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MOHENJO – DARO
THE MOST DEVELOPED CITY OF
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
1.) The site of MohenjoDaro (also Moenjo-daro),
in Larkana District, Sindh,
2.) The site covers an area
of over 250 acres (100
3.) The Indus river is
currently situated to the
east of the site.
4.) Why Mohenjo-Daro
known as “ Mound Of The
5.) Devadatta Ramkrishna
Bhandarkar first visited
Mohenjo-Daro in 19111912.
6.) This mysterious culture
emerged nearly 4,500 years
ago and thrived for a
Devadatta Ramkrishna Bhandarkar
7.)Mohenjo-Daro was discovered in
1922 by R. D. Banerji, an officer of
the Archaeological Survey of India
Large-scale excavations were carried
out at the site under the direction of
John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest
Mackay, and numerous other
directors through the 1930s.
ASI , Superintending
Sir John Marshall – ASI ,Director (1902-1928)
8.) In 1946 excavations were
undertaken by R. E. M. Wheeler.
9.) The last large scale
excavations were made in 196465 by G. F. Dales in
collaboration with the
Department of Archaeology,
Government of Pakistan.
10.) The MohenjoDaro is divided into
two section :a.) Citadel – Smaller
in area but highly
b.) Lower Town –
Large in area but less
11.) The Citadel owes
its height to the fact
that buildings were
on mud brick
In Mohenjo-Daro, the western end of the city is an area known as
This area of the city was built on top of a mound of bricks almost
12 m high.
Several large buildings and structures on the Citadel mound
suggest that this area may have been used for :a.) public gatherings
b.) religious activities
c.) important administrative activities
Archaeologists had also find some small buildings but they were
The "Lower Town" is made up of numerous lower
mounds that lie to the east and may represent multiple
Termed 'lower town' by the archaeologists that
excavated it, this envelops the broad scope of where
most of Mohenjo-Daro's citizens resided.
The Lower Town is organized on a grid system with
four avenues running from north to south and four
running from east to west. The avenues are several
meters wide and have drains running down the middle
or side of the road.
The avenues divide the Lower Town into many
blocks. Alleyways and lanes further divided
Features of Houses in Lower Town
Most of the homes are made of baked bricks in
a standard size of 28 x 14 x 7 centimeters.
Archaeological evidence, such as the remains
of stairways, seems to suggest that many of the
buildings had two storeys.
People had access to clean
water either from wells
within their homes or from
public wells in the streets.
Every house had its own
bathroom paved with bricks,
with drains connected
through the wall to the street
drains. Some houses have
remains of staircases to reach
a second storey or the roof.
Over 700 public and private
wells have been found at
The Mohenjo-Daro is famous for
its well planned sites.
A gridiron of main streets
running north- south & eastwest.
Dividing the area into blocks of
roughly equal size and
approximately rectangular 800
feet east-west and 1200 feet
Two main streets at right angles.
Streets are parallel.
The main streets are 30 feet
Windows are rare, through
fragments of gratings or lattices
of alabaster and terracotta
probably represent window
Priest-King statue is one of
the crucial artifacts about
Mohenjo-Daro, ancient Indus
river valley civilization.
Wearing a one shoulder
Discovered in 1931.
It is on display in
the National Museum of
The sculpture is 17.5
centimeters (6.9 in) tall.
4,500 years old.
10.8 centimeters (4.3 in) high
It was found in MohenjoDaro in 1926.
The dancing girl is without
clothes, wearing bangles .
It s on display in the National
Museum of India , Delhi.
The statue, recovered in
excavation from 'HR area' of
Pashupati means lord of
Dimensions :-1-6/16 x 16/16x ¼ Inches.
It is on display in National
Museum , New Delhi.
The seal has been engraved
on a chip of steatite, a soft
stone, decay-resistant but soft
The man in the figure
identified as Shiva – Lord of
animals, interpreted by
archaeologist- john marshall.
The "great bath" is without doubt
the earliest public water tank in
the ancient world. It was
excavated in 1926.
Dimension :- 12 x 7 x 2.4 meters.
Two wide staircases from north
Finely fitted bricks laid on edge
with gypsum plaster and the side
Two large doors.
Most scholars agree that this tank
would have been used for special
religious functions where water
was used to purify and renew the
well being of the bathers.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler
identified one large building in
Mohenjo-Daro as a "Great
Certain wall-divisions in its
massive wooden superstructure
appeared to be grain storagebays, complete with air-ducts to
dry the grain.
Granary is adjacent to the Great
There were two wells which lie in
an unsorted complex of walls
which extend north-wards from
the northern side of the Granary.
1.) Buddhist Stupa is one thing due to
which whole Mohenjo-Daro was
2.) In the second century B.C. a
Buddhist Stupa was built at the ancient
site of Mohenjo-Daro. At this time,
most of the ancient city was buried.
3.) The citadel mound which rose about 12
meters from the ground was still
visible. The stupa was built on top of
the citadel mound, making it visible
from great distances.
4.) Stüpa dating to the Kushana
Period, circa 2nd century CE. Wheeler
claimed to have discovered the wall
and gateway around the "citadel"
mound (Wheeler1972), but most
scholars did not accept his
5.) A massive block of brick architecture at
the southeast corner of the citadel
mound was thought to represent a
gateway with large brick bastions.
They had well-constructed wells, tanks, public
baths, a wide drinking system and a city
The inhabitants of Mohenjo-Daro were masters
in constructing wells.
One of the best-known excavations is the Great
Bath of Mohenjo-Daro.
The buildings were made of
sun dried and burnt bricks.
Why people of MohenjoDaro use burnt bricks?
A granary is a structure for the storage and
preservation of grain, and the people of
Mohenjo-Daro had a big one.
Massive wooden superstructure appeared to be
grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to
dry the grain.
The people of Mohenjo-Daro was known as the
The streets which divided the city into neat
rectangular or square blocks, varied in width
but always intersected each other at right
The city had horizontal and vertical drains.
All bricks corresponded to sizes in a perfect
ratio of 4:2:1. The ratio even today considered
optimal for effective bonding.