiation reflect away from the Earth's surface.
  44. 44. MATHEMATICS Which of the following relations is a one-to-one function? A. {(-6, 2), (-5, 1), (-4, 2), (-3, 3)} B. {(0, -2), (1, -1), (1, 0), (3, 1)} C. {(-2, -6), (-1, -3), (0, 0), (1, -3)} D. {(6, 8), (7, 9), (8, 10), (9, 11)}
  45. 45. • The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. - Checking - Hypothesizing - Critiquing - Experimenting - Judging - Testing - Detecting - Monitoring • Can you justify a decision or course of action?
  46. 46. Sample Questions for Evaluating •What fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear __________? •Which is more important ___________ ? •Do you agree _________ ? •What information would you use ____________ ? •Do you agree with the ___________ ? •How would you evaluate _________ ?
  47. 47. SCIENCE How can different kinds of pollution affect water resources? A. They increase the quality of rainwater and of water resources both above and below ground B. Improve natural resources C. Emissions create acidic conditions that damages ecosystems D. Sewage and runoff from farms, farmlands and gardens can contain nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous repair ecological affect
  48. 48. SCIENCE When a volcano erupts and releases gas into the air, which two spheres are interacting? A. Hydrosphere and Geosphere B. Geosphere and Atmosphere C. Hydrosphere and Atmosphere D. Biosphere and Geosphere
  49. 49. SCIENCE When does a mineral become a mineral resource? A. When it is mined B. When it is profitable C. When it has potential economic value D. All of the above
  50. 50. ENGLISH What type of character is Carlos? A. Flat character B. Round character C. Static character D. Stock character
  51. 51. FILIPINO Batay sa binasang teksto, alin sa mga sumusunod ang nagpapahayag ng hindi isang conative na gamit ng wika sa lipunan. A. Ang eleksyon ay pagpili ng maglilingkod. B. Huwag nating ipagkatiwala ang kinabukasan ng ating bansa. C. Dapat maging matalino tayo D. Piliin natin ang mga kandidatong maglilingkod sa atin
  52. 52. FILIPINO Gabay ang natutunan sa isa sa mga Tungkulin ng Wika sa Lipunan, sa binasang teksto, ano ang ibig ipahiwatig nito sa mambabasa? A. Mayroon kang mauutangan kapag nasa kagipitan B. Mayroong tutulong at aagapay sa anumang pagsubok na darating sa buhay C. Mayroong tumitingin sa tuwing tayo ay naliligaw at kung may bagyo na dumarating D. Mayroong yayakap tuwing nalulungkot at magpapasaya sa tuwing ikaw ay nalulumbay.
  53. 53. RESEARCH The Influence of Video Lessons to the Academic Achievement of 250 Selected Freshmen Students of Pasig City University During School Year 2020-2021. Which best describes the research justification? • A. It provides steps on how the study will be conducted. • B. It provides the analysis and synthesis of the data gathered. • C. It provides description of the method to use in conducting the study. • D. It provides critical background or contextual information that introduces the topic area.
  54. 54. RESEARCH Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. If you are Jane which of the following sets of keywords would be the BEST to get started on an effective and efficient search? A. “attention disorders” B. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children” C. “disorders” and “children” D. “attention disorders” and “children” •
  55. 55. RESEARCH If you are interested to conduct a study on “academic achievement” and “video lesson”, which is a good research title? A. Video Lesson Helps B. Video Lesson and Its Effect to the Student Achievement: A Correlational Study C. The Influence of Video Lesson to the Academic Achievement of Freshmen Students in the State Universities of Pasig City During School Year 2020-2021 D. The Influence of Video Lessons to the Academic Achievement of 250 Selected Freshmen Students of Pasig City University During School Year 2020-2021
  56. 56. FILIPINO Bilang estudyante, sumasang-ayon ka ba sa ipinalabas na CHED Memorandum #20, Serye ng 2012? A. Hindi, dahil pansariling interes lamang ang nais nitong ipakita B. Hindi, dahil nararapat na ituro pa para maging mas maalam sa wika C. Oo, dahil kung hindi ito tatanggalin sa kolehiyo magkakaroon ng pag-uulit sa pinag-aaralan D. Wala akong pakialam kung anuman ang sabihin at ipanukala, susunod ako kung iyon ay para sa ikabubuti ko.
  57. 57. • The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. - Designing - Constructing - Planning - Producing - Inventing - Devising - Making • Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
  58. 58. Sample Questions for Creating •Can you design a _____________? •What possible solution to _________ ? •How many ways can you __________ ? •Can you create a proposal which would_________ ?
  59. 59. RESEARCH The researchers want to know if the learning Module is effective in enhancing the learning competencies of TVL students in Practical Research 2 in BNHS. Which of the following is the correct conceptual framework of the study.
  60. 60. RESEARCH From the same research problem, if you were to formulate the title, which of the following titles is most appropriate? A. Effectiveness of Learning Modules in Enhancing the Learning Competencies of TVL Students in Practical Research 2 in Bacnotan National High School. B. Effect of Learning Modules in Enhancing the Learning Competencies of TVL Students in Practical Research 2 in BNHS. C. Learning Modules: Its Effects to the Learning Competencies of TVL Students of Bacnotan National High School D. Learning Modules in Practical Research 2: Its Effects to the Learning Competencies of TVL Students of Bacnotan National High School.
  61. 61. SCIENCE For you as a STUDENT, which of the following is the best way to conserve and protect the soil? A. Proper waste segregation. B. Building of different structures. B. Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal. C. Provide the public accurate, useful information about the whole projects, including the risks and maintain formal communication with public
  62. 62. ENGLISH If you are to compliment your mother in a formal diction and a hyperbole, how will it be? A. “You are the world’s number one mudrang”. B. “Mommy, you are one in a million, you’re the best!”. C. “Well, of course, you are always number one to me mother”. D. “Mother, thou art the loveliest and most temperate in the whole galaxy!”
  63. 63. ENGLISH If your teacher asked you to create a Typography poetry, how will you make it? A. Do not follow a proper rhyme scheme. B. Arrange the words in such a way as to depict the subject. C. Describe some incident or experience or event that is humorous or interesting, and end the poem with some insight D. Follow the rhyme scheme ABBAABBA or ABBACDDC and a sestet with the rhyme scheme CDECDE or CDCCDC.
