LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Política de privacidad para más información.
LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información.
There is evidence on three categories of working conditions and their impact on teacher motivation: Physical Environment and workload, School Climate, and Access to support and professional development
WORK LOAD AND SCHOOL CHALLENGES In many countries, teachers are increasingly being asked to take on more responsibilities, including HIV/AIDs education, counseling and community development (Bennell, 2004). In Malawi, teachers’ workload was cited as the most important factor influencing motivation. In some countries, teachers perform an even greater range of activities, including giving immunizations, taking census data, and distributing food (Guajardo, 2011). In India, oftentimes teachers are recruited to assist with political campaigns and elections (Mooij, 2008).
In a study conducted in Indonesia, when asked about the factors that would influence their motivation positively, 49 percent of teachers stated that they would work harder if school conditions improved (Broekman, 2013).
Teachers are often posted in remote schools, far from their families with little support in terms of transportation and even health insurance (Guajardo, 2011). From the perspective of teacher motivation, remote posts are less attractive to teachers. Alcazar et al.’s (2006) study in Peru found that one of the main reasons for teachers dissatisfaction with their assigned post was that teachers had to live separately from their immediate relatives. In Tanzania, nearly half of all teacher respondents rated their working conditions as “very poor” or “poor” and nearly one-third of the female respondents reported living away from their spouses (Bennell & Mukyanuzi, 2005).
In many countries, teachers increasingly have to do more with less. A small number of textbooks and other learning materials are spread thin over many students, while physical infrastructure is poorly constructed or maintained. In Africa, Michaelowa (2002) finds that adequate provision of textbooks can improve teacher job satisfaction and increase student test scores. In fact, she concludes that textbooks are the single most important determinant of whether or not a teacher desired to transfer schools, a proxy for job satisfaction. In Ethiopia, teachers are de-motivated by the fact that the school syllabus assumes that teachers have access to learning materials when in reality such materials are scarce. (How Much is a Good Teacher Worth? A Report on the Motivation and Morale of Teachers in Ethiopia n.d.)
Basic amenities such as water and electricity are also very important for teacher job satisfaction and motivation. For example, sanitary facilities are especially important to motivate female teachers to work at a given school (Ramachandran and Pal 2005). Other problems include slow textbook development; restricted space; nonexistent or under-resourced libraries, labs, etc. However, like pay, learning materials and facilities are merely a necessary but insufficient factor in teacher motivation; and once these needs are met only then can intrinsic factors such as recognition, career development, and voice have a deeper impact on motivating teachers.
DEPLOYMENT Belay et al. (2007) found in Eritrea, young newly qualified teachers are the first to be deployed to remote schools, far from their families and friends. Likewise, in his qualitative study of beginning teachers in Zambia, Thomas et al. (2014) found that of the participants posted to rural schools, the majority expressed their frustrations as they were not only starting a new career but also living far away from relatives. Three of the female teachers had young children and spouses at least a six-hours’ drive away.
-When posted to a different community, with different culture and language, teachers may not receive the community support they may have had in their own communities, etc. As schools expand to rural areas, teachers are beginning to instruct minorities speaking different languages. Many teachers are unfamiliar with these new languages, and unused to the challenges of teaching those with a different native tongue. Alternatively, national curriculum may dictate that teachers teach a secondary language, such as English, in which teachers are less competent and confident.
Head Teacher Support School headmasters can play an important role serving as examples and leaders (Javaid 2009), but they lack the necessary training and experience. Headmasters rarely receive training, and they themselves are often promoted to such a position through political influence. Many headmasters still have pedagogical responsibilities that prevent them from sufficiently supervising and supporting teachers (Charron and Chau 1996). Other conditions limiting the effectiveness of headmasters to improve teacher motivation include weak management systems for headmasters, overly tight fiscal management policies, and constrained powers of headmasters vis-à-vis teachers (Mpokosa and Ndaruhutse 2008).
In Lesotho, teachers’ professional relationships with supervisors are critical for teacher motivation and outweigh the influence of pay and facilities on motivation (Urwick, Mapuru and Nkhobotin 2005). In Ethiopia, institutional problems undermining teacher motivation include frequent policy changes, lack of merit-based promotion, irrational deployment, weak relationship between teachers and directors, and lack of support from Regional Education Bureaus
AUTONOMY Teachers are often de-motivated when perceiving that their work is being de-professionalized by overly scripted teaching regulations. For example, a study of teacher motivation in Tanzania recommends reinforcing the professionalism of teaching by giving teachers greater autonomy in choosing which pedagogies to apply in the classroom (Oluoch 15
RECOGNITION Recognition and prestige can be powerful incentives to motivate teachers. Teachers want to be viewed as professionals and be involved in decision-making (Guajardo, 2011). In India, teachers are desperate for appreciation from their superiors. During focus group discussions, teachers were eager to show off their achievements as they rarely receive any recognition for progress in student outcomes (Mooij, 2008). Razzaque (2013) also noted that the lack of prestige and career development opportunities in the profession had a detrimental effect on the motivations and perceptions of pre-service teachers. Giving teachers a voice in instructional methods and school-based decisions can have a tremendously positive impact on teacher motivation in developing countries (World Bank, 2003).
