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AP Euro CH 21 Part 1

This presentation focuses on the background to the revolution up to the uprisings in the various colonies.

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AP Euro CH 21 Part 1

  1. 1. CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />AP European History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />What was the main cause of the financial crisis in France?<br />What was the plan to solve the financial crisis?<br />What is the National Assembly and what was the kings response to it?<br />Why and when did the Parisians storm the Bastille?<br />How did Parisian women further the revolution?<br />
  3. 3. Background to Revolution<br />CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />
  4. 4. Legal Orders and Social Change<br />France’s population was divided into three orders or estates<br />Those who pray – clergy (1st Estate)<br />Those who fight – nobility (2nd Estate)<br />Those who work – everyone else (3rd Estate)<br />Growing tensions between nobility and bourgeoisie help shape events leading to revolution<br />Bourgeoisie felt they were not peasants and should have privileges like 2nd Estate<br />But there are other influences that new research brings to light<br />
  5. 5. The Crisis of Political Legitimacy<br />A century of political and fiscal struggle precedes the revolution<br />Between 1715-1723, institutions regain power they lost under Louis XIV<br />Efforts to impose new taxes after the War of Austrian Succession were opposed by Parlement of Paris<br />Louis XV official Rene de Maupeou led a royal backlash against the parlements, charges of “loyal despotism”<br />Scandalous pamphlets contributed to desacralization of monarchy<br />
  6. 6. The Impact of the American Revolution<br />England defeats France in Seven Years’ War, desires to increase taxes to pay for war<br />American colonists oppose tax increases<br />Dispute over taxation and representation flare up during 1760’s-1770’s<br />Colonies moved toward open rebellion and a declaration of independence starting in 1775<br />French support colonists against foe England<br />In 1783 the American Revolution ended with the Treaty of Paris<br />Europeans became fascinated by the American Revolution<br />Inspired French intellectuals<br />France saw Britain defeated, humbled, but itself fiscally drained<br />
  7. 7. Financial Crisis<br />By 1780s half of France’s budget went towards paying interest on national debt<br />Could not survive a declaration of bankruptcy<br />France had no national bank, could not print money to cover its own debt<br />Had to reform tax system to bring increased revenue<br />King convened Assembly of Notable to gain support for new taxes<br />Assembly refused to support new taxes, dismissed the king<br />King established taxes by decree<br />Negative reaction forced king to call meeting of Estates General<br />
  8. 8. Revolution in Metropole and Colony (1789-1791)<br />CH 21: The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815)<br />
  9. 9. The Formation of the National Assembly<br />Prior to the meeting of the Estates General, a list of grievances were compiled<br />Featured considerable popular participation<br />Intense debate forced the Third Estate to leave the assembly of Estates General<br />Declared itself the National Assembly in June 1789<br />Louis XVI’s response was “nothing”<br />
  10. 10. The Revolt of the Poor and Oppressed<br />Bad harvests lead to starvation, hunger, and unemployment<br />Poor protested to prevent dismissal of king’s finance minister<br />July 13, 1789 the Bastille was stormed, destroyed<br />Peasant uprisings resulted in the Great Fear<br />Gave National Assembly credibility, abolished feudal dues and other peasant obligations (August 1789)<br />
  11. 11. A Limited Monarchy<br />August 1789, National Assembly issues a Declaration of the Rights of Man<br />“Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”<br />Several thousand women rush Versailles and force king and royal family to move to Paris<br />National Assembly creates a constitutional monarchy<br />A new constitution would go into effect in 1791<br />Peasants react negatively to National Assembly’s attempt to increase state control over Catholic Church<br />
  12. 12. Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue<br />Slaves majority of population in Saint-Domingue<br />Free population was divided by color and wealth<br />Turmoil of the 1780s challenged the status quo<br />National Assembly sides with white planters<br />Each colony gets right to draft its own constitution<br />July 1790, Vincent Oge leads a failed attempt to rebel against colonial authorities<br />Compromises proposed by National Assembly failed to satisfy the contradictory ambitions in the colonies<br />
  13. 13. Questions to Consider<br />What was the main cause of the financial crisis in France?<br />What was the plan to solve the financial crisis?<br />What is the National Assembly and what was the kings response to it?<br />Why and when did the Parisians storm the Bastille?<br />How did Parisian women further the revolution?<br />

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