  64. 64. BREAD & PASTRY PRODUCTION If you were Ren, how would you make the remedies not to compromise the quality of the product? A. Postpone the plan in baking pan de coco. B. Be resourceful, used the available ones at home. C. Continue to bake pan de coco ensuring the unavailable ingredients has its own equal substitution at home D. Continue to bake pan de coco as long as the main ingredient which is the bread/all-purpose flour is available, it will be done successfully
  65. 65. Definitions Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating Bloom’s Definition Remember previously learned information. Demonstrate an understanding of the facts. Apply knowledge to actual situations. Break down objects or ideas into simpler parts and find evidence to support generalizations. Make and defend judgments based on internal evidence or external criteria. Compile component ideas into a new whole or propose alternative solutions Verbs • Arrange • Define • Describe • Duplicate • Identify • Label • List • Match • Memorize • Name • Order • Outline • Recognize • Relate • Recall • Repeat • Reproduce • Select • State • Classify • Convert • Defend • Describe • Discuss • Distinguish • Estimate • Explain • Express • Extend • Generalized • Give example(s) • Identify • Indicate • Infer • Locate • Paraphrase • Predict • Recognize • Rewrite • Review • Select • Summarize • Translate • Apply • Change • Choose • Compute • Demonstrate • Discover • Dramatize • Employ • Illustrate • Interpret • Manipulate • Modify • Operate • Practice • Predict • Prepare • Produce • Relate • Schedule • Show • Sketch • Solve • Use • Write • Analyze • Appraise • Breakdown • Calculate • Categorize • Compare • Contrast • Criticize • Diagram • Differentiate • Discriminate • Distinguish • Examine • Experiment • Identify • Illustrate • Infer • Model • Outline • Point out • Question • Relate • Select • Separate • Subdivide • Test • Appraise • Argue • Assess • Attach • Choose • Compare • Conclude • Contrast • Defend • Describe • Discriminate • Estimate • Evaluate • Explain • Judge • Justify • Interpret • Relate • Predict • Rate • Select • Summarize • Support • Val • Arrange • Assemble • Categorize • Collect • Combine • Comply • Compose • Construct • Create • Design • Develop • Devise • Explain • Formulate • Generate • Plan • Prepare • Rearrange • Reconstruct • Relate • Reorganize • Revise • Rewrite • Set up • Summarize • Synthesize • Tell • Write
  66. 66. General rules in writing test questions: • Number test questions continuously • Keep test question in each test group uniform • Make layout presentable Gr. 1-3 ------ 30 points; Font: Bookman Old Style; Size: 14, Margin: All sides -- .5; Bond Paper: A4 Gr. 4-6 ---- 40 points ;Font: Bookman Old Style; Size: 14, Margin: All sides ------ .5; Bond Paper: A4 Gr. 7-10 ---- 50 points ;Font: Bookman Old Style; Size: 12, Margin: All sides ------ .5; Bond Paper: A4 Gr. 11-12 ----60 points ;Font: Bookman Old Style; Size: 12, Margin: All sides ------ .5; Bond Paper: A4 Div. Memo No. 237, s. 2022 • Do not put too many test questions in one test group. • Avoid humorous items. Learners may not take the exam seriously. • Items should measure one’s knowledge of the item context not their level of interest. • Write items to measure what learners know, not what they do not know
  67. 67. Desired qualities in making multiple-choice test items: 1. Do not use multiple-choice to test creative writing. Evaluation should always match as closely as possible the actual activity you are teaching. 2. The STEM asks a question that has a definite answer. Poor: “Joana spends most of her waking hours checking the doors and windows and taking showers is ….” A. Generalized anxiety B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder C. Phobic disorder D. Autistic behavior Improved: Identify the disorder displayed by the subject below: “Joana spends most of her waking hours checking the doors and windows and taking showers” A. Generalized anxiety B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder C. Phobic disorder D. Autistic behavior
  68. 68. More reminders: 1. Begin writing items well ahead of time when they will be used; allow time for revision. 2. Match items to intended outcomes at the proper difficulty level to provide a valid measure of the instructional objectives. 3. Be sure that the problem posed is clear and unambiguous. Use grammar, punctuation, and spelling consistently. 4. Minimize the time required to read each item. 5. Avoid trick items. 6. The ideal question will be answered by the 60-65% of tested population. 7. Have your questions peer-reviewed. 8. Use pictorial materials that require learners to apply principles and concepts. 9. Use charts, tables or figures that require interpretation. 10. Write items in which there is one and only one correct answer. 11. The phrase that introduces the item (STEM) should clearly state the problem. 12. The position of the correct answer should vary randomly from item to item.
  69. 69. 3. Are all options parallel in type of content? Is each distracter plausible? (Credible, reasonable, believable, feasible) 4. Do the options avoid repetitive words? Poor: That swimming pool which needs cleaning most often is that swimming pool A. which is filled with water from the stream B. which is filled with water from a well C. which is filled with water from the ocean D. which is filled with water collected from rainfall Improved: The swimming pool that will need the most cleaning is one filled with water from a/an____. A. ocean B. rainfall C. stream D. well
  70. 70. 5. Is extraneous (irrelevant, immaterial, unrelated) content excluded from the STEM? 6. Is the grammar in each option consistent with the stem? 7. Does the item exclude options equivalent to “all of the above” and “none of the above”? 8. Unless another order is more logical, are options arranged alphabetically? Numbers in order Dates in chronological order Lines from a passage shld. be arranged in the order they appear in the passage If nothing else, others in length(pyramiding)—not vital, last choice 9. Are the words NOT, EXCEPT, TRUE, FALSE and BEST highlighted? 10. Are spaces put between items?
  71. 71. Points to ponder: A good lesson makes a good question A good question makes a good content A good content makes a good test A good test makes a good grade A good grade makes a good student A good student makes a good community. - Jesus Ochave, Ph. D. VP, Research and Planning, PNU
  72. 72. REMINDERS: JANUARY 26-27, 2023- Second Quarterly Assessment JANUARY 16-17, 2023-Deadline of Submission of TQs and TOS to the checker JANUARY 18, 2023- Revision of Submitted TQs JANUARY 20, 2023-Submission of TQs for reproduction. JANUARY 23-24, 2023- Reproduction of TQs January 25, 2023- Sorting of TQs