PARENTAL ENGAGEMENT In my study in Bangladesh, all stakeholders, including parents themselves, recognize the need for greater parental involvement. They believe that when parents are involved, meeting with teachers, and preparing their students at home, teachers will feel supported. Aside from class sizes, teachers identified parental involvement, or the lack thereof, as the greatest challenge they face in effective teaching. When parents are not involved, students are more absent, tardy for school, they did not complete their homework, they did not practice any of the new letter or math operations they learned and they are not motivated in class. Also, according to some Head Teachers and SMC Chairs, when parents are involved, as well as SMCs and the community, teachers are more accountable.
PEER LEARNING In many developing countries, pre-service teacher education is often brief in duration and incomprehensive in content (Schweisfurth, 2011). Teacher training programs can be as short as several months to a year (Belay et al., 2007) to little more than two years (Rawal et al., 2013). Moreover, the majority of pre-service programs lack practical components, such as student teaching practicums. Thus, teachers arrive to their posts under-trained, with little, if any, classroom experience.
Teaching can be an isolated profession (Emerson, 2010; Frisoli et al., 2013), particularly in rural areas in developing countries. Many times, teachers can be deployed to one-room schools or placed in multigrade classrooms entirely on their own.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Lastly, providing teachers with career development opportunities- either professional development courses and workshops or promotion opportunities also motivate teachers to enter and remain in the profession and to improve their practices (Guajardo, 2011; World Bank, 2003). In Sub-Saharan Africa, teachers reported that they were unmotivated to teach in rural schools as they were concerned they would not have the same opportunities for training and professional development as their urban counterparts (Buckler, 2011). In Tanzania, teachers complained of limited professional development opportunities in both rural and urban districts (Bennell & Mukyanuzi, 2005). In the Maldives, teachers faced hardships when they were not repared for large class sizes or even the language of instruction (Hasan & Hynds, 2014). Furthermore, teachers are more motivated when they have a clear career path with promotion opportunities (Firestone, 2014). In Malawi, at present, there is no direct career path for teachers. Their pay is inadequate and they under-trained for the job (Kadzamira, 2006). Professional development and capacity building can help build teachers’ knowledge and competence, which leads to greater intrinsic motivation (Firestone, 2014).
In-service training (INSET) in particular can increase teacher morale, especially when combined with mentoring and observation, and lead to improved student outcomes (Ginsburg 2009). Teachers generally appear to be confident in their own abilities (Bennell and Akyeampong 2007), but feel they need the external support, tools, and training to allow them to excel in their work, and opportunity to progress up the career ladder.
Professional development also enhances teacher motivation through an important and related channel: observed student achievement. Teacher job satisfaction has been found to be correlated with high-performing students (Michaelowa 2002), and teachers in a variety of developing countries have been seen to become more motivated when witnessing their effort pay off in the form of improved student performance. Namely, coaching teachers to set expectations for students, better manage the classroom, and apply new teaching methods can be very effective in motivating teachers when they witness the payoffs of such techniques (Mendez 2011).
Methodology Includes questions on: Background characteristics and profile Teachers’ own definition of motivation, challenges, and support Teacher self-efficacy- their perceived ability to impact student learning Teachers’ beliefs on job satisfaction, wellbeing, best ways to teach, etc. Teachers’ professional development needs Teachers’ ideas for improving motivation Sampling: India: 76 schools/ 115 teachers Uganda: 20 schools/ 20 teachers Vietnam: 34 schools/ 34 teachers Bangladesh: 39 schools/ 39 teachers LIMITATIONS Self-report bias Length of questionnaire Sample size
I’ve somewhat arbitrarily highlighted numbers that looked bad, just to give a sense that there are both commonalities across these low-income contexts as well as contextual issues. For example, the Bangladesh sites don’t have issues of multigrade classes or multilingual student composition, but they do have the largest class sizes. So as a trainer and ultimately as a teacher, your approach to a homogenous large class would be much different than a multilingual, even multigrade small class.
