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Emily Richardson

Presentation to 9th International Policy Dialogue Forum
5-7 December 2016 Siem Reap, Cambodia

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  1. 1. TEACHER MOTIVATIONAND WORKING CONDITIONS IN LOW- INCOME COUNTRIES: BREAKOUT SESSION 9th Policy Dialogue Forum of the International Task Force on Teachers December 3-7 in Siem Reap, Cambodia Emily Richardson and Molly Hamm, TMWG Co-Chairs
  2. 2. Agenda • Overview of the Teacher Motivation Working Group • Motivation and Working Conditions: Key Factors • Teacher Motivation Diagnostic Tool (TMDT) • Gaps in Understanding • Recommendations • Implications for Education 2030 • TMWG Next Steps • Questions • Contact Information
  3. 3. Teacher Motivation Working Group • Comprised of individuals across various sectors interested in advancing the understanding of teacher motivation in order to uncover the factors (both intrinsic and extrinsic) that have an impact on teachers providing quality instruction as a channel for improving student learning outcomes. • Conceived of during a workshop that was held at the annual Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) conference in New Orleans in 2013. • Membership has grown to include interested individuals from Save the Children, International Rescue Committee, World Vision, FHI 360, Education Development Center, STIR, Chemonics, UNESCO, Asia Advisory, GPE, UNHCR, Childfund, RTI, INEE, USAID, University of Massachusetts- Amherst, Teachers College, and Stanford University, among many other organizations and institutes. • Officially partnered with UNESCO’s International Task Force on Teachers for Education for All.
  4. 4. Our Work Goals Strategies  Understand teacher motivation and well-being—what it is, why it is important, and how it affects teachers’ desire and ability to provide quality instruction in low-income contexts.  Consolidate research and evaluation studies on teacher motivation and well- being.  Contribute to the global knowledge base on teacher motivation and well- being, and elevate teacher voices in the process of producing that knowledge.  Develop and openly share tools, resources, and formal learning experiences that help us better understand and measure teacher motivation and well-being.  Serve as a research hub and knowledge dissemination platform for a wide range of stakeholders including policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.  Build a community of stakeholders invested in advancing policy and practice that is informed by teacher motivation and well-being research.
  5. 5. Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions School Location & Classroom Challenges School Climate In-School Support and Access to Professional Development
  6. 6. Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions • Extra responsibilities: HIV/AIDs education and testing, census reporting, elections • Multi-grade teaching, one-teacher schools, multiple shifts • Large class sizes, limited materials, student absenteeism Workload and Classroom Challenges • Remote postings: beginner teachers are typically the first to be deployed to remote schools, far away from families • More challenging teaching contexts, fewer resources, difficult living conditions • Linguistic and cultural challenges Deployment and School Location
  7. 7. Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions • Head Teachers need to be leaders • Lack of classroom support and addressing of challenges • When Head teachers do give feedback to teachers on their instruction, it is often “negative” Head Teacher Support and Feedback • Teachers have limited voice in school- based decisions, curricula, etc. • Teaching is not always treated as a prestigious profession • Problems are pointed out before successes Autonomy and Recognition
  8. 8. Teacher Motivation and Working Conditions • Lack of engagement in children’s learning • SMCs and PTAs are underutilized Parent and Community Involvement • Teaching can be an isolating profession, especially in rural schools, one-teacher schools, etc. Peer Learning and Collaboration • Limited access to opportunities, especially for rural-based teachers • Type of professional development matters (workshops vs. cascade models, etc.) Professional Development
  9. 9. Teacher Motivation Diagnostic Tool 9 Teacher Well- Being Teacher Motivation Student Learning Outcomes Student Well- Being • TMDT 2.1 was designed to capture a variety of factors hypothesized to influence and interact with teacher motivation and performance • Developed in 2015 by Save the Children and World Vision, with support from the TMWG • Piloted in India, Uganda, Vietnam, and Bangladesh