Notas del editor

  • Low grades of our learners can be associated or link to the test that we are giving. (Extraneous variable).
  • Teachers provide appropriate assessments when they aim to holistically measure learner’s current and developing abilities.
    Assessment is a process that is utilized to keep track of learners progress in relation to learning standards.
    Assessment promote self-reflection and personal accountability among students about their own learning.
    CLASSROOM-Assessment is an on-going process of identifying, gathering, organizing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative information about what learners know and learners can do.
  • These are some common experiences and observations of learners as far as assessment is concerned. Actual status.
  • Factors that may contribute to faulty construction of test questions.
  • Things to do when preparing or planning to craft your Test Questions.
  • Principles of Assessment-
    Art of Questioning-ffective questioning techniques. Questions have the potential to change classrooms and strengthen student achievement. Through our questions, our students become thinkers, and they learn the important traits of perseverance, risk taking, creativity, and flexibility.
  • What is Bloom’s Taxonomy?
    Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organized by levels of complexity. It gives teachers and learners an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many kinds of questions.
  • 9 rows
    Time Spent
    Learning Domains/Cognitive Domains
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organized by levels of complexity. It gives teachers and students an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many different kinds of questions.

    Revision in terms of structure/Terminologies and Swapping
    Benjamin Bloom in 1956
    Lorin Anderson and Krathwohl-2001
    To provide clearer instructional goals and to fit to the present time and situation
    Meet the needs of teachers and learners
    The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy provides the measurement tool for thinking. The changes in RBT occur in three broad categories.
  • Levels are arranged from simple to complex. Easy to difficult.
    Since it is a taxonomy.

    Learning Domains were categorized into 2 (LOTS and HOTS)
  • Remembering is when memory is used to produce or retrieve definitions, facts, or lists, or to recite previously learned information.
    is the most basic, requiring the least amount of cognitive rigour.
    This is about students recalling key information, for example, the meaning of a word.
    They do not require any sort of critical thinking or opinionated answers.
  • Simple recall of concept.
  • here are three levels of understanding: literal, inferential, and propositional. Literal comprehension is the basic understanding of the text, often answered by questions such as who, what, when, and where.

    Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
  • The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those of comprehension.
  • the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved.
  • making judgments about something based on criteria and standards. This requires checking and critiquing an argument or concept to form an opinion about its value.
  • Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing.
    This level encourages students to demonstrate their knowledge by building something tangible or conceptual.