20. 3. 2017 Josef Šlerka
Some notes and quotations from Wiki and other
“Propaganda is a persuasive and widespread
message designed to represent the interests of a
particular group. However, what truly sets propaganda
apart from other techniques of mass communication is
that it attempts to bypass logic through faulty
reasoning and emotional appeals.”
Magedah Shabo. “Techniques of Propaganda and
Herman and Chomsky (Manufacturing Consent: The
Political Economy of the Mass Media)
Ross' epistemic merit model
1. Size, Ownership, and Profit Orientation: The
dominant mass-media outlets are large companies
operated for profit; and, therefore, must cater to the
financial interests of the owners — usually
corporations and controlling investors. The size of a
media company is consequence of the investment
capital required for the mass-communications
technology required to reach a mass audience of
viewers, listeners, and readers.
2. The Advertising License to Do Business: Since
the majority of the revenue of major media outlets
derives from advertising (not from sales or
subscriptions), advertisers have acquired a "de facto
licensing authority". Media outlets are not
commercially viable without the support of advertisers.
News media must therefore cater to the political
prejudices and economic desires of their advertisers.
This has weakened the working class press, for
example, and also helps explain the attrition in the
number of newspapers.
3. Sourcing Mass Media News: Herman and
Chomsky argue that “the large bureaucracies of the
powerful subsidize the mass media, and gain special
access [to the news], by their contribution to reducing
the media’s costs of acquiring [...] and producing,
news. The large entities that provide this subsidy
become 'routine' news sources and have privileged
access to the gates. Non-routine sources must
struggle for access, and may be ignored by the
arbitrary decision of the gatekeepers.”
4. Flak and the Enforcers: "Flak" refers to negative
responses to a media statement or program (e.g.
letters, complaints, lawsuits, or legislative actions).
Flak can be expensive to the media, either due to loss
of advertising revenue, or due to the costs of legal
defense or defense of the media outlet's public image.
Flak can be organized by powerful, private influence
groups (e.g. think tanks). The prospect of eliciting flak
can be a deterrent to the reporting of certain kinds of
facts or opinions.
5. Anti-Communism: This was included as a filter in
the original 1988 edition of the book, but Chomsky
argues that since the end of the Cold War (1945–91),
anticommunism was replaced by the "War on Terror",
as the major social control mechanism.
Epistemic merit model
"That is... propaganda involve[s]... the one who is
persuading (Sender) [who is] doing so intentionally,
[the] target for such persuasion (Receiver) and [the]
means of reaching that target (Message)."
Epistemic merit model
1. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade.
2. Propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical
institution organization or cause.
3. The recipient of propaganda is a socially significant
group of people.
4. Propaganda is epistemically defective.
Excerpt From: Magedah Shabo. “Techniques of
Propaganda and Persuasion.”
sizeable target audience
representation of a specific group’s agenda
use of faulty reasoning and/or emotional appeals
Without context or specific definitions, glittering
generalities serve only to evoke emotions.
If you are not using White Bright Detergent, your
clothes are not clean.
If you support Israel, you cannot possibly be in favor of
a Palestinian State.
You can subscribe to Politics Magazine, or you can
The Lesser of Two Evils
Pinpointing the Enemy
List on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Jacques Ellul: Propaganda
Nicholas J. Cull David Culbert David Welch:
PROPAGANDAAND MASS PERSUASION, A
Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present
EDWARD L. BERNAYS: PROPAGANDA
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