  10. 10. TMDT Findings: Teachers’ Working Conditions 10 India Uganda Vietnam Bangladesh # of students who regularly attend largest class 13 40 24 42 # of special needs students in class 1 2-3 3 2 # of non-teaching responsibilities 1-2 1-2 0-1 Unreliable Teaches at least one multi-grade class 57% 45% 56% 28% Students in a single class speak more than one mother tongue 34% 75% 84% 3% Have language difficulties communicating with students 14% 15% 79% 5% Classroom management is a challenge 79% 25% 43% 39% Student health/wellbeing is a challenge 84% 75% 45% 60%
  11. 11. TMDT Findings: Quantitative Correlations 11 India Uganda (self- reported) Vietnam Bangladesh Positive correlation with motivation/ effort index • # pre-training days • Male • Has assistant • Multilingual group of students • Experience • Female • Teaching was first career choice • Time lesson planning and communicatin g w/ parents • Relations • Managing stress well • Feeling successful as a teacher • Agrees teachers are held accountable • Teaching children from different background • Focused on helping all students achieve at least basic competence Negative correlation with motivation/ effort index • Class size • # special needs students • # non-teaching responsibilities • Mentees • Language trouble w/ students • # non- teaching responsibilitie s • Multi-grade class • # of schools in which have taught • Class size • Conducts formative assessment
  12. 12. TMDT Findings: TPD and Support 12 India Uganda Vietnam Bangladesh Duration of preservice training (months) 41% none; otherwise 11 30 35 8 Most recent in-service training (days) 47% none; otherwise 10 months ago 40% none; otherwise over one year ago N/A N/A # of head teacher observations in past year 18 7.5 3 34 % rating head teacher visits ‘very useful’ 29% 80% 78% 46% # of supervisor observations in past year 7 2 10 5 % rating supervisor visits ‘very useful’ 91% 77% 82% 68% % mentees 25% 30% 32% 33%
  13. 13. TMDT Findings: Teachers’ Suggestions Share videos of outstanding teachers Offer scholarships for continuous professional development Offer small rewards and recognition for high-performing teachers Stimulate interest in the community by providing periodic report cards for parents to assess children’s progress Provide more training support for Head Teachers and local education supervisors Mobilize community to engage in schools and support for teachers
  14. 14. Gaps in Our Understanding of Teacher Motivation • Data! • Need to collect more data on teacher motivation in various contexts • Difficult to collect as ‘motivation’ is subjective and self-reported • Terms connected to motivation: commitment, satisfaction, well-being • Ask teachers themselves how they define ‘motivation’ • Research! • Need to assess which interventions and incentives improve motivation and which have no impact • Move away from financial incentives, such as bonus pay
  15. 15. Recommendations Ensure that teachers have a ‘voice’ in policy formation and implementation, as well as school-level decisions Recognize teachers, and head teachers, for good performance and improvements Ensure that teachers’ basic needs are met Provide quality support and professional development, especially for beginning teachers Provide the ‘right’ incentives to motivate teachers Mobilize parents and community members to better support teachers and schools
  16. 16. Implications for Education 2030 When teachers are unmotivated, we see increases in: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: ‘Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ Ensure that teachers and educators are empowered, adequately recruited, well trained, professionally qualified, motivated and supported within well-resourced, efficient and effectively governed systems. Absenteeism Less time on task Attrition Shortage
  17. 17. Teacher Motivation Working Group: Next Steps • Expand Steering Committee Membership for broader reach and representation • Promote opportunities to replicate research using the TMDT • Refine the TMDT as an open-source tool to better measure teacher motivation • Continue to compile and distribute research on teacher motivation • Webinar series • Annotated bibliography of teacher motivation studies • Consultant/Researcher roster • Guest blog posts • Policy briefs • Strengthen relationships/collaborations with other organizations and initiatives related to teacher motivation
  18. 18. Thank You! • TMWG Contact Info Website and Newsletter Sign-Up: General Email: Co-Chair Emily Richardson: Co-Chair Molly Hamm: Facebook: Teacher Motivation Working Group Twitter: @tmotivationwg