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Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity. It is generally used to refer to economic globalization: the global distribution of the production of goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas.
According to mostresearchers, it is themodern age whichled to the origin ofglobalization.
In this age, wide spreaddevelopment took place in thefield of infrastructure andconnectivity. This led to moreinteraction between the nationsand sharing of ideas, culture andtradition took place.
However, there are some researchers who point out that the origins of thehistory of globalization can be traced back to the ancient civilizations.The example of the earliest forms of globalization is the trade links between theSumerian civilization and the Indus Valley Civilization. In fact, after this age,there are numerous instances where trade links were established betweenvarious countries like India, Egypt, Greece, and Roman Empire and so on.There were regular business links between the Parthian Empire, Roman Empireand Han Dynasty.
The popularity of the trade relations led to thedevelopment of various trade routes like Silk Road.
Globalization in the medieval ageThe Islamic period inthe medieval era is animportant epoch in thehistory of globalization.This was when theJewish and the Muslimtraders started going tovarious parts of theworld to sell variousitems.
In China, thefirst postalservice wasintroduced andpaper wasinvented.
As more and morepeople started travelingto various countriesacross the world, it ledto more communicationbetween people andintermingling oflanguages.
Explorers like Columbus and Vasco Da Gamasailed through the oceans in search of newcountries and establish trade links with them or tomake other countries their colonies.
Globalization between the pre modern periods to modern period The industrial revolution in the 19th century was one of the major periods in the history of globalization. Due to the industrial revolution, there was a significant increase in the quantity and quality of the products. This led to higher exports and better trade and business relations.Due to better products and colonization,lots of countries across the world becamethe consumers of the European market.The phase of pre globalization perhapscame to an end after the First World War.
Globalization in the modern era Globalization, in the modern sense of the term, came into existence after the Second World War. One of the main factors for this was the plan by the world leaders to break down the borders for fostering trade relations between nations. It was also in this period that major countries like India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and some countries in South America gained independence. As a result, these countries started having their own economic systems and established trade relations with the rest of the world.
The establishment ofthe United NationsOrganization (UNO)was also a major stepin this regard.
Another milestone inthe history ofglobalization is thecreation of the WorldTrade Organizationwhich led to the growthof a uniform platform tosettle trade andcommercial disputes.
Some other factors which have put a positive impact on globalization are:• Promotion of free commerce and trade• Abolition of various double taxes, tariffs, and capital controls• Reduction of transport cost and development of infrastructure• Creation of global corporations• Blend of culture and tradition across the countries