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Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility

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Dark patterns through the lens of Accessibility

  1. 1. Dark Patterns through the lens of Accessibility Presented at A11yCampBay 2019 by @JoeDevon
  2. 2. What are Dark Patterns? “A user interface that has been carefully crafted to trick users into doing things” —
  3. 3. A little video example I came across while researching Dark Patterns
  4. 4. Joe Devon’s Background
  5. 5. Agenda: 1. Background of Dark Patterns research 2. Show examples 3. Hear YOUR experiences with each pattern from #a11y perspective
  6. 6. History of Dark Patterns Harry Brignull (@harrybr) coined the term Brignull started a website, dedicated to popularizing the Pattern Library Identified12 Dark Patterns denoted on the next slide
  7. 7. Brignull’s 12 Dark Patterns 1. Bait and Switch 2. Confirmshaming 3. Disguised Ads 4. Forced Continuity 5. Friend Spam 6. Hidden Costs 7. Misdirection 8. Price Comparison Prevention 9. Roach Motel 10.Sneak into Basket 11.Trick Questions 12.Privacy Zuckering
  8. 8. Something is missing Anything bother you about this list? The last Dark Pattern was personal The categorization is lacking robustness
  9. 9. Wikipedia entry is light
  10. 10. Onto
  11. 11. had the answer
  12. 12. Be a good Citizen, update Wikipedia
  13. 13. Good ole Reddit
  14. 14. And finally found some academics on it at UXP2
  15. 15. Time to be a good Citizen again, Wikidata this time
  16. 16. Finally have a robust framework: Purdue
  17. 17. Purdue’s Strategy #1: Nagging “Redirection of expected functionality that persists beyond one or more interactions”
  18. 18. Map Service Doozy You are nagged constantly to enable location services
  19. 19. Map Service Doozy Continued NOW you can select “Don’t show again”
  20. 20. Music Service Example “Music service requires you to opt out of sharing EVERY 6 HOURS”
  21. 21. Brignull’s Confirm Shaming “The act of guilting the user into opting in…The option to decline is worded in such a way as to shame the user into compliance”
  22. 22. Electronics Co. shames users into opting in
  23. 23. Magazine shames user into subscribing
  24. 24. Last thoughts on Strategy #1: Nagging? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Nagging Strategy you want to share?
  25. 25. Purdue Strategy #2: Obstruction “Making a process more difficult than it needs to be, with the intent of dissuading certain action(s)”
  26. 26. Dropdown Hijacking by Survey Company
  27. 27. Dropdown Hijacking – Where did the dropdown go?
  28. 28. Brignull’s Roach Motel “The design makes it very easy for you to get into a certain situation, but then makes it hard for you to get out of it (e.g. a subscription)”
  29. 29. There is no way to unsubscribe from this Streaming Sports channel
  30. 30. If you want to close an account w/ this postal service provider you must call
  31. 31. Brignull’s Forced Continuity “When your free trial with a service comes to an end and your credit card silently starts getting charged without any warning. You are then not given an easy way to cancel the automatic renewal”
  32. 32. Streaming Service makes it hard to unsubscribe after 30 day trial
  33. 33. Brignull’s Price Comparison Prevention “The retailer makes it hard for you to compare the price of an item with another item, so you cannot make an informed decision”
  34. 34. Unclear what features each tier offers. Free tier lets you browse only. Useless w/o paid account
  35. 35. Last thoughts on Strategy #2: Obstruction? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Obstruction Strategy you want to share?
  36. 36. Purdue’s Strategy #3: Sneaking “Attempting to hide, disguise, or delay the divulging of information that is relevant to the user”
  37. 37. Brignull’s Sneak Into Basket “You attempt to purchase something, but somewhere in the purchasing journey the site sneaks an additional item into your basket, often through the use of an opt-out radio button or checkbox on a prior page”
  38. 38. When you purchase one thing, the fine print auto signs you up for membership
  39. 39. Brignull’s Bait & Switch “The user sets out to do one thing, but a different, undesirable thing happens instead”
  40. 40. Operating System tricks users into upgrading I
  41. 41. Operating System tricks users into upgrading II
  42. 42. Operating System tricks users into upgrading III
  43. 43. Brignull’s Hidden Costs “You get to the last step of the checkout process, only to discover some unexpected charges have appeared, e.g. delivery charges, tax, etc”
  44. 44. Travel site advertises rates 250% lower than total price!
  45. 45. Brignull’s Misdirection “The design purposefully focuses your attention on one thing in order to distract your attention from another”
  46. 46. Total price appears to be 327, the taxes & service charge are obscured
  47. 47. Last thoughts on Strategy #3: Sneaking? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Sneaking Strategy you want to share?
  48. 48. Purdue’s Strategy #4: Interface Interference “Manipulation of the user interface that privileges certain actions over others”
  49. 49. Brignull’s Trick Questions “You respond to a question, which, when glanced upon quickly appears to ask one thing, but if read carefully, asks another thing entirely.”
  50. 50. Double negative to trick you into subscribing
  51. 51. Brignull’s Disguised Ads “Adverts that are disguised as other kinds of content or navigation, in order to get you to click on them”
  52. 52. Search Engine makes paid ads look like search results
  53. 53. Tiny X
  54. 54. Tricky X
  55. 55. Dropdown confusion
  56. 56. Change default search engine on software upgrade
  57. 57. Unlabeled unsubscribe
  58. 58. Newspaper Example spans 4 strategies!
  59. 59. Newspaper Example spans 4 categories!
  60. 60. Newspaper Example FAQ
  61. 61. Newspaper Example finally a price: $7/wk
  62. 62. Last thoughts on #4: Interface Interference? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Interface Interference Strategy you want to share?
  63. 63. Purdue #5: Forced Action “Requiring the user to perform a certain action to access (or continue to access) certain functionality”
  64. 64. Brignull’s Friend Spam “The product asks for your email or social media permissions under the pretense it will be used for a desirable outcome (e.g. finding friends), but then spams all your contacts in a message that claims to be from you”
  65. 65. Users pressured to invite friends to access certain features
  66. 66. Brignull’s Privacy Zuckering “You are tricked into publicly sharing more information about yourself than you really intended to. Named after Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg”
  67. 67. Privacy Zuckering Example Tricked into sharing health data
  68. 68. Example Continued Tricked into sharing health data
  69. 69. Case Study: Canadian Bank
  70. 70. Case Study continued: Pages of Forced Ads
  71. 71. Case Study continued: Opt-out not styled like a button
  72. 72. Last thoughts on Strategy #5: Forced Action? Do you have an example of Purdue’s Forced Action Strategy you want to share?
  73. 73. More Research needed I suggest contacting the researchers and urging them to include Accessibility as a separate category of research Children are another category deserving of attention, as they are more likely to be impacted by Dark Patterns Anyone have more to add on the Research Angle?
  74. 74. Thank you! Any questions?