What is the biggest classroom challenges you face? Poor student attendance/attentiveness (cross-context) Shortage of TLM and furniture (Bangladesh sites) What makes it challenging to help each student? Poor student attendance (cross-context) Variation in student skill levels (cross-context) Syllabus (Indian sites) Large class sizes and lack of time (Bangladesh sites) What makes conducting formative assessment and adjusting instruction challenging? Poor student attendance (cross-context) Format of formative assessment (cross-context)
Here what we see is that many teachers in the four sites in India lack preservice training, mostly the parateachers in Borio and Dumka sites in Jharkhand state. But also, many teachers lack in-service training too, and this is across all four sites. Lots of teachers lack in-service training in Wakiso, and although the data was unreliable in Lao Cai and Morelganj and Assasuni there were indications that teachers received fairly regular in-service training. From a teacher training standpoint, we can’t approach teachers of varying training experiences with the same training package and schedule and expect them to even absorb all of the information we convey just as easily.
In the same way, we asked teachers to look at a series of 10 ideas for supporting teachers more broadly, and to either rate how helpful each one was (Indian and Ugandan sites) or to choose the three most helpful and three least helpful (Vietnam and Bangladesh sites). Some ideas were never as popular as the others – like scholarships and mentorship programs. Yet no one idea was universally more popular than the others: in some sites teachers liked the idea of report cards to stimulate more involvement from parents, in other sites they liked TLCs or formative assessment trainings or simply having the community better understand and recognize teachers. Many of these ideas can be piloted as extensions of existing teacher training programs, and indeed World Vision India is currently piloting the top two ranked ideas. However, we’ve learned through that experience that none of these are simple or easy to add to an existing teacher training program, and require significant time and effort to pull off well.
The literature tells us that recognition and positive encouragement can be a powerful motivator, and indeed that was the added learning from the open question of what type of recognition do teachers most value. Across contexts, teachers most frequently say they would appreciate recognition from their ministry or school. Secondarily, teachers of course also appreciate recognition from their communities, colleagues, and students.
TMDT 2.0 Shorten the questionnaire instrument Improve sampling techniques and scope
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: ‘Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’
“Ensure that teachers and educators are empowered, adequately recruited, well trained, professionally qualified, motivated and supported within well-resourced, efficient and effectively governed systems.”
TEACHER MOTIVATION AND WORKING CONDITIONS IN LOW- INCOME COUNTRIES: BREAKOUT SESSION
TEACHER MOTIVATIONAND WORKING
CONDITIONS IN LOW- INCOME COUNTRIES:
9th Policy Dialogue Forum of the International
Task Force on Teachers
December 3-7 in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Emily Richardson and Molly Hamm, TMWG Co-Chairs
• Overview of the Teacher Motivation Working Group
• Motivation and Working Conditions: Key Factors
• Teacher Motivation Diagnostic Tool (TMDT)
• Gaps in Understanding
• Implications for Education 2030
• TMWG Next Steps
• Contact Information
Teacher Motivation Working Group
• Comprised of individuals across various sectors
interested in advancing the understanding of teacher
motivation in order to uncover the factors (both
intrinsic and extrinsic) that have an impact on
teachers providing quality instruction as a channel for
improving student learning outcomes.
• Conceived of during a workshop that was held at the
annual Comparative and International Education
Society (CIES) conference in New Orleans in 2013.
• Membership has grown to include interested
individuals from Save the Children, International
Rescue Committee, World Vision, FHI 360,
Education Development Center, STIR, Chemonics,
UNESCO, Asia Advisory, GPE, UNHCR, Childfund,
RTI, INEE, USAID, University of Massachusetts-
Amherst, Teachers College, and Stanford University,
among many other organizations and institutes.
• Officially partnered with UNESCO’s International
Task Force on Teachers for Education for All.
Understand teacher motivation and
well-being—what it is, why it is
important, and how it affects teachers’
desire and ability to provide quality
instruction in low-income contexts.
Consolidate research and evaluation
studies on teacher motivation and well-
Contribute to the global knowledge
base on teacher motivation and well-
being, and elevate teacher voices in the
process of producing that knowledge.
Develop and openly share tools,
resources, and formal learning
experiences that help us better
understand and measure teacher
motivation and well-being.
Serve as a research hub and
knowledge dissemination platform for a
wide range of stakeholders including
policymakers, practitioners, and
Build a community of stakeholders
invested in advancing policy and
practice that is informed by teacher
motivation and well-being research.
Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions
School Location & Classroom
In-School Support and Access to
Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions
• Extra responsibilities: HIV/AIDs education
and testing, census reporting, elections
• Multi-grade teaching, one-teacher
schools, multiple shifts
• Large class sizes, limited materials,
• Remote postings: beginner teachers are
typically the first to be deployed to remote
schools, far away from families
• More challenging teaching contexts,
fewer resources, difficult living conditions
• Linguistic and cultural challenges
Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions
• Head Teachers need to be leaders
• Lack of classroom support and
addressing of challenges
• When Head teachers do give feedback to
teachers on their instruction, it is often
• Teachers have limited voice in school-
based decisions, curricula, etc.
• Teaching is not always treated as a
• Problems are pointed out before
Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions
• Lack of engagement in children’s learning
• SMCs and PTAs are underutilized
• Teaching can be an isolating profession,
especially in rural schools, one-teacher
Peer Learning and
• Limited access to opportunities, especially
for rural-based teachers
• Type of professional development matters
(workshops vs. cascade models, etc.)
Teacher Motivation Diagnostic Tool
• TMDT 2.1 was designed
to capture a variety of
factors hypothesized to
influence and interact
with teacher motivation
• Developed in 2015 by
Save the Children and
World Vision, with
support from the TMWG
• Piloted in India, Uganda,
TMDT Findings: Teachers’ Working Conditions
India Uganda Vietnam Bangladesh
# of students who regularly attend
13 40 24 42
# of special needs students in class
1 2-3 3 2
# of non-teaching responsibilities 1-2 1-2 0-1 Unreliable
Teaches at least one multi-grade
57% 45% 56% 28%
Students in a single class speak
more than one mother tongue
34% 75% 84% 3%
Have language difficulties
communicating with students
14% 15% 79% 5%
Classroom management is a
79% 25% 43% 39%
Student health/wellbeing is a
84% 75% 45% 60%
TMDT Findings: Quantitative Correlations
India Uganda (self-
• # pre-training
• Has assistant
• Teaching was
• Time lesson
g w/ parents
as a teacher
• Focused on
• Class size
• # special
• # non-teaching
• # non-
• # of schools
• Class size
TMDT Findings: TPD and Support
India Uganda Vietnam Bangladesh
Duration of preservice
30 35 8
Most recent in-service
training (days) 47% none;
over one year
# of head teacher
observations in past year 18 7.5 3 34
% rating head teacher visits
‘very useful’ 29% 80% 78% 46%
# of supervisor
observations in past year 7 2 10 5
% rating supervisor visits
‘very useful’ 91% 77% 82% 68%
% mentees 25% 30% 32% 33%
TMDT Findings: Teachers’ Suggestions
Share videos of outstanding teachers
Offer scholarships for continuous professional development
Offer small rewards and recognition for high-performing teachers
Stimulate interest in the community by providing periodic report
cards for parents to assess children’s progress
Provide more training support for Head Teachers and local
Mobilize community to engage in schools and support for teachers
Gaps in Our Understanding of Teacher Motivation
• Need to collect more data on teacher motivation in various contexts
• Difficult to collect as ‘motivation’ is subjective and self-reported
• Terms connected to motivation: commitment, satisfaction, well-being
• Ask teachers themselves how they define ‘motivation’
• Need to assess which interventions and incentives improve
motivation and which have no impact
• Move away from financial incentives, such as bonus pay
Ensure that teachers have a ‘voice’ in policy formation and
implementation, as well as school-level decisions
Recognize teachers, and head teachers, for good
performance and improvements
Ensure that teachers’ basic needs are met
Provide quality support and professional development,
especially for beginning teachers
Provide the ‘right’ incentives to motivate teachers
Mobilize parents and community members to better support
teachers and schools
Implications for Education 2030
When teachers are unmotivated, we see increases in:
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: ‘Ensure inclusive and
equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning
opportunities for all’
Ensure that teachers and educators are empowered, adequately
recruited, well trained, professionally qualified, motivated and
supported within well-resourced, efficient and effectively
Less time on
Teacher Motivation Working Group: Next Steps
• Expand Steering Committee Membership for broader reach
• Promote opportunities to replicate research using the TMDT
• Refine the TMDT as an open-source tool to better measure
• Continue to compile and distribute research on teacher
• Webinar series
• Annotated bibliography of teacher motivation studies
• Consultant/Researcher roster
• Guest blog posts
• Policy briefs
• Strengthen relationships/collaborations with other organizations
and initiatives related to teacher motivation
• TMWG Contact Info
Website and Newsletter Sign-Up:
Co-Chair Emily Richardson:
Co-Chair Molly Hamm:
Teacher Motivation Working Group